1864 April 27th

April 27 1864 Wednesday

Cane and Red Rivers, LA

Red River Campaign

Arkansas Campaign

Hoke’s North Carolina Operations

Brazil. CSS Alabama, Captain Raphael Semmes, captured and burned the bark Tycoon east of Salvador, with a cargo of merchandise and clothing.

Canada. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis sent Jacob Thompson, and a few days later Clement C Clay also, to Canada as special commissioners. Their aim was to coordinate secret operations behind the Union lines, that might culminate in seeking a possible peace or truce. Thompson sponsored clandestine plans to liberate prisoners of war being held on Johnson’s Island in Lake Erie, assisted an expedition to burn steamboats on the inland rivers, coordinated the return of escaped Confederate prisoners through Canada via Halifax to Bermuda, and sought to maintain liaison with the organisation known as the “Sons of Liberty”, which was opposed to the continuation of the war.

Alabama. A Confederate attack on the Union picket-lines was repelled on the Courtland and Moulton road near Decatur.

Arkansas. Reconnaissance to Fayetteville began.

Arkansas. Union Major-General Frederick Steele’s forces used a pontoon bridge to cross the Ouachita River overnight and gained a head start on the Confederate pursuit from Camden. Steele’s engineers dismantled the bridge quietly behind them and loaded it onto wagons for the crossing of the Saline River. Steele’s objective was to escape starvation by marching to Little Rock. Steele was determined to cover the fifty miles northwards to the Saline River ahead of the Confederates, in order to cross and put the river between his troops and the pursuit.

The Confederates commenced their pursuit as soon as they realised that Steele had withdrawn from Camden. The Confederates only detected the abandonment of Camden after sunrise and they reoccupied the town at mid-morning. Lacking a bridge, only Major-General John Sappington Marmaduke’s cavalry was able to swim the Ouachita River and to launch a pursuit. Meanwhile, Major-General Sterling Price attempted to build a raft and an improvised floating bridge. This task took the rest of the day and part of the next morning.

Arkansas. Confederate Brigadier-General Samuel Bell Maxey’s two cavalry brigades were released from the operations at Camden to return to the defence of the Indian Territory.

Georgia. Confederate attack on Union picket lines on Taylor’s Ridge near Ringgold, Held by Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry.

Kentucky. Union cavalry pursued, and either captured or killed a group of 25 Confederates at Troublesome Creek in Breathitt County.

Louisiana. Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor deployed his force of just 5,200 men to block the Red River in order to complete the annihilation of Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks’ expedition. Taylor sent Brigadier-General James Patrick Major with 1,000 cavalrymen to Davide’s Ferry and Snaggy Point about 25 miles from Alexandria by river or road (it was 13 miles direct) and three miles above Fort De Russy. Brigadier-General William Steele took 1,000 cavalrymen to cover the Red River Road and Rapides Road north and west of Alexandria. Brigadier-General Arthur Pendleton Bagby and 1,000 cavalrymen covered the Bayou Boeuf Road southwards, while Brigadier-General Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac kept 1,200 infantrymen on the Bayou Boeuf road in a position to support Bagby or Major as necessary. Confederate Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell had just arrived with some inexperienced men and four guns to reinforce Taylor.

Louisiana. The two Union divisions of XIII Corps involved in the Red River expedition passed to the temporary command of Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler, from 1st Division. When Brigadier-General William Plummer Benton was later assigned to overall command of XIII Corps, Lawler remained in command of the detachment left in Louisiana.

Louisiana. The Red River at Alexandria had a depth of only three feet and four inches over the falls, two inches less than at least half of the vessels in the fleet of Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter. The destructive attack at Cane and Red Rivers had demonstrated the vulnerability of the fleet to attacks from the shore but now low water threatened its entire loss. There was a real risk that much of the fleet would soon share the fate of the ironclad USS Eastport.

Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was forced to halt his withdrawal at Alexandria in order to protect the fleet despite urgent demands from Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant to end the Red River campaign by 1 May 1864 at the very latest. Banks reassured the navy that he would sooner risk dismissal for disobeying this order than abandon the fleet to its apparently inevitable destruction. His magnanimity was not entirely altruistic as he needed the company of the fleet to protect his army’s return to the mouth of the Red River.

Louisiana. The Union Mississippi Marine Brigade departed Alexandria to patrol the Mississippi River while most of the Union naval vessels were occupied on the Red River. The brigade had lived up to its reputation as a lawless and ill-disciplined band of marauders throughout the Red River Campaign, burning, looting, and vandalising property from the mouth of the Red River all the way to Alexandria. They offered little in the way of support for conventional fighting. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks and Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter could do little to rein them in because they remained under the direct authority of the War Department and were not under either officer’s command. The brigade destroyed every village and settlement along the Red River on its return to the Mississippi.

