1864 July 18th

July 18 1864 Monday

Battle of Cool Spring, VA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Atlanta Campaign – Peach Tree Creek

Siege of Petersburg

Rousseau’s Alabama Raid

Great Britain. Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Russell Mallory instructed Commander James Dunwoody Bulloch in Liverpool to secure new torpedo boats. These should ride as low in the water as practical, carrying a crew of five to seven men, coal for twenty-four hours, and armed with four spar torpedoes on moveable poles. They were required to make at least 10 miles per hour when fully loaded. The torpedo was described as made of copper or iron boiler plate, containing from 40 to 100 pounds of powder, and equipped with three sensitive tubes for detonators. The torpedo boats were visualised as miniature swift steamers, strongly built and light, and difficult to spot. Mallory thought they might be procured without interference by the British authorities, or they might even be constructed in sections and sent across the Atlantic for assembly.

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln called for an additional 500,000 volunteers to join the Union Army.

CSA. George A Trenholm became Confederate Secretary of the Treasury, succeeding Christopher Gustavus Memminger, who had resigned after the collapse of Confederate credit.

Alabama. Reconnaissance to Clear Spring Valley and Sink Spring Valley began.

Alabama. Union Major-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau’s raiders skirmished at Auburn and Checaw Station.

Alabama. Incidents at Opelika and Nontasulga.

Arizona Territory. Expedition began against Apache Indians in the Pinal Mountains.

Georgia. Incidents at Turner’s Ferry, Chattahoochee River, Nancy’s Creek, and Campbellton.

Georgia. Skirmish at Buckhead.

Georgia. The Union Army of the Cumberland began to cross Nancy’s Creek and headed towards Buckhead, a crossroads within a mile of the Confederate defences along Peachtree Creek. The army faced the Confederate entrenchments along Peachtree Creek while, far to the southeast, the Union Army of the Ohio reached Decatur, and the Army of the Tennessee arrived at Stone Mountain by nightfall. The flanking armies cut the Georgia Railroad and severed the shortest line of communications between Atlanta and Virginia.

Georgia. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston decided to attack Union Major-Geenral George Henry Thomas’ detached Army of the Cumberland at Buckhead. However, finally despairing of his cautious strategy, news that Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis relieved him of command before he could launch this attack. The message had been sent the previous afternoon and arrived very early in the morning. Johnston handed the army over immediately to former Corps commander newly promoted General John Bell Hood. The political dissatisfaction with Johnston’s conservative tactics led Davis to replace him with Hood, who had a reputation for aggression and personal bravery. Hood, supported by the two senior officers of the army, Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart and Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee, appealed to Johnston to remain in command with their agreement. Johnston stated that it was his military duty and a matter of honour to obey his orders to step down. Hood and the other generals even sent a telegram to Davis seeking a withdrawal of the order, advising Davis that it would be dangerous to change the commander of the army on the eve of battle. Davis refused to rescind the order and the command passed inexorably to Hood. Hood appealed emotionally to Johnston for a second time and Johnston conceded that he would remain at Atlanta temporarily to assist Hood but could not disobey his orders and handed over the command. Despite his assurances, Johnston departed during the evening for Macon. Johnston was popular with the troops and highly respected, so his departure was greeted with disappointment and concern by the soldiers. Hardee was very doubtful of Hood’s capacity as an army commander, a view he expressed to Hood’s face alongside Hood’s former subordinate divisional commander, Major-General Samuel Gibb French. Hardee was resentful of being passed over by a much junior officer and demanded a transfer, only withdrawing it later after intervention by the President.

On the Union side the change was generally welcomed. Those who knew Hood felt that he was sure to be aggressive and dangerous in battle, if not rash or even reckless. The common view was that he was nowhere near as competent, shrewd, or tactically intelligent a general as Johnston. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman expressed the view that he was relieved to be free of the elusive and wily Johnston and pleased to face the more straightforwardly aggressive Hood.

Kentucky. Operation in Union County and Webster County ended.

Kentucky. Reconnaissance from Columbus to Hickman ended.

Louisiana. Reconnaissance from Baton Rouge to Davis’ Ford and Clinton ended.

Maryland. Incidents at Cockeysville, Rocky’s Ford, and Percyville.

Missouri. Operation by Union Brigadier-General John Benjamin Sanborn against Confederate guerrillas in south-western Missouri began.

Missouri. Operation in south-eastern Missouri began.

Missouri. Reconnaissance began against Confederate guerrillas who were herding stolen horses at Hay Hollow on Rock Creek, sixty miles from Salem in Shannon County,

New York. The influential newspaper editor Horace Greeley travelled to Niagara Falls to discuss ideas for peace proposals with several Confederate emissaries arriving from Canada, but the meeting came to nothing.

