1863 June 9th

June 9 1863 Tuesday

Lake Providence, LA

Battle of Brandy Station, VA (CWSAC Major Battle – Inconclusive)

Vicksburg Campaign – Siege of Vicksburg

Gettysburg Campaign

Siege of Port Hudson

Indian Territory. Incident at Fort Gibson.

Kentucky. Incidents at Kettle Creek, Steubenville, and West Farm.

Kentucky, Skirmishes at Monticello and Rocky Gap.

Lake Providence, Louisiana. Incident at Lake Providence. The Confederate attack at Lake Providence was intended to be in conjunction with attacks against Union supply depots at Young’s Point and Milliken’s Bend on 7 June. However, the Confederate commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Frank Bartlett set out 48 hours behind schedule, after building a floating bridge to cross Bayou Macon. He pushed on toward the Union garrison at Lake Providence on 9th June. His force of 600 men and two guns included the 13th Texas Mounted Infantry and the 13th Louisiana Cavalry Battalion.

The Union force of 800 infantry and 200 cavalry was commanded by Brigadier-General Hugh Thompson Reid. Reid’s brigade (1/6/XVII) was a mixed command of white soldiers from the 1st Kansas Mounted Infantry and the 16th Wisconsin Infantry, and United States Colored Troops from the 8th Louisiana Infantry. Reaching the banks of Lake Providence, six miles west of their objective, the Confederate cavalrymen encountered two Kansan companies at Bayou Baxter, and one Union trooper was mortally wounded in the skirmish. Bartlett’s force captured nine supply wagons and 36 mules. The Union detachment withdrew toward the town of Lake Providence, crossing the bridge over the Tensas Bayou before destroying the span. The Kansans took a position along the banks of the stream where they were reinforced by the remainder of their regiment as well as the 16th Wisconsin and the 8th Louisiana.

In spite of a strong Union presence, Bartlett formed a line of battle supported by his artillery and advanced toward Tensas Bayou while his own 6-pounder gun was moved into position. Confederate pioneers attempted to rebuild the bridge, but Reid’s sharpshooters drove off the artillery and a brief skirmish ensued. A strong Union skirmish line eventually forced the Confederates to withdraw toward Floyd, after having suffered two men killed, five wounded and three captured. The Union reported one man killed and another mortally wounded, both from the 1st Kansas Mounted Infantry.

Mississippi. Expedition to Ripley ended. Incident at Macon Ford.

Mississippi. Substantial Union reinforcements were despatched from Tennessee to support the operations at Vicksburg. Although Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s army had managed to surround the extensive defences at Vicksburg, the line was too thin to exert a proper siege and additional men were required to achieve assurance of success. Three divisions of XVI Corps arrived in late May and early June from Memphis. These were commanded by Brigadier-General Jacob Gartner Lauman, Brigadier-General Nathan Kimball, and Brigadier-General William Sooy Smith.

These three divisions did not operate in the field as XVI Corps (which remained a largely administrative command in western Tennessee) but were attached to other corps: Lauman’s division was allocated to XIII Corps, and Smith’s eventually joined IX Corps. Kimball had commanded an unattached provisional division since 28 May 1863 and was later transferred to VII Corps (Arkansas) in August 1863. The fourth division of XVI Corps under Brigadier-General Mellen Grenville Dodge stayed behind in Tennessee to operate between the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers and into northern Alabama. A further division under Major-General Francis Jay Herron was also awaited by river from Missouri. They were assigned en route to the temporary command of Major-General Cadwallader Colden Washburn. Lauman extended the siege works on the southern flank while Kimball and Smith were brought by Washburn to join the division of Brigadier-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus, guarding the crossings of the Big Black River. In all, ten divisions were sent to reinforce Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s army at Vicksburg until his force numbered an invincible 71,000 men.

Mississippi. Union mortar boats continued to bombard Vicksburg. From dawn until nearly noon they poured an average of 175 shells into the city and Confederate positions. The constant mortar fire, supplemented by the naval gunboats and artillery on land forced the Confederate troops and civilians underground, whether in trenches and rifle pits or caves or holes dug out in the cliffs.

