1864 April 8th

April 8 1864 Friday

Battle of Mansfield, LA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Red River Campaign

Arkansas Campaign

Forrest’s Second West Tennessee Raid

Alabama. Skirmish at Paint Rock Bridge near Larkinsville.

Colorado Territory. Union expedition began from Denver to the Republican River, Kansas, 200 miles to the east. The Union column pursued a band of Cheyenne Indians.

Kansas. Union expedition from Denver, Colorado Territory, to the Republican River began.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Bayou De Paul (Carroll’s Mill) near Pleasant Hill.

Mansfield, Louisiana, also known as Sabine Cross Roads, or Pleasant Grove. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Bank’s Red River Expedition had advanced about 150 miles up the Red River to within 25 miles of the Texan border. Not expecting an attack short of Shreveport, Banks had allowed his forces to be strung out for some twenty miles along the narrow, wooded road, and to be encumbered by a large baggage train. Banks had lost contact with his accompanying gunboat fleet on the Red River due to low water levels and the divergence of the road from the line of the river at Grand Ecore.

At daybreak, Union Colonel William Jennings Landram’s division reinforced Brigadier-General Albert Lindley Lee’s cavalry division at Wilson’s Plantation while the divisions of Brigadier-General Robert Alexander Cameron and Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory remained in camp at Pleasant Hill. Landram’s and Lee’s men pushed back the Confederate cavalry of Brigadier-General Thomas Green from Carroll’s Mill for a distance of about six miles. Lee was unsure whether the Confederates were avoiding battle or leading him into a trap. Eventually emerging from dense pine woods, they encountered skirmishers on the crest of a broad low hill beyond a large clearing. Once the Confederate skirmishers were pushed off the hill, the Union troops found themselves faced by a strong Confederate line of artillery, cavalry, and infantry formed and ready for action.

Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor, without instructions from his commander, General Edmund Kirby Smith, decided that it was time to try and stem the Union drive. He had used his own initiative to summon Major-General Thomas James Churchill’s divisions to march the twenty miles from Keatchie to unite with his own forces at Sabine Cross Roads, three miles from where the roads forked at Mansfield. This was an important communication point where one road led east towards the Red River and the Union fleet, another led to Keatchie to the northwest, and the other two led in a northerly direction towards Shreveport. Until Churchill’s men could arrive, Taylor pulled Major-General John George Walker’s division and Brigadier-General Arthur Pendleton Bagby’s cavalry brigade back from Mansfield and established a defensive position.

At first, Taylor had about 5,300 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, and 500 gunners. Walker’s division of three brigades held the right flank and Brigadier-General Jean Jacques Alexandre Alfred Mouton’s two brigades the left flank. A cavalry brigade (Brigadier-General Hamilton Prioleau Bee and Brigadier General James Patrick Major) guarded each flank. The centre was manned by a four-gun battery astride the road. When Green’s cavalry brigade arrived from harassing the Union approach, they dismounted and deployed on the extreme left of the main line. Churchill’s two Confederate divisions arrived in reserve at about 3.30 pm to bring Taylor up to his full strength of about 13,500 men, facing about 20,000 Union troops strung out in their long column.

During the morning, the leading Union troops probed the Confederate lines and deployed their batteries, although the densely wooded terrain made the use of artillery difficult. Banks rode to the field and was pleased to encounter such a large enemy force as it provided an opportunity to strike his weaker opponent in a decisive battle instead of engaging in fruitless skirmishes. Banks ordered Major-General William Buel Franklin, commanding XIX Corps, to bring up the two divisions of Cameron and Emory from reserve to support Landram and Lee. They began to march past two to three miles of wagons that made up the cavalry’s supply train. Meanwhile, Banks told Lee to push forward despite Lee’s objection that his cavalry was faced by a strong force and would soon be repulsed. Banks relented and advised that the advance would begin once reinforcements arrived.

Neither side intended to engage heavily. Despite being greatly outnumbered, when Taylor identified large bodies of enemy infantry approaching behind their cavalry advanced guard, he changed his plan and decided to make a surprise attack that would outweigh his numerical disadvantage. Mouton’s division was reinforced by Brigadier-General Horace Randal’s brigade and at 4 pm they moved forward quickly. Mouton charged the Union right and Green’s cavalry enveloped the flank. Mouton fell dead very early in the attack and was succeeded by Brigadier-General Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac. They pressed on and broke two Union regiments before capturing three guns and crushing the Union right flank. Seeing their success, Taylor ordered Walker’s Division to hit the opposite flank shortly afterwards. Bee also joined in and enjoyed similar success while Green’s cavalry began to exploit de Polignac’s breakthrough. Landram’s Union division was routed just as Cameron’s division arrived. Led by Franklin in person, they attempted to form a new line behind the wreck but Franklin was wounded, and Cameron’s men were driven from this second position by 5 pm. With the wounding of Franklin, the two divisions of XIII Corps passed to Cameron’s temporary command.

