1863 March 14th

March 14 1863 Saturday

Port Hudson, LA

Battle of Fort Anderson, NC (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Yazoo Pass Expedition

Virginia Southside and North Carolina Operations

Louisiana. Expedition to Young’s Point began.

Port Hudson, Louisiana. Union Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut attempted to pass the Confederate heavy batteries at Port Hudson, twenty-five miles north of Baton Rouge, in order to support operations near Vicksburg. His squadron of seven wooden warships assembled off Profit’s Island, seven miles below Port Hudson to attack the strong Confederate works. He had three heavy sloops-of-war (USS Hartford, USS Richmond and USS Monongahela), the old side-wheeler USS Mississippi and three gunboats (USS Albatross, USS Genesee, and USS Kineo). Farragut made elaborate preparations for a night attack, clearing the ships for action, whitewashing the gun decks to improve visibility for night action and bringing up mortar boats for support. He also had the anchor chains of the attacking ships lashed to the sides of the attack ships as improvised armour. The three gunboats were lashed to the safer side of the larger sloops but the USS Mississippi had no such protection as the last ship in the column. The run was to be attempted in darkness and the fleet set out at 9.30 pm.

The garrison of the Confederate fortress was ready for the attack, having noticed increased naval activity downriver, and having been alerted by the ranging shots of the six mortar schooners which covered the advance of the Union fleet near Prophet’s (or Profit’s) Island. At this time the Confederates had over 20 guns covering the river, arranged in eleven batteries of artillery, including nine batteries of heavy coastal artillery. Lieutenant-Colonel Marshall J Smith commanded the heavy guns. Battery No 7 prepared heated shot position, using ammunition particularly effective against wooden warships. Other preparations included preparing piles of pine wood to be ignited to illuminate the river for night action, and observation posts near the river to fire rockets to warn of the approach of enemy vessels.

The Union mortar vessels opened fire first and shortly after 10 pm, the fleet was underway, with the heavier ships (USS Hartford, USS Richmond and USS Monongahela on the fort side of the smaller USS Albatross, USS Genesee and USS Kineo. The USS Mississippi brought up the rear. The leading USS Hartford with USS Albatross lashed alongside cleared the first battery undetected but then exchanged fire with the batteries further north. The first Confederate signal rocket was fired at 11.20 pm to warn of the approach of Farragut’s fleet. Instantly an 8-inch smoothbore shell from Battery No 9 was fired at USS Albatross, beginning the battle. The Union fleet advanced steadily upriver, beginning a general fire of broadsides as soon as their guns bore on the lower Confederate batteries on the Port Hudson slopes. The heavier Confederate guns, mounted over the walls of the seven lunettes on the crest of the bluffs, had difficulty aiming at the ships, which were hugging the shorelines of the bluffs in order to avoid shoals on the western shore near the curve of the river north of Port Hudson. Dense clouds of white smoke from the guns combined with the smoke of the pinewood illumination fires, and in the darkness the river valley was rapidly obscured. Blinded by the dense smoke, USS Hartford and USS Albatross ran aground on the eastern shore beneath the Confederate batteries. After remaining aground for ten minutes, the engines of the gunboat helped drive the two ships slowly upriver at 3 knots. They eventually headed upriver with severe damage to masts and spars and three casualties but intact. The two lashed leading ships passed the last Confederate gun position by 12.15 am and were out of range of Port Hudson by 12.45 am.

Following the flagship closely, USS Genesee and USS Richmond came next in the column. A trick of the wind cleared the smoke momentarily and USS Richmond was hit as it made the turn in the river north of Port Hudson. A 6.4-inch solid conical shot tore through the starboard side, smashing both port and starboard boiler safety valves. This cut power to the engines and filled the ship with clouds of escaping steam. USS Genesee alone did not have enough power to stem the current, and both ships drifted back downriver to anchor out of range.

USS Monongahela and USS Kineo were next in the column and were also blinded by smoke. The USS Monongahela was struck on the rudder and lost direction; the engine overheated and broke down. The ship ran aground under Port Hudson’s lower batteries and the impact separated the two ships. They remained fixed for nearly half an hour, taking severe punishment. At least eight shots passed entirely through USS Monongahela and the bridge was shot from underneath Captain James P McKinstry, injuring him and killing three others. With USS Kineo’s aid, USS Monongahela was re-floated and attempted to resume her course upriver. The stress of backing off the shore disabled USS Monongahelas engine and a 32-pounder round shot split USS Kineo’s rudder post, disabling the steering. The ships became unmanageable and drifted downstream to anchor downstream out of range of the Confederate guns. There were forty-five casualties aboard these two disabled ships and their gunboat escorts. The two ships drifted downriver.