Tennessee. Expedition to Pocahontas ended.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Triune.

Virginia. Incidents at Kelly’s Ford, Deep Run, and Franklin’s Crossing.

Virginia. CSS Clarence, Lieutenant Charles Read, captured and burned a brig, Mary Alvina, bound from Boston to New Orleans with a cargo of commissary stores. Read interrogated the crew and concluded that it would be impossible to harass Union shipping in Hampton Roads because of the tight security and precautions taken by the US Navy. He then decided to cruise along the coast to intercept transport ships bound for Fortress Monroe and, in the meantime, to interrupt Union maritime commerce.

Virginia. Union Major-General Alfred Pleasonton reported to Major-General Joseph Hooker that Confederate infantry had been identified in the vicinity of Brandy Station.

Virginia. Two Confederate infantry corps (I Corps under Lieutenant-General James Longstreet and II Corps under Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell) were encamped in and around Culpeper. Six miles north of town, holding the line of the Rappahannock River, Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart put his cavalry into bivouac, screening the Confederate Army against surprise by the enemy. Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps remained at Fredericksburg, as a diversionary measure. General Robert Edward Lee ordered Ewell to move northeast to Brandy Station to support the cavalry division, but they arrived to find Union forces already retreating after an intense fight.

Brandy Station, Virginia, also known as Fleetwood, or Fleetwood Hill, or Stevensburg, or Beverley Ford. Union Major-General Joseph Hooker ordered an extensive reconnaissance by his cavalry to determine the extent and significance of Confederate movements west of Fredericksburg. At dawn, the Union Cavalry Corps under Major-General Alfred Pleasonton launched a surprise attack on Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart’s cavalry division at Brandy Station.

Union Brigadier-General John Buford’s 1st Cavalry division assembled secretly near Beverley Ford, supported by Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames’ provisional brigade (86th New York Infantry and 124th New York Infantry from III Corps, 2nd Massachusetts Infantry and 3rd Wisconsin Infantry from XII Corps and the 33rd Massachusetts Infantry from XI Corps). These were opposed by Confederate Brigadier-General William Edmondson Jones’ cavalry brigade encamped across the river.

Six miles downstream at Kelly’s Ford, the 3rd Cavalry Division of Union Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg and the 2nd Cavalry Division of Colonel Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié, supported by Brigadier-General David Allen Russell’s provisional brigade (56th Pennsylvania Infantry and 2nd Wisconsin Infantry and 7th Wisconsin Infantry from I Corps, 6th Maine Infantry and 119th Pennsylvania Infantry from VI Corps and 5th New Hampshire Infantry and 81st Pennsylvania Infantry from II Corps) were gathered opposite Brigadier-General Beverley Holcombe Robertson’s Confederate cavalry brigade. Confederate Brigadier-General Wade Hampton’s cavalry brigade was in reserve and that of Confederate Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee was seven miles away beyond Hazel River.

The two Union columns moved forward under a morning haze and achieved surprise. Buford’s column crossed the Rappahannock in dense fog and pushed through the enemy pickets at Beverly’s Ford. Jones’ brigade was awakened by the sound of gunfire and rode forward. They struck Buford’s leading brigade under Colonel Benjamin Franklin Davis near a bend in the Beverly’s Ford Road and slowed its progress temporarily. Davis was killed in the early hours. As his men charged a battery near Beverly’s Ford they were met by a strong cavalry counterattack. Davis refused to fall back and challenged all comers to combat. He wielded his sabre with one hand, firing his Colt revolver with the other until he ran out of ammunition. Confederate Lieutenant O R Allen shot Davis, killing him instantly. The time gained enabled the escape of the Confederate horse artillery which was encamped nearby. A couple of guns were brought into action and fired down the road, providing the fulcrum of the Confederate line. More artillery unlimbered on two knolls on either side of the Beverly’s Ford Road while most of Jones’ cavalry rallied to the left and Brigadier-General Wade Hampton’s brigade arrived from reserve on their right. The 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, led by Major Robert Morris, unsuccessfully charged the guns at St James Church, suffering severe casualties. Buford tried to turn the Confederate left and dislodge the artillery that was blocking the direct route to Brandy Station. However, Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee’s brigade blocked his way, with some troops on Yew Ridge and some dismounted troopers positioned along a stone wall in front. After sustaining heavy losses, the Union cavalry dislodged the Confederates from the stone wall.

