1864 April 20th

April 20 1864 Wednesday

Plymouth, NC

Red River Campaign

Arkansas Campaign – Siege of Camden

Hoke’s North Carolina Operations

Arkansas. A Confederate attack on Jacksonport was repelled by its garrison.

Arkansas. Skirmish near Camden.

Arkansas. Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith joined Major-General Sterling Price near Camden to consider the options for defeating the Union expeditionary force in the fortified town. He brought with him three infantry divisions under Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill, Brigadier-General Mosby Munroe Parsons, and Major-General John George Walker’s division from Louisiana. They had all participated in the successful campaign against Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks on the Red River and the destruction of the Union army at Camden offered the hope of recovering Little Rock and even the chance of an offensive into Missouri.

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI DEPARTMENT

Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department: General Edmund Kirby Smith
District of Arkansas: Major-General Sterling Price
Fagan’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General James Fleming Fagan
Cabell’s Brigade, Fagan’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Brigadier General William Lewis Cabell
Dockery’s Brigade, Fagan’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Crawford’s Brigade, Fagan’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Colonel W A Crawford
Marmaduke’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke
Greene’s Brigade, Marmaduke’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Colonel Colton Greene
Shelby’s Brigade, Marmaduke’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Joseph Orville Shelby
Maxey’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Samuel Bell Maxey
Gano’s Brigade, Maxey’s Cavalry Division (Arkansas): Colonel C De Morse
2nd Indian Brigade (Arkansas): Colonel Tandy Walker
Walker’s Division (Arkansas): Major-General John George Walker
Waul’s Brigade, Walker’s Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Thomas Neville Waul
Scurry’s Brigade, Walker’s Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General William Read Scurry
Randal’s Brigade, Walker’s Division (Arkansas): Colonel Horace Randal
Churchill’s Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill
Tappan’s Brigade, Churchill’s Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General James Camp Tappan
Hawthorn’s Brigade, Churchill’s Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Gause’s Brigade, Churchill’s Division (Arkansas): Colonel Lucien C Gause
Parsons’ Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Mosby Munroe Parsons
Clark’s Brigade, Parsons’ Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General John Bullock Clark
Burns’ Brigade, Parsons’ Division (Arkansas): Colonel Simon P Burns

Kentucky. Expedition to Burkesville ended.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Waterproof.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Natchitoches.

Mississippi. Incident at Mechanicsburg.

Missouri. Incidents at Charleston and Waterhouse’s Mill.

Plymouth, North Carolina. The ironclad ram CSS Albemarle, Commander James Wallace Cooke, assisted Confederate forces to complete the capture of Plymouth. The besieging troops resumed their bombardment at dawn and the defending parapets were soon swept clear of guns and men. At 10 am, Union Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells was forced to surrender his isolated garrison. Their fate was sealed after the retreat of their supporting naval warships from the invincible Confederate ironclad.

Union naval officers in North Carolina were thrown into a panic by the sudden impact of the CSS Albemarle. The Union had no ironclad warships in North Carolina waters and those they had could not pass them across the shallow bar into Pamlico Sound. Union Major-General John James Peck predicted that the Confederate monster would continue to steam unopposed to Roanoke Island, New Bern, and Washington, undoing all the progress of two years of amphibious operations. The Union garrison at Washington looted and burned the town before evacuating the outpost.

Total Union casualties at Plymouth were estimated as 2,834 men captured with 30 guns and a mass of supplies. Confederate casualties numbered less than three hundred men, of whom only one was a sailor shot by a pistol while extricating the ship from the USS Southfield the previous day.

North Carolina. The victor of Plymouth, Confederate Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke, was directed by General Braxton Bragg to push onwards, crushing the Union fleet of wooden vessels with the aid of the invincible CSS Albemarle before recapturing New Bern. Bragg fended off desperate calls for Hoke’s three brigades to be returned to the Army of Northern Virginia in order to maintain a threat to the Union garrisons in eastern North Carolina. Hoke received a promotion to Major-General and prepared to attack New Bern in May.

Oregon TerritoryUnion expedition from Fort Dalles, and from Fort Walla Walla, Washington Territory, to South-eastern Oregon, began. The Cayenne Indians assisted in operations against the Snake Indians, with the aim of destroying their lodges and capturing their horses.

Tennessee. Expedition to Obey’s Rover ended.

Tennessee. Incident at Boling Springs.

Tennessee. The Confederate division formerly led by Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner was reorganised after its operations in eastern Tennessee. The division was now commanded by Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson. Johnson’s own brigade was under Colonel John S Fulton, while the other two brigades were under Brigadier-General Archibald Gracie, and Brigadier-General Alfred Eugene Jackson. The majority of these men would be sent to Virginia with the two divisions of Lieutenant-General James Longstreet as reinforcements for the Army of Northern Virginia.

Virginia. Incident on Strasburg Road.

