1863 March 17th

March 17 1863 Tuesday

Battle of Kelly’s Ford, VA (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Yazoo Pass Expedition

Steele Bayou Expedition

Virginia Southside and North Carolina Operations

USA. The Department of the Provost Marshal General was established in the US Army. It provided a military police service, maintained order and discipline, and managed the conscription of recruits. Colonel James Barnet Fry was appointed Provost Marshal General on 17 March 1863 and was promoted to Brigadier-General USA on 19 May 1864 to rank from 21 April 1864.

Louisiana. Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut in USS Hartford, with USS Albatross in company, steamed up to Natchez, tearing down telegraph lines to Port Hudson along the way. They anchored for the night below Grand Gulf.

Louisiana. Confederate operations on the west bank of the Mississippi from Port Hudson.

Louisiana. Union expedition from Montesano Bayou towards Port Hudson began.

Mississippi. Lieutenant Commander James P Foster USN, deputising for the sick Lieutenant Commander Watson Smith, abandoned the naval expedition through Yazoo Pass. The route to Vicksburg was blocked irretrievably at Fort Pemberton. The Army was unable to land troops because of the flooded country. Brigadier General Isaac Ferdinand Quinby ordered the troops to return aboard the ships and the expedition was abandoned. No further major effort was mounted against Fort Pemberton. Ten gunboats and 22 transports had been deterred by a single 6.4-inch gun mounted in the fort.

Mississippi. The ships of the Steele Bayou expedition broke into Deer Creek in the morning and resumed their course. Pursuing an extremely crooked watercourse, past heaps of burning cotton-bales lit by plantation owners onshore to obscure their vision, the five ironclads barged and crashed through the obstructing trees, aided by working-partiers of soldiers with saws and axes. Progress slowed to less than a half-mile per hour. By nightfall, they had moved eight miles forwards. They could hear in the darkness the Confederates felling trees in their path.

Virginia. Skirmish at Bealeton Station with Confederate guerrillas.

Virginia. Skirmish near Franklin.

Virginia. Confederate Captain John Singleton Mosby and his raiders approached Herndon Station where they managed to capture a 25-man picket post of the 1st Vermont Cavalry.

Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet was put on alert to return from Southside Virginia to the Rappahannock River with his two divisions. Before he could obey, the order was countermanded as the Union activity on the Rappahannock proved to be no more than a demonstration. Continuing his zealous collection of supplies, Longstreet proposed to move eastwards across the Blackwater and Chowan Rivers in early April to secure more provisions. This would require him to make a diversionary advance against Suffolk while his commissary troops scoured the landscape. Longstreet planned to strengthen his numbers by using the troops of Major-General Samuel Gibb French, while Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill (reinforced by Brigadier-General Robert Ransom’s brigade from Wilmington) made a diversionary march towards Washington. This latter move was intended to make accessible the fertile Tar River region and the fisheries of Pamlico Sound for the collection of supplies.

Kelly’s Ford, Virginia, also known as Kellysville. About 2,100 Union troopers and six guns of Brigadier-General William Woods Averell’s cavalry division crossed the Rappahannock River to attack the Confederate cavalry reported to be around Culpeper. They left about another 900 men in outposts and positions to guard their line of retreat.

The advance guard reached Kelly’s Ford at about 5 am and was faced by obstacles of felled trees and an outpost of sixty men. Three attempts to cross the ford were repulsed under heavy fire, delaying the Union advance for over 90 minutes. Averell’s chief of staff, Major Samuel E Chamberlain, eventually forced a crossing with 20 men of the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry but Chamberlain was wounded in the attempt. They captured 25 men of the Confederate outpost but Averell proceeded cautiously, taking over two hours to get his command across the swiftly running river. He then dismounted his men and took up defensive positions around the Brooks farm.