USS Mississippi came last under Captain Melancton Smith. Smith saw USS Richmond returning downstream but was unable to sight USS Monongahela through the smoke. In the darkness, USS Richmond opened fire on USS Mississippi, seeing only the side-wheeler’s gun-flashes and imagining them to be enemy guns onshore. Smith ordered his ship to close the gap too early on the ships ahead and ran aground heavily on mudflats on the western shore directly across from the Confederate guns on the bluff. The ship was so tightly wedged that no effort could recover her. The large steam paddle frigate was an irresistible target and was riddled with shot, shell, and then hot shot to cause fires. After being set on fire in four places and hit many times, the ship was abandoned by the crew. Sixty-four crewmen were casualties and the survivors escaped on boats. The ship was gradually consumed by fire and, having lightened its load, was dislodged and drifted downriver at about 3 am, panicking the remainder of the Union fleet downriver with the threat of her magazine exploding. At 5.05 am the following day, twenty-two hours later, USS Mississippi disappeared in a terrific explosion, visible in New Orleans nearly 80 miles downriver.

Only USS Hartford and USS Albatross successfully ran the gauntlet of the Port Hudson batteries. Nevertheless, these two ships enabled Farragut to re-establish a blockade of the Confederates’ vital Red River supply lines to Texas; this had been interrupted after the loss of the USS Queen of the West and the USS Indianola.

Gardner regarded the battle as a victory despite the passage of the two Union ships. After the naval attack, Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks retreated with the 17,000 troops he had intended to use in the advance on Port Hudson back to Baton Rouge. The failure to make an attack against Port Hudson and a powerful rainstorm endured during the retreat lowered morale in the Union force.

The Confederate garrison sustained three enlisted men killed and three officers and nineteen men wounded. The Union fleet lost 78 men killed or missing and 35 wounded.

ORDER OF BATTLE: PORT HUDSON, LA

Union Department of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
District of La Fourche: Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel
District of Pensacola: Colonel Isaac Dyer
Defences of New Orleans: Brigadier-General Thomas West Sherman
Army of the Gulf: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks Chief of Staff Brigadier-General George Leonard Andrews, Brigadier-General Charles Pomeroy Stone
XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Major-General Christopher Columbus Augur
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Edward P Chapin Colonel Charles J Paine
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Godfrey Weitzel
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Nathan Augustus Munroe Dudley
2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Thomas West Sherman
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Neal S Dow
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Alpha B Farr
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Franklin Stillman Nickerson
3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Halbert Eleazer Paine
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Timothy Ingraham
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Hawkes Fearing
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Oliver Paul Gooding
4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Brigadier-General William Dwight
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel William K Kimball
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIX Corps (Gulf): Colonel Henry Warner Birge
Corps D’Afrique (Gulf): Brigadier-General Daniel Ullman
Cavalry (Gulf): Colonel Benjamin Henry Grierson
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
USS Hartford Captain James S Palmer, USS Richmond Captain James Alden, USS Mississippi Captain Melancton Smith, USS Monongahela Captain JP McKinstry, USS Albatross Lieutenant Commander John E Hart, USS Genesee Commander William H Macomb, USS Kineo Lieutenant Commander John Watters, USS Essex Commander CHB Caldwell

Confederate Military Division of the West: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton
District Three (Port Hudson): Major-General Franklin Gardner
Steedman’s Brigade (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (Left Wing): Colonel Isaiah G W Steedman
Beall’s Brigade (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (Centre): Brigadier-General William Nelson Rector Beall
Miles’s Command (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (Right Wing): Colonel William R Miles
Maxey’s Brigade (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (At Clinton, La.): Brigadier-General Samuel Bell Maxey
Gregg’s Brigade (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (At Clinton, La): Brigadier-General John Gregg
Rust’s Brigade (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (At Clinton, La): Brigadier-General Albert Rust
Buford’s Cavalry Brigade (Mississippi & East Louisiana) (At Clinton, La): Brigadier-General Abraham Buford

Mississippi. Expedition to Black Bayou, Deer Creek, Moddy Bayou, Rolling Fork and Steele’s Bayou began. Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter launched a difficult expedition into Steele’s Bayou with the aim of entering the Yazoo River and taking Vicksburg from the rear. This expedition comprised USS Louisville, USS Cincinnati, USS Carondelet, USS Pittsburg, USS Mound City, four mortar boats, and four tugs. They moved to Black Bayou, a waterway about four miles long leading into Deer Creek. At that point, further progress was impeded by dense overhanging forest. Porter set the heavier ironclads to clear the way by pulling up or pushing over trees. After twenty-four hours, the expedition had smashed through the four-mile blockage and reached Deer Creek, which posed fewer difficulties.