Virginia. A new Union division of US Colored Troops was organised under Brigadier-General Edward Ward Hinks and assigned as the 3rd Division of XVIII Corps. Hinks had commanded the District of St Mary’s and was now ordered to take his troops into active field service.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General George Sykes assumed command of the Department of Kansas, succeeding Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis.

Sykes, George / Maryland / Born 9 October 1822 Dover, Delaware / Died Fort Brown, Texas 8 February 1880
USMA 1 July 1842 39/56 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 December 1843 / 1st Lieutenant USA 21 September 1846 / Captain USA 30 September 1855 / Major USA 14th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 5th US Infantry 16 October 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 20th US Infantry 12 January 1868 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 27 June 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Regular Brigade Department of Washington August 1861-13 March 1862 / Reserve Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-May 1862 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-December 1862 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac January 1863-1 February 1863 / V Corps Potomac 1 February 1863-5 February 1863 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 5 February 1863-16 February 1863 / V Corps Potomac 16 February 1863-23 February 1863 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 27 February 1863-28 June 1863 / V Corps Potomac 28 June 1863-7 October 1863 / V Corps Potomac 15 October 1863-23 March 1864 / Department of Kansas 20 April 1864-30 January 1865 / District of South Kansas 1 September 1864-10 October 1864

USA: The District of Vicksburg was established in the Department of the Tennessee, extending from the mouths of the Arkansas and Tallahatchie Rivers along the Mississippi to the boundary of the Department of the Gulf.

USA: Major-General Henry Warner Slocum assumed command of the District of Vicksburg.

Slocum, Henry Warner / New York / Born 24 September 1827 Delphi, New York / Died Brooklyn, New York 14 April 1894
USMA 1 July 1852 7/43 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1852 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 31 October 1856 / Colonel New York Militia / Colonel USV 27th New York Infantry 21 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 / Major-General USV 25 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 / Resigned USV 28 September 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
Slocum’s Brigade Department of Northeastern Virginia 4 September 1861-30 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade Franklin’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-18 May 1862 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-15 October 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 20 October 1862-1 July 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 4 July 1863-31 August 1863 / XII Corps Potomac 13 September 1863-25 September 1863 / XII Corps Cumberland 25 September 1863-18 April 1864 / District of Vicksburg 20 April 1864-19 August 1864 / XX Corps Cumberland 27 August 1864-11 November 1864 / Army of Georgia 7 November 1864-17 June 1865 / XX Corps Georgia 7 November 1864-10 November 1864 / Department of Mississippi 27 June 1865-16 September 1865

USA: Brigadier-General William Birney assumed command of the District of Florida, succeeding Brigadier-General John Porter Hatch.

Birney, William / Alabama / Born 28 May 1819 Huntsville, Alabama / Died Forest Glen, Maryland 14 August 1907
Captain USV 1st New Jersey Infantry 22 May 1861 / Major USV 4th New Jersey Infantry 27 September 1861 / Colonel USV 13 January 1863 / Colonel USV 22nd USC Infantry 22 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 4 June 1863 to rank from 22 May 1863 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / CIA Alexander’s Bridge, Virginia 27 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862
District of Florida 20 April 1864-13 May 1864 / District of Hilton Head 13 May 1864-2 June 1864 / District of Florida 2 June 1864-4 August 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 27 August 1864-1 September 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 1 September 1864-5 October 1864 / 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 5 October 1864-20 October 1864 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 29 October 1864-3 December 1864 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-21 February 1865 / 2nd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 27 March 1865-10 April 1865

USA: Colonel Alonzo Granville Draper (36th US Colored Infantry) assumed command of the District of St Mary’s, succeeding Brigadier-General Edward Winslow Hinks.

Draper, Alonzo Granville / Massachusetts / Born 6 September 1835 Brattleboro, Vermont / Died Brazos de Santiago, Texas 3 September 1865
Captain USV 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery 5 July 1861 / Major USV 23 February 1863 / Colonel USV 2nd North Carolina Colored Infantry 1 August 1863 / 36th US Colored Infantry 8 February 1864 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 28 October 1864
District of St Mary’s 20 April 1864-6 July 1864 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 22 August 1864-28 October 1864 / 3rd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 28 October 1864-3 November 1864 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 3 November 1864-3 December 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-30 December 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XXV Corps Army of the James 31 December 1864-4 May 1865 / 1st Division XXV Corps Army of the James 4 May 1865-29 May 1865 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XXV Corps Department of Texas 3 June 1865-7 July 1865 / 3rd Division XXV Corps Department of Texas 7 July 1865-1 August 1865

USA: James Blair Steedman promoted Major-General USV 24 April 1864 to rank from 20 April 1864.

