1863 May 27th

May 27 1863 Wednesday

Port Hudson, LA

Siege of Vicksburg

Siege of Port Hudson

Georgia. CSS Chattahoochee, Lieutenant John J Guthrie, was accidentally sunk by an explosion in her boilers while at anchor in the Chattahoochee River. The accident killed 18 men and injured many others. The CSS Chattahoochee was later raised but never left the river to put to sea.

Louisiana. Skirmish near Lake Providence.

Louisiana. USS Louisville, Lieutenant-Commander Elias K Owen, moved from Grand Gulf to destroy the abandoned Confederate battery at Rock Hill Point.

Louisiana. Union mortar boats and gunboats maintained a continuous bombardment of Port Hudson and a heavy naval battery of for 24-pounders and four 9-inch guns was put shore ashore by Lieutenant-Commander Terry of USS Richmond to act as a breaching battery. The USS Hartford and two other gunboats remained above Port Hudson, while the USS Richmond, USS Genesee, USS Essex, and USS Monongahela stayed below Port Hudson.

Port Hudson, Louisiana. During the morning, Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks launched ferocious assaults against the Confederate fortifications of Port Hudson. Banks set up his headquarters at Riley’s plantation and planned an assault in order to end the siege as quickly as possible. Banks hoped that an assault off the march would catch the Confederates in a demoralised state and conclude the campaign rapidly.  He felt that the 30,000 troops in his command would quickly force the surrender of the 7,500 troops under Confederate Major-General Franklin Gardner. His impatience was strengthened by anxious reports from Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory in New Orleans that indicated a growing threat from 5,000 Confederates in Mobile, double the strength of the reduced Union garrison. Emory also feared a return of Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor to Brashear City after Banks’ left the Bayou Teche region in late April.

The three Union divisions of Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel, Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover, and Brigadier-General Halbert Eleazer Paine were in position north of the Clinton Railroad, while the divisions of Major-General Christopher Columbus Augur and Brigadier-General Thomas West Sherman were to the south. Four special assault groups were organised under Weitzel, Grover, Augur, and Sherman. Banks did not set a specific time for the intended simultaneous assault, ordering his commanders to “commence at the earliest hour practicable.” This lack of coordination helped to break up the attack, with Weitzel and Grover attacking the north and northeast sides of the fort at dawn, and Augur and Sherman not attacking the east and southeast sides until noon. The attacks were hastily but thoroughly planned with a dawn bombardment to be followed by the advance of skirmishers and then an assault along the entire Confederate line. The naval bombardment began the night before the attack, with 13-inch mortars firing for most of the evening, and the upper and lower fleets opening fire for an hour after 7 am. The army batteries on land made a one-hour bombardment after 5.30 am.

Weitzel’s division started the assault at 6 am, moving through the densely forested ravines bordering the valley of Little Sandy Creek. This valley led into a salient formed by a fortified ridge known as the “bullpen” and a lunette on a ridge named “Fort Desperate” which had been hastily built to protect the fort’s grain mill. At the end of this ravine between the two was a hill described as “commissary hill” with an artillery battery mounted on it. The Union advance was caught in a crossfire from these three positions and was obstructed by dense vegetation and obstacles. Colonel Benjamin Dana Fearing’s brigade advanced between the west side of the bullpen (held by the 14th Arkansas Infantry, 18th Arkansas Infantry and 23rd Arkansas infantry) and a fortified ridge manned by Lieutenant-Colonel M B Locke’s Alabama regiment. Union artillery came into action behind them and the struggle degenerated into confusion amid dense magnolia groves, ravines, felled and fallen timber and thick undergrowth. Premature shell bursts from the supporting artillery of the 1st Maine Battery caused Union casualties. Seeing that his advance had been stopped, Banks refused to accept failure and ordered Weitzel, who had gained more ground than any of the other four divisions, to make another attempt. Brigadier-General William Dwight ordered the green troops of the 1st Louisiana Native Guard and 3rd Louisiana Native Guard forward into the attack at 10 am. The Native Guards were working as pioneers on the pontoon bridge over Big Sandy Creek near its junction with the Mississippi and were in a poor position to join the attack. They crossed the pontoon bridge and advanced along Telegraph Road past a fortified ridge to their left manned by Colonel William B Shelby’s 39th Mississippi Infantry and a light artillery battery. Confederate heavy artillery batteries were to their front and the Mississippi River to their immediate left. Despite the heavy crossfire the Louisiana Native Guards advanced, led by Captain André Cailloux. They took heavy losses and Cailloux was killed, and the attackers were forced to retreat. These were the first black troops to take part in a general engagement. They advanced with 1,080 men and lost 271 in a series of attacks across the tangled obstructions that protected the Confederate lines. They failed but their heroism dismissed all reservations about the value of black troops for the military effort of the Union.

Paine’s and Grover’s divisions came up in support later and encountered similar difficulties. Grover attacked the northeast sector on the fortress, sending two regiments along the road leading from Commissary Hill to assault Fort Desperate. This group had no more success than Weitzel’s troops, so Grover sent three more regiments to attack the stubborn 15th Arkansas Infantry defending the fort. These piecemeal efforts were also futile, and the fighting subsided on the northern side of the fortress by noon.