After the first two Union positions had been overwhelmed, Emory’s division formed a third position on a ridge overlooking a creek and ravine four miles from Sabine Cross Roads. They were unable to stem the tide of fugitives who fled in disorder but held on to their near-impregnable position. By 6 pm, the Confederate advance had reached that third line and was reinforced by the division of Brigadier-General Mosby Monroe Parsons with a further 2,200 men from Churchill’s reserve. Neither Churchill nor Parsons took part in the fight but were held in readiness for further action the following day. Taylor exploited the opportunity to plunder the Union wagon train which had been abandoned on the road, and took possession of twenty guns that the Union artillerymen had been unable to withdraw past the stranded wagons.

After an hour and a half, the fighting died down leaving Emory’s division in position and intact, although Taylor’s men had been able to push in the Union skirmishers and to replenish their water supplies from the creek. Late in the evening, Taylor received word that reinforcements were on their way and received Smith’s approval to advance but he was able to reply that he had already done so and gained a victory. On the ridge, Banks reflected that he was short of water and needed to withdraw to a new line twelve miles further back where A J Smith’s two divisions were encamped. A council of war confirmed the necessity for water and the disorganised retreat began in the dark at 10 pm.

The Union forces engaged at Mansfield were Lee’s cavalry division and Landram’s Division (4/XIII). During the battle, Cameron’s Division (3/XIII) arrived. The battle ended with the arrival of Emory’s Division (1/XIX). On the Confederate side, the forces were Mouton’s Division, Walker’s Division, Green’s Cavalry Division, and Vincent’s Cavalry Brigade. Churchill’s and Parsons’ divisions arrived late in the afternoon after the battle had commenced.

Taylor was promoted subsequently to Lieutenant-General to date from the battle in recognition of his remarkable victory. The Confederates claimed 2,500 prisoners from a total of 2,900 casualties while the Confederate lost between 1,000 and 1,500 from their 9,000 men engaged. The Union reported 200 killed, 900 wounded and 1,800 missing. More accurate Union figures are 108 or 115 killed, 643 or 648 wounded and 1,397 or 1,423 missing or captured out of 12,000 men engaged. The Confederates acquired 20 guns, 200 to 250 wagons and considerable quantities of supplies. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: MANSFIELD, LA

Union Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Army of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
XIII Corps (Gulf) (Detachment): Brigadier-General Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-general Fitz-Henry Warren
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler
3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Robert Alexander Cameron
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Lieutenant-Colonel Aaron M Flory
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel William H Raynor
4th Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel William Jennings Landram
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Frank Emerson
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIII Corps (Gulf): Colonel Joseph W Vance
XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General William Buel Franklin
1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General William Dwight
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General James Winning McMillan
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Lewis Benedict
2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Edward L Molineaux
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Jacob Sharpe
Cavalry Division (Gulf): Brigadier-General Albert Lindley Lee
1st Brigade, Cavalry Division (Gulf): Colonel Thomas J Lucas
2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division (Gulf): Colonel John G Fonda (Port Hudson)
3rd Brigade, Cavalry Division (Gulf): Colonel Harai Robinson
4th Brigade, Cavalry Division (Gulf): Colonel Nathan A M Dudley
5th Brigade, Cavalry Division (Gulf): Colonel Oliver R Gooding
XVI Corps (Tennessee) “Detachment Army of the Tennessee): Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith attached
1st Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith

2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Lucius F Hubbard
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Sylvester G Hill
3rd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Joseph Antony Mower
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel William F Lynch
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel William T Shaw
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Risdon M Moore
2nd Provisional Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith (attached to XVI Corps)
1st Brigade, 2nd Provisional Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Jonathan B Moore

2nd Brigade, 2nd Provisional Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Lyman M Ward
Mississippi Marine Brigade, XVII Corps (Tennessee) (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Alfred Washington Elliott
Corps d’Afrique (Gulf): Brigadier-General Daniel Ullmann (Port Hudson)
1st Brigade, Corps d’Afrique (Gulf): Colonel William
Engineer Brigade (Gulf): Colonel George D Robinson

Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department: General Edmund Kirby Smith
Trans-Mississippi Army: General Edmund Kirby Smith
District of Arkansas: Major-General Sterling Price
Arkansas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill
Tappan’s Brigade, Arkansas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel H L Grinstead
Hawthorn’s Brigade, Arkansas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Gause’s Brigade, Arkansas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Lucien C Gause
Missouri Division (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Mosby Munroe Parsons
Clark’s Brigade, Missouri Division (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Bullock Clark
Burns’ Brigade, Missouri Division (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Simon P Burns
Fagan’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Fleming Fagan
Cabell’s Cavalry Brigade, Fagan’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General William Lewis Cabell
Dockery’s Cavalry Brigade, Fagan’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Crawford’s Cavalry Brigade, Fagan’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel WA Crawford
Marmaduke’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke
Greene’s Cavalry Brigade, Marmaduke’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Colton Greene
Shelby’s Cavalry Brigade, Marmaduke’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Joseph Orville Shelby
Maxey’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Samuel Bell Maxey
Gano’s Cavalry Brigade, Maxey’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel C De Morse
Choctaw Cavalry Brigade, Maxey’s Cavalry Division, Arkansas (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel T Walker
District of West Louisiana: Major-General Richard Taylor
Walker’s Texas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Major-General John George Walker
Waul’s Brigade, Walker’s Texas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Thomas Neville Waul
Randal’s Brigade, Walker’s Texas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Horace Randal
Scurry’s Brigade, Walker’s Texas Division (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General William Read Scurry
Mouton’s Division, (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Jean Jacques Alfred Alexander Mouton
Gray’s Brigade, Mouton’s Division, (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Henry Gray
De Polignac’s Brigade, Mouton’s Division, (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Camille Armand Jules Marie De Polignac
Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Thomas Jefferson Green
Bee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Hamilton Prioleau Bee
Debray’s Cavalry Brigade, Bee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Xavier Blanchard Debray
Buchel’s Cavalry Brigade, Bee’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Augustus C Buchel
Major’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Patrick Major
Lane’s Cavalry Brigade, Major’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Walter Page Lane
Bagby’s Cavalry Brigade, Major’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Arthur Pendleton Bagby
Vincent’s Independent Cavalry Brigade, Cavalry Corps (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel William G Vincent
Louisiana State Guard: Brigadier-General Henry Watkins Allen
Sub-District of North Louisiana: Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell
Harrison’s Brigade, North Louisiana (Trans-Mississippi): Colonel Isaac F Harrison
Green’s Cavalry Brigade, North Louisiana (Trans-Mississippi): Brigadier-General Thomas Green

South Carolina. Demonstration on James Island in Charleston Harbour.

Virginia. Skirmish with Union cavalry at Winchester.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee concluded that his adversary Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant was preparing an imminent advance across the Rapidan in the direction of Richmond. He called on President Jefferson Finis Davis for all available supplies and reinforcements to be sent urgently to the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee accurately predicted a campaign along three lines: a major advance across the Rapidan to his right flank, a diversionary operation on his left flank in the Shenandoah Valley, and a threat to his rear by way of the James River. Lee requested the transfer of General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard from South Carolina, where Union operations had subsided, to command the defences of Richmond and Petersburg against this third of these threats. The Shenandoah Valley would have to be managed by Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge, who was based in southwestern Virginia.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Robert Alexander Cameron assumed command of XIII Corps (Gulf), succeeding Brigadier-General Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom.

Cameron, Robert Alexander / New York / Born 22 February 1828 Brooklyn, New York / Died Canon City, Colorado 15 March 1894
Captain USV 9th Indiana Infantry 23 April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 19th Indiana 29 July 1861 / 34th Indiana 3 February 1862 / Colonel USV 15 June 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 11 August 1863 / Resigned USV 22 June 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Port Gibson 1 May 1863
1st Brigade 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 8 October 1863-6 December 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 5 February 1864-3 March 1864 / 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 3 March 1864-8 April 1864 / XIII Corps Gulf 8 April 1864-27 April 1864 / 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 27 April 1864-24 May 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 24 May 1864-11 June 1864/ District of La Fourche 9 June 1864-27 June 1864 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 27 June 1864-1 July 1864 / District of La Fourche 27 July 1865-22 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
      • Hooker’s Command Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • XI Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XII Corps Cumberland: Henry Warner Slocum
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Kentucky: Edward Henry Hobson
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • IX Corps Ohio: John Grubb Parke
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Stoneman interim John McAllister Schofield awaited
      • Cavalry Corps Ohio: Samuel Davis Sturgis
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Cairo: Mason Brayman
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary

  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
  • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Baton Rouge: Philip St George Cooke
  • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
  • District of La Fourche: Nicholas Wyckoff Day
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIII Corps Gulf: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • XIX Corps Gulf: William Buel Franklin

Department of Kansas: Samuel Ryan Curtis

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: James Brewerton Ricketts temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • Northern District (South): Alfred Howe Terry
  • District of Hilton Head: Joshua Blackwood Howell
  • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Edward Winslow Hinks
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: John James Peck
    • Sub-District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • Sub-District of the Pamlico: Edward Harland
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Innis Newton Palmer
  • District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
  • Army of North Carolina: John James Peck
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Richard Taylor promoted Lieutenant-General PACS 14 May 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864.