Steedman, James Blair / Pennsylvania / Born 29 July 1817 Northumberland, Pennsylvania / Died Toledo, Ohio 18 October 1883
Army of the Republic of Texas / Major-General Ohio Militia 1857-1861 / Colonel USV 14th Ohio Infantry 27 April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 13 August 1861 / Colonel USV 14th Ohio Infantry 1 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 19 July 1862 to rank from 17 July 1862 / Major-General USV 28 November 1864 to rank from 20 April 1864 / Resigned USV 18 August 1866 / WIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863
3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-28 January 1863 / 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-17 April 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 27 April 1863-15 August 1863 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Army of the Cumberland 15 August 1863-9 October 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-18 October 1863 / District of Etowah 15 June 1864-29 November 1864 / District of Etowah 5 January 1865-22 June 1865 / Department of Georgia 27 June 1865-10 December 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells was captured at Plymouth, North Carolina.

Wessells, Henry Walton / Connecticut / Born 20 February 1809 Litchfield, Connecticut / Died 12 January 1889
USMA 1 July 1833 29/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 28 June 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / Major USA 6th US Infantry 6 June 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Kansas 29 September 1861 / Resigned USV 7 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Commissary-General for Prisoners of War 11 November 1864-1 February 1865 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 18th US Infantry 16 February 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Retired USA 1 January 1871 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 20 April 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 CIA Plymouth 19 April 1864 Exchanged 3 August 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 19 May 1862-24 My 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 24 May 1862-7 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 7 June 1862-26 September 1862 / Wessells’ Brigade VII Corps Department of Virginia 26 September 1862-24 December 1862 / 1st Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 28 December 1862-2 January 1863 / 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-12 March 1863 / 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 14 April 1863-3 May 1863 / District of Albemarle 23 April 1863-21 August 1863 / Sub-District of Albemarle 21 August 1863-19 April 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Cairo: Mason Brayman
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary

  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
  • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Baton Rouge: Philip St George Cooke
  • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
  • District of La Fourche: Nicholas Wyckoff Day
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIII Corps Gulf: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • XIX Corps Gulf: William Buel Franklin

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
  • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • Northern District (South): Alfred Howe Terry
  • District of Hilton Head: Joshua Blackwood Howell
  • District of Florida: William Birney
  • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: John James Peck
    • Sub-District of the Pamlico: Edward Harland
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Innis Newton Palmer
  • District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
  • Army of North Carolina: John James Peck
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Samuel Jones assumed command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

Jones, Samuel / Virginia / Born 17 December 1819 Woodfield, Virginia / Died Bedford Springs, Virginia 31 July 1887
USMA 1 July 1841 19/52 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 28 September 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 24 December 1853 / Resigned USA 27 April 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Major ACSA April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 10 March 1862 / Paroled 12 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841
Chief of Ordnance Army of the Potomac June 1861 / Chief of Artillery Army of the Potomac 8 July 1861 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 14 November 1861-18 December 1861 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 18 December 1861-10 January 1862 / Army of Pensacola 27 January 1862-8 March 1862 / Army of Mobile 27 February 1862-12 March 1862 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 3 March 1862-4 March 1862 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 2 April 1862-28 April 1862 / 1st Division Army of the West May 1862-June 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi June 1862-17 August 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 2 June 1862-18 September 1862 / Reserve Army of Mississippi 17 August 1862-18 September 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 19 September 1862-27 September 1862 / District of Middle Tennessee 27 September 1862-25 July 1863 / Trans-Allegheny Department 25 November 1862-25 February 1864 / District of East Tennessee 3 September 1863-5 December 1863 / Defences of Savannah 1 April 1864-18 May 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 20 April 1864-5 October 1864 / District of South Carolina 12 October 1864-10 May 1865 / District of Florida 31 December 1864-10 May 1865

CSA: Robert Frederick Hoke promoted Major-General PACS 23 April 1864 to rank from 20 April 1864.

Hoke, Robert Frederick / North Carolina / Born 27 May 1837 Lincolnton, North Carolina / Died Raleigh, North Carolina 3 July 1912
Private PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 1861 / 2nd Lieutenant PACS 22 April 1861 / Major PACS 1 September 1861 / Mustered Out PACS 14 November 1861 / Major PACS 33rd North Carolina Infantry 27 November 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS March 1862 / Colonel PACS 21st North Carolina September 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 January 1863 to rank from 17 January 1863 / Major-General PACS 23 April 1864 to rank from 20 April 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Mechanicsville 22 June 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 4 May 1863
Hoke’s Brigade II Corps Army of Northern Virginia December 1862-April 1863 / Hoke’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia April 1863-2 May 1863 / II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 2 May 1862-2 May 1863 / Hoke’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 2 May 1863-4 May 1863 / Hoke’s Brigade Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia January 1864-20 April 1864 / Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 28 April 1864-19 October 1864 /Hoke’s Division IV Corps Army of Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-20 December 1864 / Hoke’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 December 1864-25 March 1865 / Hoke’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: James Longstreet

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
  • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
  • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
August Valentine Kautz

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds

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