Confederate Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee was ten miles to the west at Culpeper Court House when he learned of the crossing at about 7.30 am. He moved immediately to oppose the Union movement. He was anxious to block the Union advance towards Brandy Station and the vital Orange & Alexandria Railroad. He sent 800 men and four guns ahead to slow the Union cavalry. Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart happened to be at Culpeper Court House attending a court-martial. He decided to ride out to witness the battle, taking with him his chief of horse artillery, Major John Pelham.

When the Confederate detachments arrived, the Union forces were in position about two miles and half a mile from the ford. Their skirmishers were lining a stone wall and their right flank was at an open field by the C T Wheatley house. Union Colonel Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié’s brigade was positioned on the left in a woodlot and Colonel John Baillie McIntosh’s brigade was in the centre, with Captain Marcus Reno’s two regiments of regulars on the right flank, behind a stone fence.

One Confederate squadron of the 3rd Virginia Cavalry dismounted and acted as skirmishers while the remainder charged in hope of finding a gap or a low spot in the wall that would allow them to scatter the Union skirmish line. The 3rd Virginia Cavalry and 5th Virginia Cavalry regiments rode along the stone fence but could not cross, and they were forced to ride along the wall, shooting at the defenders when they could.

Stuart arrived to find that Lee’s men were not doing well, being outnumbered two to one and facing a well-positioned artillery battery. Lee’s men advanced again with his five regiments in line abreast. Pelham’s guns moved forward with Lee’s men, and as he waved them through a gate in a fence, a shell exploded over Pelham’s head, mortally wounding him. The renowned horse artillery exponent was to be posthumously promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel.

The Union 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry and 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry from McIntosh’s brigade  (2/2/Cavalry) moved toward the Wheatley House and the the Confederate advance was repulsed by carbine fire from the 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry and shelling from 6th Battery New York Light Artillery (Captain Joseph W Martin). On the Union left, Duffié disobeyed Averell’s orders to hold his position and ordered a charge by the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry, the 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry, and 6th Ohio Cavalry against the 1st Virginia Cavalry, 4th Virginia Cavalry and 5th Virginia Cavalry. The surprise attack forced Lee to withdraw his men back through the woods to a clearing just beyond. Lee counterattacked the advancing Union troopers, but once again he had to fall back in the face of superior numbers and artillery. A rout of the Confederate position might have occurred, but Reno did not advance to support Duffié, maintaining his position as ordered earlier by Averell.

The Confederates gave up about a mile of ground and reassembled beyond Carter’s Run, having lost nine men captured. The two sides conducted a long-range artillery duel with occasional skirmishing but no further attacks occurred. By 5:30 pm, Averell decided to withdraw his exhausted men and horses. Some fellow officers believed that Averell had lost his nerve, concerned about the presence of Stuart on the battlefield and the sound of railroad cars approaching possibly carrying Confederate infantry to pin him against the river.

Although the Confederates gained a tactical victory when the Union force withdrew, the Union cavalrymen believed they had won an important moral victory. For the first time, they had held their own against Stuart’s horsemen and, for the first time in the war, a Confederate cavalry regiment (the 2nd Virginia Cavalry) had fled in the face of a Union charge. Union Lieutenant Joseph A Chedell of the 1st Rhode Island described Kelly’s Ford as the “first real, and perhaps the most brilliant, cavalry fight of the whole war” and this new confidence invigorated future Union cavalry operations.

The Union force lost 78 casualties (6 killed, 50 wounded, 22 missing). The Confederates lost 133 men (11 dead, 88 wounded, 34 captured). (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: KELLY’S FORD, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General Joseph Hooker
Army of the Potomac: Major-General Joseph Hooker
Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Major-General George Stoneman
2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Woods Averell
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Alfred N Duffié
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel John B McIntosh
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Captain Marcus Reno

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Cavalry Division Northern Virginia: Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart
F H Lee’s Brigade Cavalry Division Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee

Union Organisation

USA: IX Corps (Virginia) transferred from the Department of Virginia to the Department of the Ohio.

