1864 December 16th

December 16 1864 Friday

Battle of Nashville, TN (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Siege of Petersburg
Hood’s Invasion of Tennessee – Nashville
Siege of Savannah
Stoneman’s Raid in Southwest Virginia
Butler’s Fort Fisher Expedition

Go to December 17 1864

CSA. The near dissolution of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee prompted the discontinuation of the short-lived Military Division of the West. Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard had been assigned to supervise Hood’s operations and to coordinate the alit great offensive in the western theatre. Beauregard had found it impossible to direct operations across such a wide region, with its diverging objectives and inadequate resources, and the futility of the organisation was admitted.

Arkansas. Incident at Dudley’s Lake.

Georgia. Bombardment of Fort Beaulieu and Fort Rosedew.

Georgia. Skirmish at Hinesville.

Kentucky. Raid to Hopkinsville began.

Kentucky. Incident at Hopkinsville.

Louisiana. Expedition from Morganza to the Atchafalaya River began.

Mississippi. Incident at Good’s Landing.

New Mexico Territory. Operations against the Navaho Indians ended.

North Carolina. Union seamen from USS Monticello, led by Acting Master Charles A Pettit, began a two-day operation to remove Confederate torpedoes and their firing apparatus from near the base of Fort Caswell, off New Inlet. The expedition was an early stage of preparations for the assault on Fort Fisher and the defences of Wilmington planned for late December.

North Carolina. USS Mount Vernon, Acting Lieutenant James Trathen, in company with USS New Berne, Acting Lieutenant T A Harris, captured and burned the schooner G O Bigelow in ballast at Bear Inlet.

