1863 May 16th

May 16 1863 Saturday

Battle of Champion Hill, MS (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Vicksburg Campaign

Jones’ and Imboden’s West Virginia Raid

Florida. USS Two Sisters, Acting Master’s Mate John Boyle, captured the schooner Oliver S Breese off the Anclote Keys, bound from Havana to Bayport.

Louisiana. Incident at Independence Station.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Tickfaw Bridge.

Louisiana. Confederate troops under Major-General Richard Taylor reoccupied Alexandria, following the departure of the Union expedition under Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks. Taylor contemplated an operation that would threaten New Orleans by making a quick advance down Bayou Teche. The alarm the advance would provoke was intended to disrupt operations against Port Hudson by drawing Union forces back to protect the city.

Mississippi. Incidents at Jackson, Edward’s Depot, Bolton Station, and Midway Hill.

Mississippi. The Confederate forces under General Joseph Eggleston Johnston moved from Calhoun Station to reoccupy what remained of Jackson after the Union departure. Jackson had been wrecked as a transportation centre and its military infrastructure was destroyed. The Confederate concentration of men and materials necessary to save Vicksburg was temporarily dispersed.

Champion Hill, Mississippi, also known as Champion’s Hill, or Baker’s Creek. Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant received confirmation at about 5 am that the Confederates were east of Edwards Station. He sent orders for Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman to move out of Jackson with one division immediately, with a second to follow as soon as the destruction of the city was complete. Sherman had already accomplished most of the work and his XV Corps marched almost immediately, clearing the city by 10 am. By nightfall, Sherman’s two divisions reached Bolton.

Grant’s intention was to advance along the railroad towards Vicksburg and to strike the Confederates in the direction of Edwards Station from Bolton with 29,000 men. Three roads led from Bolton to a junction east of Edwards Station. Troops from XIII Corps under Major-General John Alexander McClernand took the lead on all three roads. Brigadier-General Alvin Peterson Hovey’s division took the northern road, Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus’ division and Brigadier-General Eugene Asa Carr’s division followed the central road, and Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith’s division was on the southern route. The XV Corps division of Brigadier-General Francis Preston Blair moved up to follow Smith. The three divisions of Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s XVII Corps followed the central road behind Carr’s division. Sherman’s XV Corps was much further behind on the left or south flank after its departure from Jackson.

Confederate Lieutenant-General Pemberton had received another order from General Joseph Eggleston Johnston, repeating his former directions to attack the Union army on the road to Jackson at Clinton. However, Pemberton discovered that Union troops were already advancing against him on the Raymond and Bolton roads. He was at first unaware that a Union column was also moving along the Jackson Road against his unprotected left or northern flank. To avoid being caught in motion on the road to Brownsville, he cancelled his intended movement to attack at Clinton. Pemberton had fortuitously arrived at a position of good natural strength at Champion Hill, five miles from Edwards Station and about halfway between Vicksburg and Jackson as he attempted to carry out his orders to advance. South of the railroad a seventy-foot eminence called Champion Hill (also known as Midway Hill) overlooked the swollen Baker’s Creek. The hill caused the east-west road from Bolton to veer southward around it where it joined the middle road and crossed a timbered ridge that extended for three miles southwards past the southernmost road taken by the Union army. Pemberton immediately switched from marching formation to a defensive posture.

Pemberton’s force of 22,000 men drew up in a three-mile defensive line that ran from southwest to northeast along a crest of a commanding ridge east of Baker’s Creek and overlooking Jackson Creek. Pemberton posted Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson’s division on the left flank at Champion Hill where they could watch for the reported Union column moving to the crossroads and also block the direct road from Bolton. Major-General John Stevens Bowen’s and Major-General William Wing Loring’s divisions deployed along the ridge to his right to block the other two approaches.