USA: Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside assumed command of IX Corps (Ohio), succeeding Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox.

Burnside, Ambrose Everett / Indiana / Born 23 May 1828 Liberty, Indiana / Died Bristol, Rhode Island 13 September 1881
USMA 1 July 1847 18/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 8 September 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 12 December 1851 / Resigned USA 2 October 1853 / Brigadier-General Rhode Island Militia 1855-1857 / Colonel 1st Rhode Island Militia 1861 / Colonel USV 1st Rhode Island Infantry 2 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 2 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 6 August 1861 / Major-General USV 18 March 1862 / Resigned USV 15 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1847 / WIA Las Vegas, New Mexico Territory 23 August 1849
Burnside’s North Carolina Expeditionary Force 12 September 1861-2 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia June 1861-2 July 1861 / Department of North Carolina 13 January 1862-6 July 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 20 July 1862-2 August 1862 / IX Corps Virginia 3 August 1864-3 September 1862 / Right Wing Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-19 September 1862 / Defences of Harper’s Ferry 13 October 1862-26 October 1862 / Department of the Potomac 5 November 1862-26 January 1863 / Army of the Potomac 7 November 1862-26 January 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 17 March 1863-19 March 1863 / Department of the Ohio 17 March 1863-9 December 1863 / Army of the Ohio 1 April 1863-8 December 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 17 September 1863-16 January 1864 / IX Corps Department of the Potomac 13 April 1864-14 August 1864

USA: Frederick Steele confirmed Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862.

Steele, Frederick / New York / Born 14 January 1819 Delhi, New York / Died San Mateo, California 12 January 1868
USMA 1 July 1843 30/39 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 March 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 June 1848 / Regt Adjutant 6 September 1849-5 February 1855 / Captain USA 5 February 1855 / Major USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Iowa Infantry 23 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 January 1862 to rank from 29 January 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 26 August 1864 / Colonel USA 20th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered USV 1 January 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1839 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 4 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
2nd Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861 / Steele’s Brigade 5th Division Western Army September 1861 / District of Southeast Missouri 1 March 1862-10 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Southwest 9 May 1862-29 August 1862 / Army of the Southwest 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / 1st Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862 / 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-13 December 1862 / 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-27 July 1863 / Army of Arkansas 27 July 1863-22 December 1864 / Department of Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / Department of Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 3 February 1865-8 February 1865 / Pensacola Column Army of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-17 May 1865 / Western District of Texas 27 June 1865-20 July 1865 / Department of the Columbia 7 October 1866-29 April 1867

USA: Julius Stahel confirmed Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863.

Stahel, Julius (Stahel-Számwald) / Hungary / Born 5 November 1825 Szeged, Hungary / Died New York, New York 4 December 1912
Private Austrian Army / Lieutenant Austrian Army / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 8th New York Infantry 23 April 1861 / Colonel USV 11 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 12 November 1861 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863 / Resigned USV 8 February 1865 / Medal of Honor 5 June 1864 / WIA Piedmont 5 June 1864
1st Brigade Blenker’s Division Army of the Potomac November 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade Blenker’s Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1863-31 March 1862 / 1st Brigade Blenker’s Division Mountain Department 1 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-30 August 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 30 August 1862-12 September 1862 / 1st Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1863-10 January 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 10 January 1863-19 January 1863 / Cavalry Division XXII Corps District of Washington 21 March 1863-June 1863 / Stahel’s Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac June 1863-28 June 1863 / Cavalry Department of the Susquehanna 2 July 1863-14 March 1864 / Cavalry Department of West Virginia 14 March 1864-26 April 1864 / Cavalry Department of West Virginia 4 August 1864-8 August 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Department of West Virginia 26 April 1864-5 June 1864 / Department of West Virginia 8 August 1864-9 August 1864

USA: Carl Schurz confirmed Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863.

