1864 April 18th

April 18 1864 Monday

Battle of Poison Spring, AR (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Battle of Plymouth, NC (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Red River Campaign

Arkansas Campaign – Siege of Camden

Hoke’s North Carolina Operations

Arkansas. Isaac Murphy was confirmed as US Governor of Arkansas.

Alabama. Skirmish near Decatur.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Camden.

Poison Spring, Arkansas. Union Major-General Frederick Steele received the worrying news that the Red River expedition of Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks had been halted and had turned back to Grand Ecore. He realised immediately that if Banks was defeated, the Confederates would be free to send all their available forces against his own isolated command at Camden. He spent four days considering his options and finally resolved to terminate his own expedition, and to extricate his men before they were struck by greater forces.

Dwindling supplies for his army at Camden forced Steele to send out a foraging party in brigade strength of about 1,100 men to gather corn that the Confederates had stored on White Oak Creek about twenty miles up the Prairie D’Ane to Camden Road. The party loaded the corn into wagons and Colonel James Monroe Williams started his return to Camden. Confederate Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke’s and Brigadier-General Samuel Bell Maxey’s cavalry divisions arrived at Lee Plantation near Poison Spring, about fifteen miles from Camden, where they engaged Williams. The Confederates attacked Williams in both the front and rear, forcing him to retreat north into a marsh where his men regrouped and then fell back towards Camden. The Union lost 170 of their 198 wagons captured and the remaining wagons were burned. The Confederates also captured all four of the guns accompanying the expedition.

Casualties in the Union escort party were heavy, partly because the Choctaws of Colonel Tandy Walker took grim revenge for the incessant looting and ransacking of their homes in the Indian Territory. Men of the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry were targeted particularly for revenge killings and scalping was reported as the cause of death for a high proportion of their casualties (117 of 182). Total Union casualties were estimated as 301 men and Confederate as 114 or 115 men. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Florida. Boats from USS Beauregard, Acting Master Edward C Mealy, seized the blockade running British schooner Oramoneta in Matanzas Inlet with a cargo of salt and percussion caps.

Florida. USS Fox, Acting Master Charles T Chase, captured and burned the schooner Good Hope at the mouth of the Homosassa River with a cargo of salt and dry goods.

Kansas. Expedition to Beaver Creek ended.

Kentucky. Union expedition from Burkesville to Obey’s River, Tennessee.

Louisiana. After arranging to receive supplies, Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor rode from Shreveport to join his small force outside Grande Ecore. Despite his small numbers, he hoped by elaborate subterfuge and diversions to convince the much stronger Union garrison to withdraw and evacuate the Red River region. The Confederates started incessant drum rolls and lit extensive campfires, while marching troops prominently in a masquerade of reinforcements. At Grand Ecore, Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks received emphatic orders from Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, restating the strategy for an advance on Mobile to begin after his occupation of Shreveport. These orders had been written long before Banks had been defeated and driven far out of reach of Shreveport. Frustrated by his own sense of failure, Banks dismissed his cavalry leader Brigadier-General Albert Lindley Lee and sent him back to New Orleans. Lee was succeeded by Brigadier-General Richard Arnold. Banks also released his Chief of Staff Colonel (former Brigadier-General Charles Pomeroy Stone). These changes served little to dispel Banks’ anxiety that his force was beset by large numbers and in danger of destruction.

Louisiana. The majority of Union XIII Corps had been operating the vicinity of New Orleans and the lower Mississippi, with the remainder of the Corps stationed on the Texas coast. Corps headquarters were in Texas but moved on this date to Alexandria where the 3rd Division (Brigadier-General Robert Alexander Cameron) and 4th Division (Colonel William Jennings Landram) of the Corps had arrived during the Red River expedition and now represented its largest element. Major-General John Alexander McClernand retained overall command of XIII Corps in its dispersed form but not in the field. The 1st Division and 2nd Division of XIII Corps remained in Texas, apart from Brigadier-General Michael Kelly Lawler’s Brigade (2/1/XIII), which had arrived to reinforce the Red River expedition on 9 April and 10 April.

Missouri. Skirmish at Hunnewell between Confederate guerrillas and local citizens.

North  Carolina. Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard set up his headquarters at Weldon, in compliance with General Robert Edward Lee’s request for Beauregard to lead the defence of the capital region around Richmond, Virginia, while Lee held the line of the Rapidan.