To the surprise of Buford’s men, the Confederates suddenly began pulling back. They were reacting to the arrival of Gregg’s cavalry division with about 2,800 men around noon. Gregg had intended to cross at Kelly’s Ford at dawn, coinciding with Buford’s crossing at Beverly’s Ford, but they lost two hours assembling the men from dispersed locations and collecting Duffié’s division which got lost on the way to the ford. Gregg pushed Robertson’s pickets back from Kelly’s Ford and planned to proceed directly to Brandy Station but discovered the way blocked by Robertson’s full brigade. Gregg identified a more circuitous route that was completely unguarded and, by following this detour, his leading brigade under Colonel Percy Wyndham arrived in Brandy Station about 11 am. Between Gregg and the site of the St James battle was a prominent ridge called Fleetwood Hill, which had been Stuart’s headquarters the previous night. Stuart and most of his staff had departed for the front by this time and the only force on Fleetwood when Gregg arrived was a single 6-pounder howitzer, left in the rear because of inadequate ammunition. Major Henry B McClellan, Stuart’s adjutant, called Lieutenant John W Carter and his gun crew from Captain Robert Preston Chew’s battery to ascend to the crest of the hill and go into action with the few rounds available, while he sent an urgent request to Stuart for reinforcements. Carter’s few shots caused the Union advance to falter while they deployed skirmishers and returned artillery fire. By the time Wyndham’s men charged up the western slope of Fleetwood and neared the crest, the first elements of Jones’ brigade, which had just withdrawn from St James Church, rode over the crown. Gregg’s next brigade, led by Colonel Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, swung around east of Brandy Station and attacked up the southern end and the eastern slope of Fleetwood Hill, only to discover that their appearance coincided with the arrival of Hampton’s brigade.

Nearby at Stevensburg, Duffié’s Union cavalry division had been drawn into a fight with 500 men of the 2nd South Carolina Cavalry and the 4th Virginia Cavalry. In a confused fight, half of the Virginians were captured but Duffié was prevented from joining the main battle at Brandy Station. His delay enabled the Confederates to escape encirclement.

A series of charges and countercharges swept back and forth across Fleetwood Hill. The Confederates cleared the hill finally, capturing three guns and inflicting 30 casualties among the 36 men of the 6th New York Light Artillery, which had attempted to give close-range support to the Union cavalry.

Gregg pressed on to Brandy Station but was driven back, allowing the Confederates to hold the field. While Jones and Hampton withdrew from their initial positions to fight at Fleetwood Hill, W H F Lee continued to confront Buford, falling back to the northern end of the hill. Reinforced by Fitzhugh Lee’s brigade, W H F Lee launched a counterattack against Buford just as Pleasonton called for a general withdrawal. Buford withdrew towards the east while Gregg attacked from the south.

As a consequence of the action, Hooker discerned that infantry from the Army of Northern Virginia was camped near Culpeper and he suspected the Confederate plan to march north. Stuart was castigated in the Southern press for being surprised and this may have strengthened his motivation to restore his reputation by an extravagant raid during the ensuing campaign. Subordinate officers criticised Pleasonton for a lack of aggression but Pleasonton claimed that he had only been ordered to make a reconnaissance in force.

This battle marked the apogee of the Confederate cavalry in the East. From this point in the war, the Union cavalry gained strength and confidence until they achieved final ascendancy. Brandy Station was the largest cavalry battle of the war and the opening engagement of the Gettysburg Campaign. Confederate Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee was severely wounded.