Schurz, Carl / Germany / Born 2 March 1829 Liblar-am-Rhein, Prussia / Died New York, New York 14 May 1906
Lieutenant Prussian Army 1848 / Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1862 to rank from 15 April 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863 / Resigned USV 6 May 1865
3rd Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-19 January 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 19 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 45 February 1863-5 March 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 5 March 1863-2 April 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 Aril 1863-25 September 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-1 July 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-21 January 1864 / XI Corps Cumberland 21 January 1864-25 February 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of Georgia 1 April 1865-27 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Middle Military Division 27 April 1865-6 May 1865

USA: James Murrell Shackelford confirmed Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 2 March 1863.

Shackelford, James Murrell / Kentucky / Born 7 July 1827 Lincoln, Kentucky / Died Port Huron, Michigan 7 September 1909
2nd Lieutenant USV 4th Kentucky Infantry 4 October 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USV 1847 / Mustered Out USV 25 July 1848 / Colonel USV 25th Kentucky Infantry 1 January 1862 / Resigned USV 24 March 1862 / Colonel USV 8th Kentucky Cavalry 13 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 2 January 1863 / Resigned USV 18 January 1864 / WIA Geiger’s Lake 3 September 1863
1st Brigade 2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 24 June 1863-6 August 1863 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 6 August 1863-10 September 1863 / 4th Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 10 September 1863-3 November 1863 / Cavalry Corps Ohio 3 November 1863-15 December 1863

USA: Thomas Ewing confirmed Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 13 March 1863.

Ewing, Thomas (Jr) / Ohio / Born 7 August 1829 Lancaster, Ohio / Died New York, New York 21 January 1896
Colonel USV 11th Kansas Cavalry 15 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 13 March 1863 / Resigned USV 23 February 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
1st Division Army of the Frontier 26 April 1863-5 June 1863 / District of the Border 9 June 1863-1 January 1864 / District of St Louis 25 March 1864-21 November 1864 / District of Rolla 21 November 1864-9 December 1864 / District of St Louis 9 December 1864-23 February 1865

USA: Colonel USA James Barnet Fry appointed Provost Marshal-General.

Fry, James Barnet / Illinois / Born 22 February 1827 Carrollton, Illinois / Died 1Newport, Rhode Island 1 July 1894
USMA 1 July 1847 14/38 Artillery-Adjutant-General / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 20 August 20 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 February 1851 / Assistant Adjutant-General 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Army of Northeastern Virginia 31 May 1861-12 November 1861 / Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 3 August 1861 / Colonel USA ADC (G B McClellan) 14 November 1861 / Major USA 22 April 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 December 1862 / Colonel USA Provost Marshal-General 17 March 1863 / Brigadier-General USA Provost Marshal-General 19 May 1864 to rank from 21 April 1864 / Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 3 March 1875 / Retired USA 1 July 1881 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA July 1847 Brevet Captain USA 16 March 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / Brevet Major-General USA (Recalled) 13 March 1865
Chief of Staff Army of Northeastern Virginia 31 May 1861-12 November 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Department of the Ohio 15 November 1861-30 October 1862/ Chief of Staff Department of the Ohio 15 November 1861-30 October 1862 / Provost Marshal-General 17 March 1863-1 July 1881

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas John Wood
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: Isaac Dyer
    • District of La Fourche: Godfrey Weitzel
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris temporary
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris temporary
  • Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis interim John McAllister Schofield awaited
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
    • Army of the Frontier: John McAllister Schofield
    • Army of Southeastern Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Central Kentucky: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • IX Corps Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Harvey Lee temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Carl Schurz temporary
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Charles Smith Hamilton
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Daniel Smith Donelson interim Dabney Herndon Maury awaited
      • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Earl Van Dorn
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
    • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: William Edmondson Jones
  • Department of Southern Virginia: James Longstreet
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes

Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson

Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Orlando Metcalfe Poe
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
Francis Laurens Vinton
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Daniel Smith Donelson
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Elisha Franklin Paxton
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance

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