Plymouth, North Carolina. Confederate forces under Brigadier-General Robert Frederick Hoke attacked the Union garrison at Plymouth, which consisted of four regiments with some artillery and cavalry commanded by Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells. Plymouth had been in Union hands for nearly two years and was very strongly fortified. The presence of four Union gunboats nearby at the mouth of the river required an attack by both land and water to offer any hope of taking and then holding the town against a naval counter-attack. The Confederates awaited the arrival of their new ironclad ram CSS Albemarle to turn the odds in their favour.

Hoke’s attack began at 4 pm, led by his own brigade and followed by those of Brigadier-General Matthew Whitaker Ransom and Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper. Wessells sent in vain for reinforcements. The Union gunboats moved up to support the troops ashore and were taken under fire by Confederate batteries. The Union steamer Bombshell, a former Erie Canal boat commanded temporarily by Acting Ensign Thomas B Stokes, was sunk during the engagement. The Bombshell was later raised and repaired by the Confederates. USS Southfield and USS Miami also took part in defending the town.

Hoke waited in vain for the arrival of the ironclad CSS Albemarle, Commander James Wallace Cooke. At about 9 pm, he was forced to give up the wait and withdrew his skirmishers. Despite the navigational hazards of the winding Roanoke River, CSS Albemarle had managed to anchor above Plymouth at 10 pm but failed to make a rendezvous with the Confederate troops as planned. Cooke dispatched a boat to determine the position of the Union gunboats and shore batteries in preparation for the next day’s fighting. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: PLYMOUTH, NC

Union Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler
District of North Carolina: Major-General John James Peck
Sub-District of Albemarle: Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee – USS Miami, USS Southfield, USS Ceres, USS Whitehead, USS Massasoit

Confederate Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Major-General George Edward Pickett Interim General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Hoke’s Division: Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke
Hoke’s Brigade: Lieutenant-Colonel William G Lewis
Ransom’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Kemper’s Brigade: Colonel William R Terry
Confederate States’ Navy: CSS Albemarle, CSS Cotton Plant

South Carolina. Skirmish at Boyken’s (Boykin’s) Mills.

Tennessee. Union expedition from Burkesville, Kentucky, to Obey’s Rover began.

Virginia. A landing party from USS Commodore Read, Commander Foxhall Alexander Parker, destroyed a Confederate supply depot at Circus Point on the Rappahannock River.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee sent away all surplus baggage from the Army of Northern Virginia, in expectation of starting active operations within a few days.

Union Organisation

USA: John Newton’s reappointment as Brigadier-General USV was confirmed 18 April 1864 to rank from 23 September 1861.

Newton, John / Virginia / Born 25 August 1822 Norfolk, Virginia / Died 1 May 1895
USMA 1 July 1842 2/56 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 October 1852 / Captain USA 1 July 1856 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 23 September 1861 / Major-General USV 30 March 1863 Withdrawn 23 March 1864 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 18 April 1864 to rank from 23 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 28 December 1865 / Mustered Out USV 31 January 1866 / Colonel USA 30 June 1879 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 6 March 1884 / Retired USA 27 August 1886 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 17 September 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 3 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Salem Heights 3 May 1863
Chief Engineer Department of Pennsylvania 29 May 1861-23 July 1861 / Chief Engineer Department of the Susquehanna 23 July 1861-17 August 1861 / 3rd Brigade Franklin’s Division Army of the Potomac 28 August 1861-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862- 9 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 9 April 1862-18 May 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-21 September 1862 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 15 October 1862-18 October 1862 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 October 1862-15 December 1862 / VI Corps Potomac 25 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 5 February 1863-1 July 1863 / I Corps Potomac 2 July 1863-12 March 1864 / I Corps Potomac 14 March 1864-24 March 1864 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 16 April 1864-24 September 1864 / District of Key West and the Tortugas 15 October 1864-17 May 1865 / Department of Florida 27 June 1865-1 August 1865 / Chief of Engineers 6 March 1884-27 August 1886