Sherman’s division failed to attack at dawn because he said he never received the orders. Sherman lined up 30 guns opposite the eastern side of the fortress and conducted a steady bombardment of the works, supported by sharpshooters aiming at the Confederate artillery crews. Banks heard no rifle fire from the Union centre and threatened to relieve Sherman of command unless he advanced his troops immediately. At about 2 pm Sherman got his two brigades underway against the eastern side of the fortress, but he soon fell seriously wounded. Dwight took over but the division was pinned down like those before.

Augur advanced later against the Confederate centre south of the railroad. Augur’s men faced less difficult terrain, but the Confederates had more extensive and stronger fortifications. The earthworks in this sector had a dry moat and abattis in front of the parapet, and a battery of two 24-pounder smoothbore guns, well supplied with canister ammunition. The Union attackers carried axes, poles, planks, cotton bags, and fascines, to fill in the ditch. Confederate Colonel William R Miles, commanding the infantry in the sector, had taken all the rifles left by the sick and wounded at the hospital and provided each of his soldiers with three weapons, greatly increasing their firepower. When the Union infantry closed within 200 yards they were met by a hail of rifle and canister fire, and few made it to within 70 yards of the Confederate lines. Brigadier-General Neal Dow was seriously wounded and Colonel Edward Payson Chapin and Lieutenant-Colonel James O’Brien, commanding the pioneers, were killed.

At 5 pm the commander of the 159th New York Infantry raised a white flag to signal a truce to remove the wounded and dead from the field. This ended the fighting for the day. None of the Union attacks reached the Confederate parapets. The successful defence encouraged Gardner and his garrison and Gardner organised a more methodical network of defences, each with an engineering officer in charge of strengthening the position. Three heavy guns facing the river with centre pivot mounts were cleared for firing on the Union positions on the eastern side of the fortress. Furthermore, a 10-inch Columbiad in Battery Four was so effective that Union troops referred to it as the “Demoraliser.” Its fearful reputation spawned a myth that it was mounted on a railroad car and could fire from any position in the fortifications. Positions in front of the lines were protected by unexploded 13-inch mortar shells set as “torpedoes” (mines). These actions improved the defence, but could not compensate for a shortage of food, causing a slow decline in morale and increased desertion to the enemy.

On the Union side, Banks was determined to continue the siege and men and material poured into the Union encirclement. Nine additional regiments arrived by 1 June and 89 field guns were brought into action. Six 9-inch Dahlgren smoothbore guns landed from the USS Richmond added to the siege guns bearing on the fortress. These guns were originally intended for a battery at the Head of Passes in the Mississippi Delta. Four were finally emplaced in Battery 10, just east of “Fort Desperate” and two in Battery 24. After the repulse Banks’ Army of the Gulf settled into a siege which was to last for nearly six weeks.

Casualties in the assault numbered 1,995 men for the Union and 235 Confederates.

ORDER OF BATTLE: PORT HUDSON, LA

Union Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Army of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Chief of Staff: Brigadier-General George Leonard Andrews, Brigadier-General Charles Pomeroy Stone
1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Christopher Columbus Augur
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Edward Payson Chapin
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Nathan Dudley
2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Thomas West Sherman
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Neal S Dow
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Alpha B Farr
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Francis Stillman Nickerson
3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Halbert Eleazer Paine
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Timothy Ingraham
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Hawkes Fearing
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Oliver P Gooding
4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
 1st Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General William Dwight
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel William K Kimball
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Henry W Birge
Corps D’Afrique (Gulf): Brigadier-General Daniel Ullman
Cavalry Brigade (Gulf): Colonel Benjamin H Grierson
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
USS Hartford, USS Richmond, USS Mississippi, USS Monongahela, USS Albatross, USS Genesee, USS Kineo, USS Essex

Confederate Military Division of the West: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton
District Three (Port Hudson): Major-General Franklin Gardner
Left Wing (Port Hudson): Colonel Isaiah G W Steedman
Centre (Port Hudson): Brigadier-General William Nelson Rector Beall
Right Wing (Port Hudson): Colonel William R Miles
Cavalry Brigade (Port Hudson): Colonel John L Logan

Mississippi. Union expedition from Memphis and Fort Pillow.

Mississippi. Union expedition from Memphis, Tennessee, to Hernando.

Mississippi. Confederate attacks on Union gunboats near Greenwood.

