1863 March 3rd

March 3 1863 Tuesday

Idaho Territory Organised

Battle of Fort McAllister, GA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Bombardment of Fort McAllister

Yazoo Pass Expedition

Virginia Southside and North Carolina Operations

USA. The US Congress passed the Captured and Abandoned Property Act.

USA. The US Congress authorized the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus for any reason determined by the US President during the war.

USA. The US Congress passed, and US President Abraham Lincoln signed, the Federal Enrolment Act into law. Because of recruiting difficulties, the act made all men between the ages of 20 and 45 liable to be called for Federal military service. Service could be avoided by those who paid $300 or provided a substitute and were exempted for three years. £400 was paid in the case of five-year volunteers. $100 was paid to conscripts and substitutes. The act was seen as unfair to the poor, and riots in working-class sections of New York City and other cities broke out in protest. A similar conscription act in the South provoked a similar reaction. The Union conscription draft was enforced from the early summer of 1863 but achieved little success in supplying troops to the war effort. In all, 86,724 individuals avoided conscription by paying the $300 commutation fee, and while 168,649 men were drafted, 117,986 of these were hired substitutes. Of the 50,663 men actually conscripted, only 46,347 reached the ranks of the army – less than 10% of the force raised for service in the war. Public outrage and opposition to the enforcement of the draft far outweighed the marginal benefit of the number of men recruited.

USA. The US Congress authorised the award of brevet ranks to United States Volunteer officers as well as Regular Army officers, for “gallant actions or meritorious conduct”.

Approximately 1,700 brevet ranks as Brigadier-Generals and Major-Generals were awarded in the US Army, the majority conferred on 13th March 1865.

The Articles of War adopted by the United States Army in 1776 and slightly revised in 1806 established the use and significance of Brevet ranks or awards in the US Army. When first used, a Brevet commission in the US Army entitled the officer to be identified by a higher rank but the award had a limited effect on the right to higher command or pay. A Brevet rank had no effect within the officer’s current unit, but when assigned to duty at the Brevet rank by the President such an officer would command with the Brevet rank and be paid at the higher rank. This higher command and pay would last only for the duration of that assignment. The Brevet promotion would not affect the officer’s seniority and actual permanent rank in the army. Beginning on April 16, 1818, Brevet commissions also required confirmation by the United States Senate, just as all other varieties of officer commissions did.

Brevets were first used during the American Revolutionary War. Often the nation’s Continental Congress could not find suitable positions for foreign officers, mostly from France, who sought commissions. The first US Brevet was given to Jacques Antoine de Franchessin on 20 July 1776, allowing him to hold the rank of / Lieutenant-Colonel within the Continental Army. Franchessin and another 35 men of foreign birth held Brevet commissions by the end of the war. By 1784 an additional 50 officers had received Brevets for “meritorious services” during the conflict. In the 19th Century, Brevet promotions were quite common because the army had many frontier forts, isolated garrisons and independent missions but could not always appoint appropriately ranked officers to command them. The US Congress permitted only a limited number of each rank of officer. Thus, an officer of lower rank might receive a Brevet commission to a rank more appropriate for his assignment. Also, newly commissioned officers often received Brevet rank until an authorised position became available. For example, an officer might graduate from West Point and be appointed a second lieutenant Brevet until a permanent posting opened up. In early 1861, some recent graduates of West Point temporarily were named Brevet second lieutenants because not enough Regular Army officer vacancies were available to give them commissions as regular second lieutenants. In addition to officers being appointed to Brevet rank for temporary service in positions designated for higher-graded officers in lieu of promotion to permanent rank, officers might be awarded Brevet rank as recognition for gallantry or meritorious service.

During the American Civil War, almost all senior officers received some form of Brevet award, especially during the final months of the war. These awards were made for gallantry or meritorious service and not for command.