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Nashville: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Cairo: Mason Brayman
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Northern Arkansas: Robert Ramsey Livingston
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Nathan Kimball temporary
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: Philip St George Cooke
    • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of La Fourche: Nicholas Wyckoff Day
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Robert Alexander Cameron
      • XIX Corps Gulf: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of Kansas: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: John Smith Simonson
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • Northern District (South): Alfred Howe Terry
    • District of Hilton Head: Joshua Blackwood Howell
    • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Edward Winslow Hinks
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: John James Peck
      • Sub-District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
      • Sub-District of the Pamlico: Edward Harland
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
    • Army of North Carolina: John James Peck
      • XVIII Corps North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was appointed to command the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, arriving on 10 May 1864, to succeed Major-General George Edward Pickett.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant / Louisiana / Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 20 February 1893
USMA 1 July 1838 2/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 June 1839 / Chief Engineer US Army in Mexico 1847 / Captain USA Engineers 3 March 1853 / Superintendent USMA 23 January 1861-28 January 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Department of South Carolina 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Forces in Charleston (Defences of Charleston) 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Department of the Potomac 31 May 1861-2 June 1861 / Alexandria Line 2 June 1861-20 June 1861 / Army of the Potomac 20 June 1862-19 July 1861 / I Corps Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / District of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Western Department 6 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-6 May 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 7 October 1862-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 18 April 1864-14 May 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-27 September 1864 / Defences of Drewry’s Bluff 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Defences of Petersburg 27 September 1864-1 October 1864 / Military Division of the West 3 October 1864-April 1865 / 16 December 1864 / Chief of Staff Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of Tennessee 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 14 January 1865-22 January 1865

CSA: The District of the Cape Fear River and the Defences of Wilmington was discontinued and its territory reverted to direct control by the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia.

CSA: The Reserve Forces of North Carolina was activated.

CSA: Lieutenant-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes was appointed to command the Reserve Forces of North Carolina, arriving on 28 May 1864.

Holmes, Theophilus Hunter / North Carolina / Born 13 November 1804 Clinton, North Carolina / Died 21 June 1880
USMA 1 July 1829 44 /46 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1825 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1829 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 26 March 1835 / Regt Adjutant 9 August 1838-9 December 1838 / Captain USA 9 December 1838 / Major USA 8th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General North Carolina Militia 27 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 5 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846
Department of North Carolina 22 April 1861-19 August 1861 / Defences of North Carolina 22 April 1861-23 September 1861 / Department of Fredericksburg 5 June 1861-17 July 1861 / Reserve Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-21 July 1861 / District of Aquia 22 October 1861-23 March 1862 / Department of North Carolina 24 March 1862-17 July 1862 / Trans-Mississippi Department 30 July 1862-9 February 1863 / District of Arkansas 7 March 1863-24 July 1863 / District of Arkansas 25 September 1863-15 March 1864 / Reserve Forces of North Carolina 18 April 1864-26 April 1865

CSA: Samuel Bell Maxey promoted Major-General PACS (Trans-Mississippi) 19 May 1864 to rank from 18 April 1864 unconfirmed.

Maxey, Samuel Bell / Kentucky / Born 30 March 1825 Tompkinsville, Kentucky/ Died Eureka Springs, Arkansas 16 August 1895
USMA 1 July 1846 58/59 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8th US Infantry 23 February 1847 / 7th US Infantry 18 July 1847 / Resigned USA 17 September 1849 / Colonel PACS 9th Texas Infantry May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 7 March 1862 to rank from 4 March 1862 / Major-General PACS 19 May 1864 to rank from 18 April 1864 Unconfirmed / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847
Maxey’s Brigade X Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 9 April 1862-July 1862 / 1st Brigade Cheatham’s Division Army of Mississippi July 1862-15 August 1862 / Maxey’s Brigade District of East Louisiana September 1862-May 1863 / Maxey’s Brigade French’s Division Department of Mississippi and West Louisiana 23 May 1863-October 1863 / District of the Indian Territory 11 December 1863-9 January 1864 / Cavalry Division Department of Arkansas 18 April 1864-9 May 1864 / District of the Indian Territory 9 May 1864-21 July 1864 / 2nd Cavalry Division Trans-Mississippi Army 21 July 1864-14 February 1865 / District of the Indian Territory 21 February 1865-1 March 1865 / Maxey’s Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 7 April 1865-26 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
    • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: George Edward Pickett interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: James Longstreet
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer interim Henry Rootes Jackson awaited
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Alfred Moore Rhett
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Samuel Jones
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper temporary
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
James Clay Rice
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
August Valentine Kautz

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Abner Monroe Perrin
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Byron Gordon
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Leroy Augustus Stafford
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds

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