Taylor, Richard / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 27 January 1826 Louisville, Kentucky / Died 12 April 1879
Military Secretary (Z Taylor) 1846-1848 / Colonel PACS 9th Louisiana Infantry 7 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 October 1861 / Major-General PACS 28 July 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 14 May 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / CIA Citronelle, Mississippi 8 May 1865
8th Brigade Army of the Potomac July 1861 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-5 February 1862 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 8th Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 14 March 1862-26 June 1862 / 8th Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-28 July 1862 / District of West Louisiana 20 August 1862-10 June 1864 / Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 15 August 1864-22 November 1864 / Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 12 December 1864-4 May 1864 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 23 January 1865-24 February 1865 / Army of Tennessee 23 January 1865-22 February 1865

CSA: Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac promoted Major-General PACS 11 June 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864.

Polignac, Camille Armand Jules Marie de (Prince) / France-Louisiana / Born 16 February 1832 Millemont, France / Died Paris, France 15 November 1913
Lieutenant 3rd Chasseurs French Army May 1853 / 4th Hussars French Army 1854 / Lieutenant 4th Chasseurs French Army July 1855 / Discharged French Army February 1859 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 July 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 2 May 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 January 1863 / Major-General PACS 11 June 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864 / Resigned PACS 16 March 1865 / No Record of Parole / Major French Army July 1870 / Lieutenant-Colonel French Army September 1870 / General of Brigade French Army October 1870 General of Division French Army 1 November 1870
Assistant Inspector-General Army of Mississippi 2 May 1862-June 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Mississippi 2 May 1862 / Assistant -Inspector-General Western Department 17 July 1862-July 1863 / Polignac’s Brigade District of West Louisiana July 1863-November 1863 / Polignac’s Brigade 2nd Division District of West Louisiana November 1863-8 April 1864 / 2nd Division I Corps Trans-Mississippi Army 8 April 1864-17 March 1865

CSA: Henry Gray promoted Brigadier-General PACS 8 April 1864 invalidated.

Gray, Henry / Louisiana / Born 19 January 1816 Laurens, South Carolina / Died Coushatta, Louisiana 11 December 1892
Private Mississippi Infantry January 1861 / Colonel PACS 28th Louisiana Infantry 2 May 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 8 April 1864 Invalidated / Brigadier-General PACS 18 March 1865 to rank from 17 March 1865 / No Record of Parole / WIA Bayou Teche 14 April 1863
1st Brigade Polignac’s Division District of West Louisiana 8 April 1864-October 1864 / 2nd Brigade Polignac’s Division I Corps Trans-Mississippi Army October 1864-December 1864 / 2nd Brigade Polignac’s Division District of West Louisiana January 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: Horace Randal promoted Brigadier-General PACS (Trans-Mississippi) 13 April 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864 unconfirmed.

Randal, Horace / Tennessee-Texas / Born 4 January 1833 McNairy, Tennessee / DOW Jenkins’ Ferry, Arkansas 2 May 1864
USMA 1 July 1854 45/46 Infantry-Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1849 / 8th US Infantry 1 July 1854 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 27 February 1861 / Private Virginia Militia 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Captain PACS 1861 / Resigned PACS June 1861 / 1st Lieutenant PACS ADC November 1862 / ADC (G W Smith) 16 November 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 1861-1862 / Colonel PACS 28th Texas Cavalry 12 February 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 April 1864 to rank from 8 April 1864 Trans-Mississippi Unconfirmed / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1854 MWIA Jenkins’ Ferry 30 April 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division Trans-Mississippi Department 28 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Trans-Mississippi Army December 1862 / Randal’s Brigade Walker’s Division District of Arkansas 1863-30 April 1864

CSA: Brigadier-General Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton was killed at Mansfield, Louisiana.

Mouton, Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre / Louisiana / Born 18 February 1829 Opelousas, Louisiana / KIA Mansfield, Louisiana 8 April 1864
USMA 1 July 1850 38/44 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1850 / Resigned USA 16 September 1850 / Brigadier-General Louisiana Militia 1850-1861 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Resigned ACSA 16 July 1861 / Colonel PACS 18th Louisiana Infantry 5 October 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 16 April 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1850 / WIA Shiloh 7 April 1862
2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi April 1862-7 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division District of West Louisiana January 1863-November 1863 / 1st Division District of West Louisiana November 1863-8 April 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett

  • District of the Cape Fear River and the Defences of Wilmington: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: James Longstreet

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of East Tennessee: James Longstreet interim Simon Bolivar Buckner awaited
  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton KIA
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close