Cane and Red Rivers, Louisiana. The USS Fort Hindman, USS Juliet, and pump boat Champion 5 attempted again to run past the horse artillery batteries that had blocked their descent of the Red River the previous day. USS Fort Hindman took a shot which partially disabled her steering and she drifted helplessly past the Confederate guns. Pump boat Champion 5 was grounded, abandoned and burned. The USS Juliet passed the batteries but was severely damaged and it and the USS Fort Hindman lost 22 men. The ironclad USS Neosho attempted to assist the embattled gunboats but only arrived after the ships had already passed the batteries and came under heavy fire. By the end of the day, the Union river fleet of Rear Admiral David Dixon had reassembled at Alexandria and began to plan how to pass the double rapids and low water on the Red River near Alexandria.

Missouri. Skirmish at Dayton.

North Carolina. Union forces evacuated Washington.

North Carolina. The steamer USS Niphon engaged the Confederate batteries at Masonboro Inlet.

Tennessee. Expeditions to Bull’s Gap and Watauga River ended.

Virginia. Union expedition from Williamsburg. After a skirmish at Twelve-Mile Ordinary, the Union troops found a Confederate force strongly posted at Bottom’s Bridge, preventing any further Union advance in that direction.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant chose this date to put into motion his campaign that was intended to move the Army of the Potomac to Richmond. Observation posts established on Stony Mountain near Culpeper observed the Confederate positions south of the Rapidan River. The Confederates covered a front of twenty miles from Mine Run upstream to Rapidan Station and beyond, protected by entrenchments that they had been improving for six months. A frontal attack on this line was a suicidal enterprise so Grant considered the options for falling on the flank or rear of his opponent, or forcing the Confederates to leave their entrenchments for an engagement on more even terms.

The country west of the Confederate lines was open and allowed access along the Orange & Alexandria Railroad to Gordonsville. Further progress along the Virginia Central would lead back towards Richmond. However, the railroads were certain to be destroyed by the retreating Confederates, slowing the progress of the advanced while repairs were carried out. Protection of this lengthening supply line against raiders and partisans would require increasingly large detachments of troops. This movement to the west would also open a direct route to the capital at Washington, DC, and a Confederate counter-stroke in that direction would provoke at least anxiety about or even paralysis of the campaign.

Grant was forced to consider a movement eastwards around the Confederate right flank. He examined the area between the confluence of the Rappahannock and Rapidan and Mine Run. A crossing of the Rappahannock in that direction would protect Washington, DC, and secure supply routes could be obtained up the navigable rivers from the Chesapeake Bay. The start of the operation, however, would involve the passage of the ill-omened Wilderness region. This area, twelve miles wide and eight miles deep, presented a forbidding obstacle to the passage of an army, offered concealment to an opponent, and its poor roads through dense woodlands would slow any advance. Grant decided that he needed to avoid a battle in the impenetrable thickets and planned a movement based on a speedy movement of his troops through and beyond the Wilderness before the Confederates could react and block his progress.

If the army began to march at nightfall and its departure was screened from Confederate scouts and observation posts on Clark’s Mountain, Grant expected to reach the open country beyond before the Confederates could move large forces to oppose him.

In previous campaigns, Major-General Joseph Hooker and Major-General George Gordon Meade had made rapid and successful crossings at Ely’s Ford and Germanna Ford, but each time they had halted in the Wilderness rather than pushing boldly on to the open ground beyond. Grant’s operation relied on speed and concealment and security to prevent an early disclosure of his intentions. These latter two factors relied on effective cavalry operations.

The Union cavalry had improved greatly in its performance, but its leadership had rarely been inspired. Early in April, Grant summoned Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan, a hard fighter from the western theatre, to lead the 13,000 men of the Cavalry Corps. Sheridan quickly abolished the excessively large cavalry escorts of the various headquarters and resolved to make the cavalry as much a fighting force as a scouting force.

Grant ordered Meade to concentrate his forces in the area between the Rapidan and Rappahannock and set the date to cross the River as 4 May 1864. The date was transmitted to Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman in Georgia, Major-General Franz Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley, Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler at Fortress Monroe, and to Major-General Ambrose Burnside, who was proceeding to Virginia from Tennessee with IX Corps. They were all expected to move forward in a concerted and synchronised offensive on that date.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler assumed command of XIII Corps (Gulf), succeeding Brigadier-General Robert Alexander Cameron.