Mississippi. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman enlisted the help of Union gunboats in his effort to capture Fort Hill at Vicksburg. He suspected that the Confederates were relocating heavy guns from their river defences to face inland. The ironclad USS Cincinnati under Lieutenant George Mifflin Bache was packed with protective logs and hay and steamed downstream at 7 am to test its defences. Heavy fire from the fort struck the USS Cincinnati repeatedly. The heavy Confederate gunfire perforated the ship. Two solid shot broke into the shell-room and another smashed the pilot-house. The magazine was penetrated, and the starboard tiller wrecked. Five guns were put out of action and Bache attempted to withdraw out of range. The ship soon filled with water and sank. The ship went down on the eastern shore within range of the Confederate guns and the crew abandoned the ship. A Confederate 18-pound rifled gun, located to cover the Mississippi at Vicksburg, was credited with sinking the USS Cincinnati. The gun had originally been a smoothbore, but after been re-bored and rifled, its projectiles had such erratic flight that it was nicknamed “Whistling Dick”. This was third Union ironclad lost on the Mississippi line since December 1862. Five of the Union crewmen were killed, 14 wounded and fifteen missing presumed drowned.

Mississippi. Union Lieutenant-Commander Elias K Owen aboard USS Louisville reported from Grand Gulf that destruction of the abandoned Confederate battery at Rock Hill Point Battery had begun. The ship travelled up the Big Black River for three miles and destroyed a raft placed across the river, chained at both ends, to obstruct naval movements.

Tennessee. Union reconnaissance from Murfreesboro along the Manchester Pike began.

Tennessee. Union expedition from Memphis to Hernando, Mississippi.

Texas. USS Brooklyn, Commodore Henry Haywood Bell, captured the sloop Blazer with a cargo of cotton at Pass Cavallo.

Virginia. USS Coeur de Lion, Acting Master William G Morris, burned the schooners Charity, Gazelle, and Flight in the Yeocomico River.

Virginia. Incident at White Oaks.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Snicker’s Ferry to Aldie, Fairfax Court House, and Leesburg.

Union Organisation

USA: Edward Payson Chapin promoted Brigadier-General USV 27 May 1863 posthumously unconfirmed.

USA: Colonel (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) Edward Payson Chapin was killed at Port Hudson, Louisiana.

Chapin, Edward Payson / New York / Born August 16 1831 Waterloo, New York / KIA Port Hudson, Louisiana 27 May 1863
Captain New York Militia / Captain USV 44th New York Infantry 6 September 1861 / Major USV 2 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 4 July 1862 / Resigned USV 4 July 1862 / Colonel USV 116th New York Infantry 5 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 27 May 1863 Unconfirmed posthumously / WIA Hanover Court House 27 May 1862
1st Brigade 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 9 February 1863-27 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: William Fletcher Cloud temporary
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: William Fletcher Sapp
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Robert Ransom confirmed Major-General PACS 27 May 1863 to rank from 26 May 1863.

Ransom, Robert (Jr) / North Carolina / Born 12 February 1828 Warren, North Carolina / Died 14 January 1892
USMA 1 July 1850 18/44 Dragoons-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1846 /1st US Dragoons 1 July 1850 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 9 October 1851 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Regt Adjutant 25 May 1855-17 February 1857 / Captain USA 31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 24 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st (9th) North Carolina Cavalry 13 October 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 1 March 1862 / Major-General PACS 27 May 1863 to rank from 26 May 1863 / Paroled Warrenton, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1850
District of Pamlico 19 March 1862-17 August 1862 / 2nd Brigade Huger’s Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia June 1862-July 1862 / 2nd Brigade D H Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond July 1862-August 1862 / Ransom’s Brigade J G Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia August 1862-7 November 1862 / J G Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 7 November 1862-3 January 1863 / Ransom’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 January 1863-1 April 1863 / Ransom’s Division I Corps Department of North Carolina 1 April 1863-28 May 1863 / Ransom’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 28 May 1863-13 July 1863 / Department of Richmond 13 July 1863-23 September 1863 / Ransom’s Division Trans-Allegheny Department 23 September 1863-12 February 1864 / Ransom’s Cavalry Division Trans-Allegheny Department 12 February 1864-13 April 1864 / Department of Richmond 24 April 1864-13 June 1864 / Ransom’s Division Defences of Petersburg 13 June 1864-27 June 1864 / 2nd Cavalry Division Army of Northern Virginia 27 June 1864-10 August 1864 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 5 November 1864-2 May 1865

CSA: William Dorsey Pender promoted Major-General PACS 27 May 1863.

Pender, William Dorsey / North Carolina / Born 2 February 1834 Edgecombe, North Carolina / DOW Staunton, Virginia 18 July 1863
USMA 1 July 1854 19/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1850 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1854 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 16 August 1854 / 1st US Dragoons 3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 17 May 1858 / Regt Adjutant 31 August 1860-31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 21 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 3rd North Carolina Infantry 27 May 1861 / 6th North Carolina Infantry 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 3 June 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 30 September 1862 to rank from 22 July 1862 / Major-General PACS 27 May 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1854 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Second Bull Run 29 August 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 / WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 MWIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
6th Brigade 2nd Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 27 May 1862-1 July 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-29 August 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia September 1862-17 September 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia October 1862-13 December 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia January 1863-3 May 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 May 1863-3 May 1863 / Pender’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-2 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary Richard Stoddert Ewell awaited
    • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
  • Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley

Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close