At about 7 am, Union skirmishers engaged the Confederate cavalry screen. The advance continued until Union skirmishers from Smith’s division reached Confederate pickets at Champion Hill. McClernand approached the main Confederate line at about 9.30 am but he held Smith’s division back to await the arrival of Blair’s division behind him to guard his left flank. McClernand adhered strictly to his instructions not to bring on a heavy engagement and was deterred by the apparent strength of the Confederate positions on the wooded ridge. He waited for four and a half hours for orders and then attacked without vigour.

At about the same time, further north, Hovey and Osterhaus encountered the Confederate line in their front. Grant was with Hovey’s division on the northern road and he recognised the strength of the Confederate position and the dominance enjoyed by the enemy artillery. As Hovey skirmished, Grant sent the arriving division of Brigadier-General John Alexander Logan (XVII Corps) to his right to prolong the line and to scout a way past the defences. He then waited for the division of Brigadier-General Marcellus Monroe Crocker (XVII Corps) to provide enough force to resume the advance. Union skirmishers moved forward at 10.30 am and the fighting grew in intensity from 11 am. Hovey’s men were suffering heavy losses from the Confederate artillery and he protested that he must either retreat out of range or advance. At 11.30 am Grant ordered him to attack. Hovey’s division advanced up Champion’s Hill but could not initially break the defence. Uniion artillery was then brought up to hit the Confederates at closer range. Hovey’s troops attacked the hill again, broke through a series of lines, and captured eleven guns near the wooded crest.

Although Hovey’s attack was successful it was only local in scope, and McClernand’s passivity further south enabled the Confederates to send reinforcements from the southern flank to oppose him. Bowen’s division counterattacked fiercely, drove Hovey’s men from the captured guns, and back down the slope. The Confederate surge then came to a halt. The first of Crocker’s Union brigades under Colonel George Boomer arrived and the opposing lines engaged in a violent exchange of attack and counter-attack. Further troops from Crocker’s division began to arrive but they could not turn the tide.

The third division of McPherson’s corps was too far away to have an impact on Hovey’s and Croker’s fight so Grant decided to recall Logan’s division from its foray towards the right. Logan had, in fact, reached the open rolling ground along Baker’s Creek unopposed and was in a position to sweep around the Confederate left and into the enemy rear. However, when urgent orders came for him to assist Hovey he deferred the advance and his division began to countermarch southwards again to reinforce the divisions struggling to his left. Logan’s arrival finally provided the Union strength to break the resistance of Stevenson’s and Bowen’s divisions. The Union forces retook the crest at about 1 pm, after several changes of possession, and Pemberton’s men could no longer stand up to the relentless assaults.

The Confederates now found that they had insufficient troops to hold their position and Pemberton directed Loring to send more forces from the southern area of the line (where they were still only lightly engaged by McClernand’s demonstrations) to reinforce the fight on Champion’s Hill. Loring refused, citing the presence of four Union divisions visible to his front. At about 4 pm, Loring belatedly ordered his men to march to the rescue but it was too late.

Pemberton ordered his men to withdraw along the one escape route still open, the Raymond Road and its crossing over Bakers Creek. The Confederates retired in growing disorder. Bowen’s division was ordered to hold the crossing at all costs so that Loring’s men might arrive from the south to join the forces escaping across Baker’s Creek. After two hours, Loring had still not arrived so the bridge was burned and the Confederates rallied on the western bank of Baker’s Creek. Loring’s slow movements meant that he was now cut off by the rapid Union advance. He assigned Brigadier-General Lloyd Tilghman’s brigade as a rearguard and marched away to escape southwards. Tilghman was killed by artillery fire in the defence.

In the late afternoon, Union troops seized the Bakers Creek Bridge and, by midnight, had occupied Edward’s Station. Sherman’s XV Corps arrived during the night with two divisions from Jackson and these were sent north to cross the Big Black River at Bridgeport. Blair’s division, which had been attached temporarily McClernand’s Corps, was reassigned to Sherman’s Corps.