Lawler, Michael Kelly / Ireland / Born 16 November 1814 Kildare, Ireland / Died Equality, Illinois 26 July 1882
Captain USV 3rd Illinois Infantry 29 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 21 May 1847 / Captain USV Illinois Mounted Rifles 19 July 1847 / Mustered Out USV 26 October 1848 / Colonel USV 18th Illinois Infantry 30 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 15 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Fort Donelson 15 February 1862
1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 2 May 1862-4 May 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 4 May 1862-September 1862 / 1st Brigade Sub-District of Jackson 18 December 1862-16 April 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 16 April 1863-2 May 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 2 May 1863-28 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 14th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 28 July 1863-15 August 1863 / 4th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 15 August 1863-23 September 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 23 September 1863-19 October 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 19 October 1863-26 October 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 10 March 1864-17 April 1864 / XIII Corps Gulf 27 April 1864-9 May 1864 / 1st Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 23 May 1864-11 June 1864 / 3rd Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 27 June 1864-5 July 1864 / District of Morganza 5 July 1864-5 July 1864 / District of Morganza 8 July 1864-30 October 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 6 July 1864-7 July 1864 / 1st Brigade Reserve Corps Military Division of the Mississippi 5 December 1864-4 February 1865 / District of Baton Rouge 23 March 1865-29 May 1865 / District of East Louisiana 29 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Eastern District of Louisiana 27 June 1865-26 July 1865

USA: Edward Moody McCook promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1864 to rank from 27 April 1864.

McCook, Edward Moody / Ohio / Born 15 June 1833 Steubenville, Ohio / Died Chicago, Illinois 9 September 1909
2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Cavalry 8 May 1861 / 4th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Major USV 2nd Indiana Cavalry 29 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 11 February 1862 / Colonel USV 30 April 1862 / 1st Lieutenant USA Staff 17 July 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1864 to rank from 27 April 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Resigned USA 9 May 1866 / Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 7 April 1862 Brevet Captain USA 8 October 1862 Brevet Major USA 20 September 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 27 January 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Tennessee December 1862
Cavalry 4th Division Army of the Ohio January 1862-5 September 1862 / 1st Brigade Cavalry Division Army of the Ohio 5 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 1st Brigade Cavalry Division Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Department of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-9 September 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Department of the Cumberland 9 September 1863-16 October 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Department of the Cumberland 21 October 1863-20 November 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Department of the Cumberland 20 November 1863-29 October 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Military Division of the Mississippi 29 October 1864-26 June 1865 / Cavalry Department of the Pacific 28 June 1865-9 May 1866

USA: Edward Hatch promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1864 to rank from 27 April 1864.

Hatch, Edward / Maine / Born 22 December 1832 Bangor, Maine / Died Fort Robinson, Nebraska 11 April 1889
Captain USV 2nd Iowa Cavalry 12 August 1861 / Major USV 5 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 11 December 1861 / Colonel USV 13 June 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1864 to rank from 27 April 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 9th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 15 December 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 Brevet Major-General USA 2 March 1867 / WIA Farmington 9 May 1862 WIA Moscow 4 December 1863
1st Brigade Cavalry Army of the Mississippi 11 August 1862-1 November 1862 / 2nd Brigade Cavalry Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 1 November 1862-4 December 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Cavalry Division District of Corinth 9 June 1863-20 August 1863 / 3rd Brigade Cavalry District of Corinth 20 August 1863-30 November 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry District of Corinth 24 September 1863-24 October 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Cavalry Division District of Corinth 17 November 1863-5 January 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps District of West Tennessee June 1864-9 November 1864

USA: Lewis Addison Grant promoted Brigadier-General USV 21 May 1864 to rank from April 27 1864.

Grant, Lewis Addison / Vermont / Born 17 January 1828 Winhall, Vermont / Died Minneapolis, Minnesota 20 March 1918
Major USV 5th Vermont Infantry 15 August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 25 September 1861 / Colonel USV 16 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 21 May 1864 to rank from 27 April 1864 / Mustered Out 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 19 October 1864 Medal of Honor 3 May 1863 / WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 WIA Salem Heights 3 May 1863 WIA Petersburg 2 April 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 21 February 1863-29 December 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 February 1864-6 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-18 September 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 3 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 1864-6 December 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 December 1864-26 December 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 16 January 1865-11 February 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 11 February 1865-20 February 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 7 March 1865-2 April 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 April 1865-28 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Cairo: Mason Brayman
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Philip St George Cooke
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: Nicholas Wyckoff Day
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: William Watts Hart Davis
    • District of Florida: William Birney
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of the Pamlico: Edward Harland
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • District of Yorktown: William Farrar Smith
    • XVIII Corps Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
    • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of East Tennessee: vacant
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut

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