Nashville, Tennessee. It took most of the morning for the Union forces to move into position against Confederate General John Bell Hood’s new battle line south of Nashville. The Confederate Army of Tennessee had shortened its line to about two miles in length, protecting the two turnpikes leading south through Brentwood, and running across the Granny White Pike on the left and the Franklin Pike on the right. Confederate Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee’s Corps, which had been little engaged the day before, withdrew during the night down the Franklin Pike and established itself across the road at Overton Hill. The left flank at the Granny White Pike was hinged at Shy’s Hill and was guarded by Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham’s Corps. Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s Corps, which had suffered most the day before, held the ground between Lee and Cheatham and between the two turnpikes. The left flank was strengthened by Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers’ cavalry division which rode from beyond Richland Creek in the west to hold the open ground south of Shy’s Hill. Hood knew that he faced long odds, but he retained confidence in the ability of his army to repel further attacks. He clung to the hope that exhaustion would erode Union resolve and lead eventually to an opportunity to inflict a defeat on a demoralised enemy. He sent his wagon trains south at first light and they cleared the gorges to his rear on their way to the Harpeth River. Hood alerted his commanders at 8 am with an outline plan for withdrawal in the event of further attacks. Lee would hold the Franklin Pike until Stewart’s Corps had escaped, while Chalmers would cover the retreat of Cheatham’s Corps.
Union Major-General George Henry Thomas planned to resume his offensive with a two-stage attack and decided to concentrate his main effort on Hood’s left. The key objective was to gain possession of the vital Franklin Pike. On the Union right, Union Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s XXIII Corps was to engage Cheatham’s Corps while Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry rode around his right flank to threaten Hood’s avenues of withdrawal. Union Major-General Thomas Joseph Wood’s IV Corps and Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith’s XVI Corps had reached positions at right angles to each other at Montgomery Hill, and they took some time to discover that the Confederates had abandoned their positions in front. They had to reorganise their forces to advance side by side southwards, with Wood to the left (east) and Smith to the right (west) across the Granny White Pike. It was noon before they had repositioned their troops within 250 yards of the Confederate’s new line, where they constructed their own fieldworks. On the far left flank, Union Major-General James Steedman brought his provisional division to the northeast of Overton Hill and connected with the left of IV Corps near the Franklin Pike. Steedman no longer had a diversionary role but was entrusted with the primary attack, after being reinforced by one of Wood’s divisions. During the morning, Union troops gradually took up their starting positions facing the new Confederate line. The single Confederate cavalry division under Chalmers had been drawn back to cover the exposed left flank of Hood’s army, and Wilson was free to concentrate the Union cavalry into a powerful mass against them. They moved dismounted into a strong position to the right of Schofield’s XXIII Corps and southwest of Shy’s Hill. They awaited an opportunity to envelop the Confederate left flank by a thrust to the Granny House.
Soon after dawn, Wood and Steedman began to attack Lee’s Corps on Overton’s Hill, but they were repulsed by two of Lee’s divisions under Major-General Henry Delamar Clayton and Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson. These were now among Hood’s strongest forces since they had not participated in the slaughter at Franklin and had been barely engaged the previous day. Their five brigades, reinforced by one from Major-General Edward Johnson’s division, turned back attack after attack launched by Wood and Steedman. The same Union brigade that had stormed Montgomery Hill (Colonel Philip Sidney Post’s 2/3/IV) the day before received the nod for a final attack against Overton’s Hill at 3 pm after Post’s scouts suggested that it might still be taken. Colonel Abel Delos Streight’s brigade (1/3/IV) supported Post, while Colonel Charles Robinson Thompson’s brigade and Colonel Charles Henry Grosvenor’s brigades from Steedman’s provisional division, attacked simultaneously from the east. Their charge, although gallantly conducted and prepared by an artillery bombardment, failed at the entrenchments of Lee’s corps. Post was killed in the assault. Three hours of failed assaults cost Steedman heavy casualties, including 221 men in the 13th USCT Infantry alone, and failed to make any progress against the Confederate defences. Under relentless attack, Hood became increasingly concerned for the security of the Franklin Pike and he transferred three brigades from Brigadier-General James Argyle Smith’s division (formerly Cleburne’s) from his left flank to strengthen Lee. By the time they arrived at about 3.30 pm. the Union attacks had already subsided, but their movement had weakened the front below Shy’s Hill where the next Union attack was due to land.
On the Union right, Wilson’s cavalry was edging forward beyond the Confederate left flank and driving back the weak opposition of Chalmers’ cavalry. By noon, Wilson’s two dismounted cavalry divisions had cut the Granny White turnpike and denied this escape route to the Confederates. Confederate Brigadier-General Daniel Chevilette Govan’s brigade was shifted to the left to face Wilson’s growing threat, Colonel David Coleman’s brigade was removed from Shy’s Hill to take Govan’s place, and Major-General William Brimage Bate’s division was forced to stretch its line more thinly across the salient of Shy’s Hill.
The exposed salient on Shy’s Hill was now under a converging threat from the north, west, and southwest, and the Union cavalry’s repeating carbines were causing severe losses. At about 2pm, Stewart alerted Major-General Edward Cary Walthall on Bate’s right that if Bate’s division was forced to give up Shy’s Hill, Walthall should realign his left flank to his rear and form a new flank in the hills east and south of Shy’s Hill. This would protect the Franklin Pike, the only road remaining available for a retreat. Union artillery from three corps concentrated against Shy’s Hill and almost a hundred guns were deployed in the persistent cold rain. They opened a relentless and unbearable enfilading fire on Bate’s division. By 3 pm, much of Bate’s improvised defence line had been battered down and while the fighting to the east at Overton’s Hill was approaching its conclusion, the danger to Shy’s Hill was clearly growing. At about 4 pm, Thomas rode to inspect the forces arrayed against Shy’s Hill. Only one hour or so remained before sunset and he was determined to complete the defeat of the Confederates before night fell. He found Smith’s two divisions in position north of the hill and ready to advance but west of Shy’s Hill, and Schofield was prevaricating about starting his advance.
Thomas, Smith, and Wilson had agreed that Schofield should give the signal for a combined advance but, despite Wilson’s urging for two hours, Schofield continued to delay, insisting that he needed one of Smith’s divisions to join his own three west of the hill to ensure success. When Thomas met Schofield at about 4 pm, he pointed out that Smith’s XVI Corps was already moving forward against the Brentwood Hills and that Schofield must join the attack immediately, regardless of the consequences in terms of casualties. Smith’s men attacked Shy’s Hill from the north, assisted by the black brigades of Steedman’s command, who converted their diversion into a full attack. Schofield and Wilson extended the frontage of the attack.
Although uncoordinated, the Union attack nevertheless struck with great force. Union brigades under Colonel Israel Newton Stiles (3/3/XXIII) and Colonel William Linn McMillan (1/1/XVI) achieved local envelopments of the Confederate defenders. Wilson’s cavalry threatened to cut off the entire Confederate army. Bate’s division was attacked in the rear and routed after a determined fight by Lieutenant William Shy and his small company, giving his name to the hill where he fell. All three of Bate’s brigade commanders were captured (Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson, Brigadier-General Thomas Benton Smith, who was severely wounded, and Major Jacob Lash). Confederate Brigadier-General Robert Lowry’s division (temporarily commanding the division in place of Major-General William Wing Loring, who was acting as Hood’s second in command) was then enveloped and crushed, and the rest of Stewart’s Corps gave way. Earlier in the day, the Confederates had been able to shift their reserves to the critical points but no more reserves were available.
Seeing the success of the advance, Wood took the opportunity to renew his attack on Lee on Overton’s Hill and the momentum was overwhelming. Union troops charged up Overton’s Hill and took it. Johnson’s division of Lee’s Corps, seeing the disaster sweeping eastwards along the line and being the next in line, abandoned its defences. Johnson was swept up as a prisoner amid the growing catastrophe. Stevenson’s division made a semblance of standing its ground but then wavered. East of the turnpike, behind Clayton’s division, Lee seized the colours from a fleeing soldier and rode along to rally a rear guard. Hood’s entire army quickly gave way at all points and was transformed into a terrified mob. Only one escape route on the Franklin Pike remained open and thousands of disorganised fugitives fled towards it to make their escape southwards. Lee’s desperate efforts inspired enough men for a rear guard to gather around Clayton’s division, which moved to hold some woods half a mile south of Overton’s Hill, and across the Franklin Pike. Most of Stevenson’s division joined the coalescing defence and their combined resistance allowed many Confederates to escape. Finally, the early sunset helped to conceal the flight of the army. As night fell, the Union army set off in pursuit along the Franklin Pike but was hampered by the bad weather, darkness, and the disorganisation that attends any headlong advance. Wood’s Corps and Wilson’s cavalry continued to make progress, but Steedman’s command was exhausted from its day of fighting. Smith’s and Schofield’s men were inextricably entwined.
Some Confederates escaped from the Granny White Pike to join the main line of retreat along the Franklin Pike. These included Coleman’s brigade (the infantry flank guard south of Shy’s Hill) and Colonel E W Rucker’s cavalry brigade. They were harassed severely by the Union cavalry and Rucker was wounded and captured. The rest rejoined the main army two miles south of Brentwood at Hollow Tree Gap, where Lee had established a firm rearguard position at midnight.  The darkness deepened, heavy rain began, and gradually some order was restored in the Confederate army under its cover. The head of the fleeing column comprised Stewart’s Corps and Cheatham’s Corps, while Lee’s Corps brought up the rear. A desperate fighting retreat had preserved the remnants of the army from annihilation. Clayton’s Confederate division remained as the rear guard as far as Franklin, where Stevenson’s division took over for the march to Columbia.
Union casualties were recorded as 3,061 men (387 killed, 2,562 wounded and 112 missing). The Confederates reported total losses of about 4,500 men but in fact, about 1,500 men were killed or wounded, and between 4,461 and 4,500 were missing or captured. The Confederates also lost 37 or 38 guns, adding up to 53 losses in two days. These 6,000 casualties and the 6,200 men lost earlier at Franklin effectively destroyed the Confederate Army of Tennessee as a fighting force. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Marion, Virginia. Union Major-General George Stoneman’s expedition bypassed Saltville to attack the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad at Marion. Confederate Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge was forced to evacuate Saltville and rode to save the vital lead works at Marion and Wytheville with all available forces.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Stoneman’s expedition occupied Wytheville ahead of the Confederates.