Brevet awards became increasingly common and some officers received more than one award. Since an officer could hold actual and Brevet ranks in both Regular Army and United States Volunteers ranks, some General and other officers could hold as many as four different ranks simultaneously. For example, by the end of the war, Ranald Slidell Mackenzie was a Brevet Major-General of US Volunteers, a full grade Brigadier-General of US Volunteers, a Brevet Brigadier-General in the United States Regular Army, and a full grade Regular Army captain.

Brevet rank in the Union Army, whether in the Regular Army or the United States Volunteers, is best regarded as an honorary title which conferred none of the authority, precedence or pay of real or full rank. The vast majority of the Union Army Brevet ranks were awarded posthumously or on or as of 13 March 1865 as the war was approaching its end. US Army regulations concerning Brevet rank provided that Brevet rank could be claimed “in courts-martial and on detachments, when composed of different corps” and when the officer served with provisional formations made up of different regiments or companies, or “on other occasions. ” These regulations were vague enough to support the positions of some Brevet Generals who caused controversy by claiming supposed priorities or privileges of Brevet ranks that had been awarded to them at earlier dates during the war.

Some full-rank Brigadier-Generals in the United States Volunteers USV in the American Civil War were awarded Brevet Brigadier-General rank in the USV before they received a promotion to full rank Brigadier-General of United States Volunteers. Some full-rank Brigadier-Generals in the USV were awarded the rank of Brevet Major-General in the USV, but were not promoted to full rank Major-Generals in the USV. Some United States Regular Army officers who served with the USV in ranks below General Officer were awarded a Brevet General Officer rank in the USV, but were not promoted to full rank General Officers in the USV. On the other hand, at least a few USV General Officers also were awarded Brevet General Officer rank in the Regular Army in addition to their full-rank appointments or Brevet Major-General awards in the United States Volunteers. Many of the Regular Army officers of lower rank who became full-rank USV Generals, however, received neither actual promotions to a General Officer rank nor Brevet General Officer awards in the Regular Army in addition to their USV ranks or awards. Some of them who stayed in the United States Regular Army after the war did achieve General Officer rank in later years.
In addition to the Brevet awards to current or future full rank United States Volunteers USV Generals during the American Civil War, 1,367 other USV officers of lower ranks were awarded the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General or Brevet Major-General or both in the United States Volunteers but were not promoted to full-rank USV Generals. At least one enlisted man, Private Frederick W Stowe, was brevetted as a second lieutenant in the Union Army during the Civil War.
The United States Marine Corps also issued Brevets. After officers became eligible for the Medal of Honour, a rare Marine Corps Brevet Medal was issued to living officers who had been brevetted between 1861 and 1915.

USA. The US Regular Army’s Corps of Topographical Engineers was discontinued as a separate department and merged into the Corps of Engineers.

USA. The US Congress authorised the appointment of a Chief Engineer at the grade of Brigadier-General in the Regular Army, to command the Corps of Engineers. Joseph Gilbert Totten, who had been serving as Chief of Engineers since 1828, was promoted Brigadier-General USA and Chief of Engineers from this date to reflect the growing size and scope of his service.

USA. The Office of the Provost Marshal-General was established as a staff department of the USA. Colonel James Fry was appointed as the first Provost Marshal-General on 17th March 1863 and later promoted to Brigadier-General. The office dealt with matters related to recruitment and desertion and later supervised the Invalid Corps, through which disabled soldiers performed garrison or non-field duty. The position was abolished in 1866.

USA. The US Congress confirmed that officers appointed by the United States (effectively, Regular Army) should outrank volunteer officers in the same grade appointed either by their State or the President (effectively, US Volunteers).

USA. The Idaho Territory was organised by separation of parts of the Washington Territory.