Mississippi. Incidents at Coldwater and Davis’ Mills.

North Carolina. Expedition to Mattamuskeet Lake and New Bern ended. Incidents at Deep Gully and New Bern.

Fort Anderson, North Carolina. Fort Anderson was an earthen fort in the lower Cape Fear Region of North Carolina, located over the ruins of the colonial town of Brunswick. It was originally named Fort St Philip, after the ruins of the nearby church but the name was changed to honour Colonel George Burgwyn Anderson. It played a pivotal part in protecting the Cape Fear River inlets and Wilmington upstream. The main purpose of the fort was to hinder the movement of Union ships and to serve as a dropping off point for blockade runners fortunate enough to make it up the mouth of the Cape Fear River.

Although unsupported by Brigadier-General Robert Ransom’s brigade which had not been released from the defence of Wilmington, Confederate Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill continued his operations against Fort Anderson near New Bern. He sent Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew’s brigade to take the well-entrenched position. The Union defenders from 1st Division, XVIII Corps were under Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram Anderson. The Union gunboats USS Hunchback, USS Hetzel, USS Ceres, and USS Shawsheen, a revenue cutter and an armed schooner arrived during the day to unleash heavy artillery fire on the attackers. The ships covered the landing of the 85th New York Infantry to reinforce the garrison and Pettigrew was forced to retire. Having been baulked at Fort Anderson, Hill resolved to threaten Washington. Total casualties were reported as 6 for the Union and 30 for the Confederates. (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Tennessee. Expedition to Memphis & Charleston Railroad began. Expedition to Columbia and Murfreesboro ended. Reconnaissance to Salem and Versailles ended. Incident at Charlotte.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Davis’ Mill.

Virginia. Union boat crews under Acting Master Andrews, commanding USS Crusader, made an expedition to Milford Haven and destroyed an unladen blockade-running schooner.

Union Organisation

USA: Julius Stahel promoted Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863.

Stahel, Julius (Stahel-Számwald) / Hungary / Born 5 November 1825 Szeged, Hungary / Died New York, New York 4 December 1912
Private Austrian Army / Lieutenant Austrian Army / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 8th New York Infantry 23 April 1861 / Colonel USV 11 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 12 November 1861 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863 / Resigned USV 8 February 1865 / Medal of Honor 5 June 1864 / WIA Piedmont 5 June 1864
1st Brigade Blenker’s Division Army of the Potomac November 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade Blenker’s Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1863-31 March 1862 / 1st Brigade Blenker’s Division Mountain Department 1 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-30 August 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 30 August 1862-12 September 1862 / 1st Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1863-10 January 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 10 January 1863-19 January 1863 / Cavalry Division XXII Corps District of Washington 21 March 1863-June 1863 / Stahel’s Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac June 1863-28 June 1863 / Cavalry Department of the Susquehanna 2 July 1863-14 March 1864 / Cavalry Department of West Virginia 14 March 1864-26 April 1864 / Cavalry Department of West Virginia 4 August 1864-8 August 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Department of West Virginia 26 April 1864-5 June 1864 / Department of West Virginia 8 August 1864-9 August 1864

USA: Carl Schurz promoted Major-General USV March 17 1863 to rank from March 14 1863.

Schurz, Carl / Germany / Born 2 March 1829 Liblar-am-Rhein, Prussia / Died New York, New York 14 May 1906
Lieutenant Prussian Army 1848 / Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1862 to rank from 15 April 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863 / Resigned USV 6 May 1865
3rd Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-19 January 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 19 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 45 February 1863-5 March 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 5 March 1863-2 April 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 Aril 1863-25 September 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 1 July 1863-1 July 1863 / 3rd Division XI Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-21 January 1864 / XI Corps Cumberland 21 January 1864-25 February 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of Georgia 1 April 1865-27 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Middle Military Division 27 April 1865-6 May 1865

USA: George Jerrison Stannard confirmed Brigadier-General USV 14 March 1863 to rank from 11 March 1863.

Stannard, George Jerrison / Vermont / Born 20 October 1820 Georgia, Vermont / Died Washington, District of Columbia 1 June 1886
Colonel Vermont Militia / 1860-1861 Lieutenant-Colonel USV 2nd Vermont Infantry 20 June 1861 / Colonel USV 9 July 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 14 March 1863 to rank from 11 March 1863 / Resigned USV 28 June 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 28 October 1864 / CIA Harper’s Ferry 15 September 1862 Exchanged 10 January 1863 WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 WIA Cold Harbor 3 June 1864 WIA Petersburg 31 July 1864 WIA Fort Harrison 29 September 1864
2nd Brigade Abercrombie’s Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 17 April 1863-26 June 1863 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 26 June 1863-3 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 16 May 1864-20 June 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 20 June 1864-31 July 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 15 September 186429 September 1864

USA: Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn promoted Brigadier-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863.