Union Organisation

USA: Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hale Morgan (Assistant Inspector-General) assumed command of the Juniata District, succeeding Brigadier-General Orris Sanford Ferry.

USA: Brigadier-General Orris Sanford Ferry assumed command of the District of Philadelphia, succeeding Major-General George Cadwalader.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Shedden Palmer
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: Thomas Francis Meagher
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Thomas John Wood temporary
  • Department of the Ohio: George Stoneman temporary
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of West Tennessee: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Vicksburg: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
    • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) Andrew Jackson Smith
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: Joseph Bailey
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Joseph Jackson Gravely temporary
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: Edwin C Catherwood

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: Henry Horatio Wells temporary
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: Cuvier Grover
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfenning
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Philip Perry Brown
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Edward Otho Cresap Ord temporary

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
  • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • XXIV Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Military Division of the West was discontinued.

CSA: The Department of Tennessee and Georgia transferred from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: General John Bell Hood retained command of the Department of Tennessee and Georgia.

CSA: The Army of  Tennessee transferred with the Department of Tennessee and Georgia from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
General John Bell Hood retained command of the Army of Tennessee.

CSA: I Corps (Tennessee) transferred with the Army of Tennessee from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham retained command of I Corps (Tennessee).

CSA: II Corps (Tennessee) transferred with the Army of Tennessee from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Lieutenant-General Stephen Dill Lee retained command of II Corps (Tennessee).

CSA: III Corps (Tennessee) transferred with the Army of Tennessee from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart retained command of III Corps (Tennessee).

CSA: Cavalry Corps (Tennessee) transferred with the Army of Tennessee from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest retained temporary command of Cavalry Corps (Tennessee).

CSA: The Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana transferred from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor retained command of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana.

CSA: The Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia transferred from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge retained command of the Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia.

CSA: The Department of Western Kentucky transferred from the Military Division of the West to the War Department.
CSA: Brigadier-General Hylan Benton Lyon retained command of the Department of Western Kentucky.

CSA: Major-General Edward Johnson was captured at Nashville, Tennessee.

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson was captured at Nashville, Tennessee.

CSA: Brigadier-General Claudius Wistar Sears was captured at Nashville, Nashville.

CSA: Brigadier-General Thomas Benton Smith was captured at Nashville, Tennessee.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
    • Sub-District of Northern Mississippi: William Wirt Adams
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Braxton Bragg

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi: Sterling Price
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas*

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA or double-asterisk Major-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas**
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
Richard Waterhouse

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close