Fort McAllister, Georgia. Fort McAllister was a small three-gun earthwork battery commanded by Captain George A Anderson. Since USS Montauk had been damaged by a torpedo, three new Union ironclads under Captain Percival Drayton (USS Passaic, USS Nahant, and USS Patapsco) arrived from Port Royal to take up the bombardment of Fort McAllister. They were accompanied by three mortar boats and joined the gunboats USS Seneca, USS Dawn, and USS Wissahickon. They bombarded Fort McAllister for six to eight hours, to prepare for the impending assault on Charleston harbour by giving the warships battle experience and gunnery practice. They also wanted to test their new guns and mechanical appliances. The bombardment did not destroy the defending batteries but caused some minor damage. The USS Passaic sustained 34 hits and the other ironclads received some dents but were proven once again to be almost invincible to shore-based guns. On the other hand, it also proved that while brick fortifications were very vulnerable, even impenetrable ironclad ships could not breach or reduce earthen fortifications and structures without help from land forces. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: FORT McALLISTER, GA

Union South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
Expeditionary Force: Commander John Lorimer Worden USN
USS Montauk, USS Passaic, USS Nahant, USS Patapsco, USS Seneca, USS Wissahickon, USS Dawn, C P Williams

Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
District of Georgia: Brigadier-General Hugh Weedon Mercer
Garrison Fort McAllister: Captain George A Anderson

Idaho Territory. The Idaho Territory was organised by separation of parts of the Washington Territory.

Mississippi. Reconnaissance to Salem ended.

Mississippi. Union Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith’s Yazoo Pass expedition of ten gunboats and 22 transport ships set off down the Coldwater River. Progress was reasonably comfortable for the next hundred miles but as the flotilla snaked through increasingly difficult waters and obstacles all the advantages of a surprise attack towards Yazoo City had been lost. Speed was reduced to slower than one and a half miles per hour. 

Missouri. Confederate raid on Granby.

New Mexico Territory. Capture of Cubero.

North Carolina. Expedition to Cedar Point began.

North Carolina. A boat crew under Acting Master’s Mate George Drain from USS Matthew Vassar destroyed a large boat at Little River Inlet. Proceeding up the western branch of the river to destroy salt works, the boat grounded and the Union crew was captured by Confederate troops.

Rhode Island. William C Cozzens succeeded William Sprague as Governor of Rhode Island. John R Bartlett had held the office briefly as Acting Governor.

Tennessee. Reconnaissance to La Grange began.

Tennessee. Union expedition from Concord Church to Chapel Hill began.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Bear Creek.

Tennessee. Union expedition from Murfreesboro to Woodbury began.

Virginia. Union expedition from Belle Plain to Coan River and Machodee Creek began.

Idaho Territory. The Idaho Territory was organised by separation of parts of the Washington Territory.

Union Organisation

USA: Joseph Gilbert Totten promoted Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 13 April 1863 to rank from 3 March 1863.

Totten, Joseph Gilbert / Connecticut / Born 17 April 1788 New Haven, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 22 April 1864
USMA 1 July 1805 3/3 Engineers / Cadet USMA 4 November 1801 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1805 / Resigned USA 31 March 1806 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 23 February 1808 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 July 1810 / Captain USA 31 July 1812 / Major USA 12 November 1818 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 24 May 1828 / Colonel USA Chief of Engineers 7 December 1838 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 3 March 1863 / Brevet Major USA 6 June 1813 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11 September 1814 Brevet Colonel USA 11 September 1824 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 29 March 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 21 April 1864 / CIA Queenston Heights, Canada 13 October 1812 Exchanged January 1813
Chief of Engineers 7 December 1838-22 April 1864 / Member of the War Board 17 March 1862-23 July 1862

USA: Jacob Dolson Cox’s appointment as Major-General USV expired, reverted to Brigadier-General USV to rank from 17 May 1861.