Tennessee. Operation at Nashville began.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to English Cove ended.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Falls Church began.

Virginia. Incident at Snicker’s Gap.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General Joshua Thomas Owen requested to be mustered out. He was accused of failing to support the brigade of another officer in the assault at Cold Harbor. He had been arrested by Major-General John Gibbon on the charge of cowardice and was dismissed as if mustered out to avoid a dishonourable discharge.

Virginia. As the Petersburg Mine approached completion, Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside was ordered to prepare an attack through the gap that would be created by the mine. His largest and freshest 4th Division, composed of black soldiers under Brigadier-General Edward Ferrero, was selected to spearhead the assault and began special training for the unusual circumstances. While the location for the mine’s construction was good, it did not offer much opportunity for exploitation of a breakthrough beyond its immediate objective. Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant showed little interest in the project. The miners began to dig laterally from the end of the tunnel to create the chambers for packing in the explosives. The mine grew into a T shape with a perpendicular gallery of 75 feet extending in both directions.

Cool Spring, Virginia, also known as Island Ford, Castleman’s Ferry, Snicker’s Ferry or Parker’s Ford. The vanguard of Union VI Corps and elements of the XIX Corps under Major-General Horatio Wright moved through Snickers Gap in pursuit of Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early. They had been reinforced by troops from West Virginia under Brigadier-General George Crook. Crook and Wright arrived at Snickers Gap and determined to attack what they mistakenly thought was a light picket line of Confederates along the river, left behind to cover Early’s retreat up the Valley. Instead of allowing his cavalry to cross the river and to reconnoitre the Confederate positions to confirm this assumption, Wright sent the troopers to Ashby’s Gap to attack Early’s supply train which was travelling south of Early’s main army. Wright developed a plan for a small Union force to cross the river downstream from the main crossing at Castleman’s Ferry and to outflank the Confederate position. Crook delegated this task to Colonel Joseph Thoburn.

Thoburn led his division with about 5,000 men to cross the Shenandoah downstream from Castleman’s Ferry at Judge Richard Parker’s Ford, at 3 pm in the afternoon. They quickly drove off a small force of Confederate pickets, but this alerted the local Confederate commanders, Major-General John Brown Gordon and Major-General John Cabell Breckenridge. Gordon responded first by moving his infantry division to the vicinity of the ford, using a small ridge that lay between him and the Union forces to screen his movements. Breckenridge ordered the divisions of Brigadier-General Gabriel Colvin Wharton and Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes to the ford also, raising their combined strength to about 8,000 men. Breckinridge’s reinforcements deployed along Gordon’s left flank, with Wharton forming the centre of the line. Wharton’s sharpshooters quickly drove back Thoburn’s skirmishers who occupied a valley between the ridge lined by the Confederates and the high ground along the riverbank where the first of two Union lines formed in front of a stone wall. A Union reserve line was located on the low sunken bank of the river behind the stone fence, well protected and concealed from the Confederates.

Around 6 pm, Rodes attacked the main Union position on the high ground along its right flank at the Cool Spring plantation. The Union line turned to meet the attack and exposed its left flank to enfilading fire from Gordon and Wharton. The exposed position and the inexperience of many of the men in the Union ranks (many were on short-term enlistments to garrison the defences of Washington), caused the line to give way very quickly. Union forces began streaming across the Shenandoah, passing through the reserve line in the process. About the time of the Union retreat, Union Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts arrived on the eastern bank of the river. Originally intending to reinforce Thoburn, Wright demurred when he found that Thoburn’s line was already in full retreat. As Rodes’ men pressed the attack they came to the stone wall, from which the Union reserve line opened up on the unsuspecting Confederates, sending them back in disorder towards the ridge. Throughout the remainder of the evening, Rodes made small brigade-level attacks at the Union position on the river bank but was unsuccessful in driving them across the river. Thoburn was able to reinforce his right flank due to the lack of pressure on his left from Gordon and Wharton, and withstood three separate assaults before darkness finally allowed him to retire across the river. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

West Virginia. Skirmish at Kabletown.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General John Henry Hobart Ward mustered out due to wounds.