Confederate losses were reported as 485 or 523 or 525 and Union losses as 936 including 486 prisoners; alternative reports indicate Union 930 or 935 (or alternatively 937, with 69 killed, 352 wounded and 486 missing or captured). (CWSAC Major Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: BRANDY STATION, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General Joseph Hooker
Army of the Potomac: Major-General Joseph Hooker
Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Alfred Pleasonton
Left Wing: Brigadier-General John Buford
1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Buford
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Benjamin F Davis
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Thomas C Devin
Reserve Brigade, 1st Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Major Charles J Whiting
Attached (Composite) Brigade: Brigadier-General Adelbert Ames
Right Wing: Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg
2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Louis P Di Cesnola
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel John Irvin Gregg
3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Cavalry Corps (Potomac): Colonel Percy Wyndham
Attached Provisional Brigade: Brigadier-General David Allen Russell

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart
Jones’ Brigade, Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Edmondson
Jones
W H F Lee’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Henry
Fitzhugh Lee
Hampton’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Wade Hampton
F H Lee’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: Colonel Thomas Taylor Munford
Robertson’s Brigade, Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Beverly Holcombe Robertson

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of the Monongahela was established, with headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, comprising Pennsylvania west of Johnstown and the Laurel Hill mountains, the counties of Hancock, Brooke, and Ohio in the West Virginia “panhandle”, and the Ohio counties of Columbiana, Jefferson, and Belmont. These areas were transferred from the Middle Department and the District of the Ohio.

USA: Columbiana, Jefferson, and Belmont counties, Ohio, were transferred from the District of Ohio in the Department of the Ohio to the Department of the Monongahela.

USA: Major-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks was appointed to command the Department of the Monongahela, arriving on 11 June 1863.

Brooks, William Thomas Harbaugh / Ohio / Born 28 January 1821 New Lisbon / Lisbon), Ohio / Died Huntsville, Alabama 19 July 1870
USMA 1 July 1841 46/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 31 January 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 21 September 1846 / Captain USA 10 November 1851 / Major USA 18th US Infantry 12 March 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 / Major-General USV 10 June 1863 Revoked 6 April 1864 Reverted to Brigadier-General USV / Resigned USV 14 July 1864 / Resigned USA 14 July 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841 Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Savage’s Station 29 June 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
1st Brigade Smith’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-18 May 18962 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862—18 October 1862 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 October 1862-23 May 1863 / Department of the Monongahela 9 June 1863-6 April 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the 4 / James 28 April 1864-18 June 1864 / X Corps James 21 June 1864-14 July 186

USA: The Department of the Susquehanna was established with headquarters at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The area of authority comprised Pennsylvania east of Johnstown and the Laurel Hill Mountains, which was transferred from the Middle Department.

USA: Major-General Darius Nash Couch was appointed to command the Department of the Susquehanna, arriving on 11 June 1863.

Couch, Darius Nash / New York / Born 23 July 1822 South East, New York / Died Norwalk, Connecticut 12 February 1897
USMA 1 July 1846 13/59 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 /4th US Artillery / 2nd Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / 1st Lieutenant 4 December 1847 / Resigned USA 30 April 1855 / Colonel USV 17th Massachusetts Infantry 15 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 4 July 1862 / Resigned USV 26 May 1865 / Quartermaster-General Connecticut Militia 1876-1878 / Adjutant-General Connecticut Militia 1883-1884 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 February 1847 / WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863
Couch’s Brigade Military Division of the Potomac 4 August 1861-20 August 1861 / Couch’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-14 September 1861 / 1st Brigade Buell’s Division Army of the Potomac 14 September 1862-13 March 1862 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-12 July 1862 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac August 1862-26 September 1862 /3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 26 September 1862-14 November 1862 / II Corps Potomac 14 November 1862-25 January 1863 1862 / Right Grand Division Potomac 25 January 1863-5 February 1863 / II Corps Potomac 5 February 1863-22 May 1863 / Department of the Susquehanna 11 June 1863-1 December 1864 / 2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 8 December 1864-14 January 1865 / 2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 9 February 1865-28 February 1865 / 2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 8 April 1865-30 April 1865

USA: Gallipolis, Ohio, was transferred from the Department of the Ohio to the Middle Department.