Cox, Jacob Dolson / Canada-Ohio / Born 27 October 1828 Montreal, Canada / Died Gloucester, Massachusetts 4 August 1900
Brigadier-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861-30 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 6 October 1862 Expired 3 March 1863 Reverted to Brigadier-General USV / Reappointed Major-General USV 7 December 1864 / Resigned USV 1 January 1866
Kanawha Brigade Department of the Ohio July 1861-25 July 1861 / Kanawha Brigade Army of Occupation 25 July 1861-11 October 1861 / District of the Kanawha 11 October 1861-26 July 1862 / Defences of Washington 30 August 1862-7 September 1862 / Kanawha Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-14 September 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 14 September 1862-8 October 1862 / District of Western Virginia 13 October 1862-December 1862 / District of Ohio 14 April 1863-16 November 1863 / District of Michigan 2 June 1863-5 June 1863 / XXIII Corps Ohio 21 December 1863-10 February 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio 3 March 1864-31 March 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 4 April 1864-9 April 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 9 April 1864-26 May 1864 / Army of the Ohio 25 May 1864-27 May 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 26 May 1864-27 May 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 27 May 1864-14 September 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 14 September 1864-22 October 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 22 October 1864-30 November 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 30 November 1864-1 December 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 1 December 1864-13 January 1865 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 17 January 1865-9 February 1865 /3rd Division XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 9 February 1865-15 February 1865 / Cox’s Provisional Corps Department of North Carolina 25 February 1865-31 March 1865 / District of Beaufort North Carolina 25 February 1865-18 March 1865 / XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 31 March 1865-19 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 31 March 1865-16 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 19 June 1865-27 June 1865

USA: Randolph Barnes Marcy’s appointment as Brigadier-General USV expired unconfirmed.

Marcy, Randolph Barnes / Massachusetts / Born 9 April 1812 Greenwich, Massachusetts / Died West Orange, New Jersey 22 November 1887
USMA 1 July 1832 29/45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 5th US Infantry 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 25 November 1835 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 June 1837 / Captain USA 18 May 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 22 August 1859 / Inspector-General 13 May 1861 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 9 August 1861 / Senior Inspector-General 9 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 23 September 1861 Expired Unconfirmed 17 July 1862 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 13 September 1862 Expired Unconfirmed 4 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 4 March 1863 / Brigadier-General USA Inspector-General 12 December 1878 / Retired USA 2 January 1881 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1832 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Inspector-General Department of the Ohio 13 May 1861-17 July 1861 / Inspector-General 9 August 1861 Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-4 September 1861 / Senior Inspector General US Army 9 August 1861-2 January 1881 / Chief of Staff Army of the Potomac 4 September 1861-7 November 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas John Wood
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: Isaac Dyer
    • District of La Fourche: Godfrey Weitzel
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: John Montgomery Glover
    • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
    • Army of the Frontier: John McAllister Schofield
    • Army of Southeastern Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Central Kentucky: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Western Virginia: Jacob Dolson Cox
      • Sub-District of the Kanawha: Eliakim Parker Scammon
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Harvey Lee temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: James Samuel Wadsworth temporary
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Adolph Wilhelm August Frederick von Steinwehr temporary
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Charles Smith Hamilton
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IX Corps Virginia:  William Farrar Smith
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Daniel Smith Donelson interim Dabney Herndon Maury awaited
      • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
    • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: William Edmondson Jones
  • Department of Southern Virginia: James Longstreet
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton
Jacob Dolson Cox EXP
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
William Wallace Burns
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Edward Ferrero
Francis Laurens Vinton
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Henry Hastings Sibley
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
John Milton Thayer
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Thomas Campbell
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson

Joshua Thomas Owen
James Barnes

Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris

John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson

Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Robert Christie Buchanan
James Hewitt Ledlie
Wladimir Bonawentura Krzyzanowski
Isham Nicolas Haynie
David Stuart
John Blair Smith Todd
Orlando Metcalfe Poe
Thomas Greely Stevenson
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Daniel Smith Donelson
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Robert Augustus Toombs
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Elisha Franklin Paxton
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson

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