Lightburn, Joseph Andrew Jackson / Pennsylvania / Born 21 September 1824 Webster, Pennsylvania / Died Broad Run, Virginia 17 May 1901
Private USA 5 December 1846 / Corporal USA / Sergeant USA / Discharged 5 December 1851 / Colonel USV 4th (West) Virginia Infantry 14 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863 / Resigned USV 22 June 1865 / WIA Atlanta 19 August 1864
4th Brigade District of the Kanawha 11 March 1862-17 August 1862 / 4th Brigade Kanawha Division I Corps Army of Virginia 17 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Sub-District of the Kanawha 19 September 1862-14 October 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 23 May 1863-26 July 1863 / 3rd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 26 July 1863-10 September 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 19 October 1863-12 January 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 February 1864-22 July 1864 / 3rd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 2 July 1864-27 July 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 27 July 1864-5 August 1864 / 3rd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 5 August 1864-17 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 17 August 1864-24 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Department of West Virginia 10 January 1865-21 February 1865 / 2nd Division Department of West Virginia 21 February 1865-March 1865

USA: Thomas Greely Stevenson promoted Brigadier-General USV 9 April 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863.

Stevenson, Thomas Greely / Massachusetts / Born 3 February 1836 Boston, Massachusetts / KIA Spotsylvania, Virginia 10 May 1864
Private Massachusetts Militia / Sergeant Massachusetts Militia / Captain Massachusetts Militia / Major Massachusetts Militia / Colonel USV 24th Massachusetts Infantry 3 December 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 24 December 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 9 April 1863 to rank from 14 March 1863
2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-24 December 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 24 December 1862-2 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-26 March 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Hilton Head XVIII Corps Department of the South 26 March 1863-16 April 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Seabrook Island X Corps Department of the South 16 April 1863-6 July 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Folly Island X Corps Department of the South 6 July 1863-19 July 1863 / 3rd Brigade Terry’s Division Morris Island X Corps Department of the South 19 July 1863-19 September 1863 / 3rd Brigade Terry’s Division Morris Island X Corps Department of the South 19 October 1863-23 November 1863 / 1st Brigade Terry’s Division Morris Island X Corps Department of the South 23 November 1863-15 January y1864 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 19 April 1864-10 May 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas John Wood
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: Isaac Dyer
    • District of La Fourche: Godfrey Weitzel
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris temporary
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris temporary
  • Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis interim John McAllister Schofield awaited
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
    • Army of the Frontier: John McAllister Schofield
    • Army of Southeastern Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Central Kentucky: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Western Virginia: Jacob Dolson Cox
      • Sub-District of the Kanawha: Eliakim Parker Scammon
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Harvey Lee temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Carl Schurz temporary
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Jackson: Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Charles Smith Hamilton
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IX Corps Virginia:  Orlando Bolivar Willcox temporary
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General James Heyward Trapier assumed command of the Second Sub-District of South Carolina, succeeding Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood.

Trapier, James Heyward / South Carolina / Born 24 November 1815 Georgetown, South Carolina / Died Georgetown, South Carolina 21 December 1865
USMA 1 July 1838 3/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1839 / Resigned USA 28 February 1848 / Colonel South Carolina Militia 1851-1853 / Captain ACSA Engineers January 1861 / ADC (F W Pickens) January 1861 / Major PACS Assistant Quartermaster 19 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 October 1861 / No Record of Parole
Chief Engineer Department of South Carolina April 1861-November 1861 / Department of Middle and Eastern Florida 22 October 1861-5 November 1861 / District of Middle and East Florida 5 November 1861-13 November 1861 / Department of Middle and Eastern Florida 14 March 1862-31 March 1862 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi March 1862-14 April 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 14 April 1862 / Fourth Sub-District of South Carolina 6 November 1862-19 July 1864 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 14 March 1863-16 October 1863 / First Sub-District of South Carolina 17 October 1864-10 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Daniel Smith Donelson interim Dabney Herndon Maury awaited
      • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • Army of Tennessee:  Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
        • I Corps Mississippi: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Longstreet
    • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: William Edmondson Jones
  • Department of Southern Virginia: James Longstreet
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona:  John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley

John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
George Washington Morgan
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes

Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris

John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson

Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Orlando Metcalfe Poe
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
James Nagle
Francis Laurens Vinton
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Abner Clark Harding
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Daniel Smith Donelson
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Elisha Franklin Paxton
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
William Henry Talbot Walker
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance

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