The Confederates fell back during the night to a defensive position eight miles to the west at the Big Black River in front of Vicksburg. Pemberton blamed Loring for the defeat because he had failed first of all to attack McClernand in the south and then had been too slow to reinforce the main line at the hill. Loring’s failure to arrive also meant that he was now distant from the army’s main body.

Union casualties were estimated at between 2,441 (410 killed, 1,844 wounded, and 187 missing) and 2,457 and Confederate estimates, depending on the count of prisoners varied from 3,624 or 3,851 to around 4,300 (381 killed, 1,800 wounded and 1,670 missing) and eleven guns captured. Hovey’s Union division lost about a third of its strength whereas the less active part of McClernand’s corps lost no more than 158 men. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: CHAMPION HILL, MS

Union Department of the Tennessee: Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
Army of the Tennessee: Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
XIII Corps (Tennessee): Major-General John Alexander McClernand
9th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus
1st Brigade, 9th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
2nd (former 17th) Brigade, 9th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Daniel W Lindsey

10th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith
1st Brigade, 10th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Stephen Gano Burbridge
2nd Brigade, 10th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel William Jennings Landram
12th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Alvin Peterson Hovey
1st Brigade, 12th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General George Francis McGinnis
2nd Brigade, 12th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel James R Slack
14th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Eugene Asa Carr
1st Brigade, 14th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Plummer Benton
2nd Brigade, 14th Division, XIII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Michael Kiernan Lawler
XV Corps (Tennessee): Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman
2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Francis Preston Blair (Attached XIII Corps)
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Giles Alexander Smith
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Thomas Kilby Smith
XVII Corps (Tennessee): Major-General James Birdseye McPherson
2nd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General David Stuart
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Giles Alexander Smith
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Thomas Kilby Smith
3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Major-General John Alexander Logan
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Eugene Smith
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Mortimer Dormer Leggett
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Dunlap Stevenson
7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Marcellus Monroe Crocker
1st Brigade, 7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel John Benjamin Sanborn
2nd Brigade, 7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Samuel A Holmes
3rd Brigade, 7th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel George B Boomer

Confederate Military Division of the West: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Department Of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Lieutenant-General John Clifford
Pemberton
Army of Mississippi: Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton
Loring’s Division (Mississippi): Major-General William Wing Loring
Tilghman’s Brigade, Loring’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Lloyd Tilghman
Buford’s Brigade, Loring’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Abraham Buford
Featherston’s Brigade, Loring’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
Stevenson’s Division (Mississippi): Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Barton’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Seth Maxwell Barton
Lee’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Stephen Dill Lee
Cumming’s Brigade, Stevenson’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Alfred Cumming
Reynolds’ Brigade, Stevenson’s Division (Mississippi): Colonel Alexander W Reynolds
Bowen’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Stevens Bowen
Cockrell’s Brigade Bowen’s Division (Mississippi): Colonel Francis M Cockrell
Green’s Brigade, Bowen’s Division (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Martin Edwin Green
Cavalry (Mississippi): Colonel Wirt Adams

Missouri. Skirmish at Carthage.

Ohio. Union Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside sentenced former Congressman Clement Laird Vallandigham to detention at Fort Warren in Boston harbour for anti-war and pro-Confederate sentiments.

South Carolina. The store ship USS Courier, Acting Master Walter K Cressy, captured the blockade-running sloops Angelina and Emeline off the coast, bound from Charleston to Nassau with cargoes of cotton.

South Carolina. USS Powhatan, Captain Charles Steedman, captured the sloop C Routereau off Charleston with a small cargo of cotton and turpentine.

Tennessee. Expedition from Murfreesboro to Lebanon and Liberty ended.