USA: The District of the Border was established in the Department of the Missouri, comprising the state of Kansas north of the 38th parallel and the two western tiers of counties in Missouri north of the 38th parallel and south of the Missouri River.

USA: Brigadier-General Thomas Ewing assumed command of the District of the Border.

Ewing, Thomas (Jr) / Ohio / Born 7 August 1829 Lancaster, Ohio / Died New York, New York 21 January 1896
Colonel USV 11th Kansas Cavalry 15 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 13 March 1863 / Resigned USV 23 February 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
1st Division Army of the Frontier 26 April 1863-5 June 1863 / District of the Border 9 June 1863-1 January 1864 / District of St Louis 25 March 1864-21 November 1864 / District of Rolla 21 November 1864-9 December 1864 / District of St Louis 9 December 1864-23 February 1865

USA: The District of the Frontier was established in the Department of the Missouri. It comprised the state of Arkansas west of Dardanelle and the Indian Territory, including Fort Smith.

USA: The counties of Vernon, Barton, Jasper, Newton and McDonald were transferred from the District of Southwest Missouri to the District of the Frontier.

USA: Brigadier-General James Gilpatrick Blunt assumed command of the District of the Frontier.

Blunt, James Gilpatrick / Maine / Born 21 July 1826 Trenton, Maine / Died Washington, District of Columbia 27 July 1881
Colonel Kansas Militia 1856 / Private Kansas Infantry / Lieutenant-Colonel 3rd Kansas Infantry July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 April 1862 to rank from 8 April 1862 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 29 July 1865
Department of Kansas 2 May 1862-19 September 1862 / Army of Kansas 16 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Kansas Division Army of the Border 19 September 1862-12 October 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Frontier 12 October 1862-20 November 1862 / District of Kansas 2 November 1862-9 June 1863 / Army of the Frontier 20 November 1862-29 December 1862 / District of the Frontier 9 June 1863-6 January 1864 / District of the Frontier Arkansas 6 January 1864-22 February 1864 / District of the Frontier 23 February 1864-17 April 1864 / District of the Upper Arkansas 2 August 1864-14 October 1864 / District of South Kansas 10 October 1864-31 October 1864 / 1st Division Army of the Border 14 October 1864-8 November 1864 / District of South Kansas 22 November 1864-3 June 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Egbert Benson Brown assumed command of the District of Central Missouri, succeeding Colonel Benjamin Franklin Loan.

Brown, Egbert Benson / New York / Born 4 October 1816 Brownsville, New York / Died West Plains, Missouri 11 February 1902
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 7th Missouri Infantry 21 August 1861 / Resigned USV 1 May 1862 / Brigadier-General Missouri Militia 10 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 4 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 10 November 1865 / WIA Springfield 8 January 1863
District of Southwest Missouri 5 June 1862-24 September 1862 / District of Southwest Missouri 10 November 1862-30 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Frontier November 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Frontier November 1862 / District of Central Missouri 9 June 1863-24 July 1863 / District of Central Missouri 3 September 1864-20 October 1864 / 1st Brigade Provisional Cavalry Division Department of the Missouri 20 )ct0ber 1864-22 October 1864 / District of Central Missouri 22 October 1864-3 November 1864 / District of Rolla 5 January 1865-8 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: William Fletcher Cloud temporary
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks awaited
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Central Kentucky: Samuel Davis Sturgis
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton
  • Department of the South: David Hunter interim Quincy Adams Gillmore awaited
    • X Corps South: David Hunter
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch awaited
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: John Alexander McClernand
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCulloch
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Xavier Blanchard Debray temporary
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green

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