Ward, John Henry Hobart / New York / Born 17 June 1823 New York City, New York / Died Monroe, New York 28 July 1903
Private USA 7th US Infantry 13 April 1842 / Corporal USA / Sergeant USA / Sergeant-Major USA 7th US Infantry / Discharged USA 13 April 1847 / Assistant Commissary General of Subsistence New York Militia 1851-1855 / Commissary General of Subsistence New York Militia 1855-1859 / Colonel USV 38th New York Infantry 8 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 / Mustered Out USV 18 July 1864 / WIA Monterrey September 1847 WIA Wapping Heights 1863 WIA Kelly’s Ford 1863 WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863 WIA Wapping Heights 23 July 1863 WIA Rappahannock Station 7 November 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864
2nd Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 21 July 1861-August 1861 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 30 May 1862-9 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 1 September 1862-13 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 30 October 1862-26 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 15 February 1863-March 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac April 1863-29 May 1863 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 29 May 1863-3 June 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 3 June 1863-2 July 1863 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 1863-7 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 7 July 1863-August 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac September 1863-29 December 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 17 January 1864-28 January 1864 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 28 January 1864-17 February 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 20 April 1864-12 May 1864

USA: Brigadier-General Joshua Thomas Owen was dismissed.

Owen, Joshua Thomas / Wales / Born 29 March 1821 Carmarthen, Wales / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 7 November 1887
Private Pennsylvania Militia / Colonel USV 24th Pennsylvania Infantry 8 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 10 August 1861 / Colonel USV Infantry 69th Pennsylvania 18 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 31 December 1862 to rank from 29 November 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 9 April 1863 to rank from 30 March 1863 / Discharged 18 July 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: John McNeil
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
  • District of Florida: William Birney

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry temporary
    • XVIII Corps James: John Henry Martindale temporary

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Albion Parris Howe
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General John Bell Hood assumed command of the Department of Tennessee, succeeding General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.

CSA: General John Bell Hood assumed command of the Army of Tennessee, succeeding General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.

CSA: John Bell Hood promoted General PACS (Special) 18 July 1864.

Hood, John Bell / Kentucky / Born 1 June 1831 Owingsville, Kentucky / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 30 August 1879
USMA 1 July 1853 44 /52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1847 / 4th US Infantry 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 August 1858 / Resigned USA 16 April 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Captain ACSA 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 4th Texas Infantry 30 September 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 3 March 1862 / Major-General PACS 10 October 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 1 February 1864 to rank from 20 September 1863 / General PACS (Temporary) 18 July 1864 Unconfirmed Reverted Lieutenant-General PACS 24 January 1865 to rank from 20 September 1863 / Paroled Natchez, Mississippi 31 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / WIA Devil’s River, Texas 20 July 1857 WIA Gaines’ Mill 27 June 1862 WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863 WIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863
Hood’s Brigade Whiting’s Division Army of the Potomac 20 February 1862-14 March 1862 / Hood’s Brigade Whiting’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-April 1862 / Hood’s Brigade 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia April 1862-May 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-June 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia June 1862-27 June 1862 / Hood’s Brigade Whiting’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-August 1862 / Hood’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia August 1862-17 February 1863 / Hood’s Division I Corps Department of North Carolina 17 February 1863-4 May 1863 / Hood’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 May 1862-2 July 1863 / Hood’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 18 September 1863-19 September 1863 / I Corps Northern Virginia 19 September 1863-20 September 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 9 February 1864-18 July 1864 / Department of Tennessee 18 July 1864-15 August 1864 / Army of Tennessee 18 July 1864-23 January 1865 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 15 August 1864-23 January 1865

CSA: Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson assumed temporary command of II Corps (Tennessee), succeeding Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood.

Stevenson, Carter Littlepage / Virginia / Born 21 September 1817 Fredericksburg, Virginia / Died Caroline, Virginia 15 August 1888
USMA 1 July 1838 42/45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 September 1840 / Captain USA 30 June 1847 / Resigned USA 6 June 1861 Dismissed USA 25 June 1861 / Major ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 53rd Virginia Infantry July 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 21 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862 / Major-General PACS 13 October 1862 to rank from 10 October 1862 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 16 October 1863
Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the Northwest 21 July 1861-27 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of East Tennessee March 1862 / 2nd Brigade Department of East Tennessee 30 June 1863-3 July 1862 / 1st Division Department of East Tennessee 3 July 1862-18 December 1862 / 1st Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 18 December 1862-December 1862 / District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana 1 December 1862-4 July 1863 / Stevenson’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 17 October 1863-20 February 1864 / Stevenson’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 27 July 1864-17 December 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 18 July 1864-19 July 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 17 December 1864-21 February 1865 / Stevenson’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee April 1865-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
    • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
      • I Corps Valley: Robert Emmett Rodes
      • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: Carter Littlepage Stevenson temporary
    • III Corps Tennessee: William Wing Loring temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Hunt Morgan

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Texas: Jerome Bonaparte Robertson

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward MOV
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen DIS
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
Richard Waterhouse

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