Virginia. Incident at Carrsville.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Berry’s Ferry, Charles Town, Piedmont Station, and Piedmont, involving Union Major-General Robert Huston Milroy.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General William Woods Averell was relieved of command of the 2nd Division of the Cavalry Corps (Potomac) for poor and slow performance during the recent raid towards Richmond. His replacement was Colonel Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee presented his plan to invade Pennsylvania to the Confederate Cabinet. The audacious but desperate measure was approved by President Jefferson Finis Davis, Secretary of War James Alexander Seddon, Secretary of State Judah Philip Benjamin, Secretary of the Treasury Christopher Gustavus Memminger, Attorney-General Thomas Hill Watts, and Secretary of the Navy Stephen Russell Mallory. Postmaster-General John Henninger Reagan alone resisted the arguments of the General and stated that Lee’s plan emphasised the Virginia theatre too highly and disregarded the demands of the Trans-Mississippi and western theatres. He felt that an invasion of the North would not divert the implacable Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant from his advance on Vicksburg. Reagan said that the only acceptable strategy was for Lee to travel to Mississippi with strong reinforcements to strike and defeat Grant. With this being the lone voice raised in opposition to Lee’s strategy, the Cabinet instructed Lee to commence his campaign at the earliest opportunity.

Virginia. Reconnaissance to Calhoun County began.

Virginia Incident at Ravenswood.

Virginia. Skirmish at Elizabeth Court House.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: William Fletcher Sapp
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Henry Morris Naglee
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Central Kentucky: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana: Milo Smith Hascall
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • IX Corps Ohio: Orlando Bolívar Willcox
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Nathan Kimball
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: James Alexander Walker confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 16 May 1863 to rank from 15 May 1863.

Walker, James Alexander / Virginia / Born 27 August 1832 Mount Sidney, Virginia / Died 20 October 1901
Captain Virginia Militia 1861 / Captain PACS 4th Virginia Infantry April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 13th Virginia Infantry 17 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 26 February 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 16 May 1863 to rank from 15 May 1863 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864
4th Brigade 3rd Division Valley District 8 June 1862-9 June 1862 / 4th Brigade 3rd Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 27 June 1862-1 July 1862 / Trimble’s Brigade 3rd Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia September 1862-17 September 1862 / Walker’s Brigade Early’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia December 1862-4 April 1863 / Walker’s Brigade E Johnson’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 14 May 1862-12 May 1864 / Walker’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 6 February 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: John Marshall Jones confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 16 May 1863 to rank from 15 May 1863.

Jones, John Marshall / Virginia / Born 26 July 1820 Charlottesville, Virginia / KIA Wilderness, Virginia 5 May 1864
USMA 1 July 1841 39/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 5th US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 18 April 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 27 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Captain PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 4 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Artillery 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General 14 January 1862-15 May 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 16 May 1863 to rank from 15 May 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841 / WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863 WIA Payne’s Farm 27 November 1863
Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the Peninsula 4 September 1861-14 January 1862 / Jones’ Brigade Johnson’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 21 May 1863-2 July 1863 / Jones’ Brigade Johnson’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia August 1863-5 May 1864

CSA: Brigadier-General Lloyd Tilghman was killed at Champion Hill, Mississippi.

Tilghman, Lloyd / Maryland / Born 18 January 1816 Claiborne, Maryland / KIA Champion’s Hill, Mississippi 16 May 1863
USMA 1 July 1836 46/49 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1832 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4 July 1836 / Resigned USA 30 September 1836 / Captain USV Maryland and District of Columbia Artillery 14 August 1847 / Mustered out USV 13 July 1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Kentucky Infantry 5 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 18 October 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1836 CIA Fort Henry 6 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Tilghman’s Brigade Lovell’s Division District of Mississippi 6 October 1862-16 October 1862 / Tilghman’s Brigade Lovell’s Division Army of West Tennessee 16 October 1862-7 December 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 7 December 1862-16 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early temporary Richard Stoddert Ewell awaited
    • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
  • Department of Southern Virginia: Samuel Gibbs French
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley

Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman KIA
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close