1863 June 24th

June 24 1863 Wednesday

Battle of Hoover’s Gap, TN (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Middleton, TN

Liberty Gap, TN

Vicksburg Campaign – Siege of Vicksburg

Gettysburg Campaign

Siege of Port Hudson

Tullahoma Campaign

Stuart’s Third Ride in Pennsylvania

Taylor’s Expedition to the Mississippi

USA. Union Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren was detached from his duty as Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance at the Washington Navy Yard and was ordered to relieve Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Du Pont at Port Royal in command of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. The Navy Department had originally ordered Rear Admiral Andrew Hull Foote to command the Blockading Squadron, but after he suffered a relapse from the wound sustained at Fort Donelson he was unable to accept the command.

Kentucky. Union Colonel William P Sanders’ command arrived at Boston, ending his raid into East Tennessee.

Louisiana. Bayou Boeuf Crossing captured by Confederates.

Louisiana.  Skirmish at Chacahoula Station

Louisiana. Skirmishes at Mound Plantation and Lake Providence, near Vicksburg.

Louisiana. Leaving one regiment to secure the valuable supplies captured at Brashear City and to remove them to Alexandria, Confederate Major-General Richard Taylor continued moved in two columns northwards and eastwards. Brigadier-General Thomas Green and Colonel James Patrick Major rode towards Donaldsonville where they would place batteries to disrupt traffic on the Mississippi River. Brigadier-General Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton took the infantry by rail to Thibodaux and scouts advanced further to Bayou des Allemands, within twenty-five miles of New Orleans. Mouton’s presence and disruption caused consternation in New Orleans. The Union garrison of the city numbered fewer than a thousand men under Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory, but Emory greatly over-estimated the threatening Confederate force as having over 13,000 men.

Maine. CSS Tacony, Lieutenant Charles Read, captured the ship Shatemuc, bound from Liverpool to Boston with a large number of emigrants aboard. The ship was bonded and the CSS Tacony proceeded to capture the fishing schooner Archer. Several Union ships were in search of the CSS Tacony, but the Confederate ship had expended almost all of the ammunition for its lone howitzer. Read boarded the Archer in order to continue his attacks on US shipping either in harbour, or at sea. He was also in search of a new cruiser and decided to scuttle the CSS Tacony. The CSS Tacony was burned on 25 June and Read headed for Portland Harbour aboard the Archer.

Maryland. Skirmish at Sharpsburg.

Maryland. Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s I Corps crossed the Potomac into Maryland at Williamsport and Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps crossed at Shepherdstown. General Robert Edward Lee established his army headquarters on the southern bank of the Williamsport crossing.

Mississippi. Expedition to Panola ended.

Pennsylvania. The main body of Confederate Lieutenant-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s II Corps passed through Hagerstown, with the head of the column reaching Chambersburg. Ewell’s orders were to march to the Susquehanna River.

Pennsylvania. The Union 1st New York Cavalry and 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry under Colonel L B Pierce were involved in a skirmish at McConnellsburg, but casualties were not reported.

Tennessee. Expedition to La Grange ended.

Tennessee. Incidents at Manchester and Beech Grove.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Beech Grove.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Big Spring Branch.

Tennessee. Skirmish near Bradyville.

Tennessee. Skirmish Christiana.

Tennessee. Union Major-General William Starke Rosecrans, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, set out at 3 am toward the gaps in the mountains on the Confederate right flank in Tennessee. Rosecrans had made meticulous plans and preparations for the long-awaited advance through difficult terrain and had gradually increased his army’s strength to about 87,800 men. Necessary garrisons at Nashville, Fort Donelson, Clarksville, and elsewhere reduced his mobile force to about 65,000 men. Everything had been planned and rations, ammunition, supplies, and transportation had been accumulated in plenty. Unfortunately, the weather could not be pre-arranged, and an unpredictable downpour of rain started as the march began. This continued incessantly for fifteen days.

At this time, Confederate General Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee numbered between 41,680 and 46,250 well-drilled and well-supplied men. In rough numbers, 32,000 Confederate infantry and artillery manned the Shelbyville and Wartrace positions while 14,000 cavalrymen extended the line for thirty miles to the east and to the west. The cavalry on the Confederate eastern wing was based at McMinnville under Major-General Joseph Wheeler, while Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest covered the west from Columbia. A further 15,000 Confederates were beyond supporting distance, holding eastern Tennessee at Knoxville under Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner.

Union Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden left one division of XXI Corps at Murfreesboro and led his other two divisions as a feint, behind the screen of a cavalry brigade, in a highly visible march towards McMinnville.

Hoover‘s Gap, Tennessee. Union Major-General George Henry Thomas’ XIV Corps (four divisions) led the way ahead of Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook’s XX Corps (three divisions) towards Hoover’s Gap in order to advance from there on Manchester. McCook sent one of his divisions to make a diversionary attack towards Liberty Gap to pin Confederate Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps at Wartrace, beyond the mountain pass. Thomas’ Corps was spearheaded by the 2,000 men of Colonel John T Wilder’s “Lightning Brigade”. Wilder’s mounted infantry (and one other brigade) had been mounted on horses and mules to supplement the army’s inadequate cavalry force. They pushed ahead rapidly and reached Hoover’s Gap nearly nine miles ahead of Thomas’ main body. Wilder’s men were the first brigade in the western theatre to be armed with new Spencer seven-shot repeating rifles (purchased at Wilder’s and the soldiers’ own expense). When Wilder’s rapid-firing mounted infantry attacked the Confederate 1st (3rd) Kentucky Cavalry under Colonel J Russell Butler at mid-morning they pushed them aside easily from the northern end of Hoover’s Gap. As Butler fell back down the entire seven-mile length of Hoover’s Gap, they met reinforcements of Brigadier-General William Brimage Bate’s brigade from Major-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s division. Wilder captured the Confederate entrenchments in the hills at the southern end of the gap in a rush and determined to hold this exposed but vital position. Bate’s brigade counterattacked throughout the day but could not dislodge the Union vanguard and its six accompanying guns. Wilder received orders from Thomas to fall back through the gap if he was outnumbered but Wilder insisted that he could hold his ground.

Meanwhile, Confederate Brigadier-General Bushrod Tyler Johnson’s brigade arrived and he and Bate planned to make another, final joint attack on Wilder before nightfall. Union Brigadier-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau’s and Brigadier-General John Milton Brannan’s divisions of Thomas’ Corps reached the gap at 7 pm and reinforced Wilder before he could be overwhelmed. The road to Manchester and the Confederate rear was now open.

Union casualties were 14 killed and 47 wounded while the Confederates lost 146 men, almost a quarter of the force. (CWSAC Formative Battle Union Victory)

Liberty Gap, Tennessee. At Liberty Gap, six miles west of Hoover’s Gap, one division of Union Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook’s XX Corps approached the pass. Not waiting for the main body of infantry to arrive, McCook ordered Brigadier-General Johann August Ernst von Willich to move his brigade forward as quickly as possible. The advance was led by the 39th Indiana Infantry under Colonel Thomas J Harrison. Then, after deploying a regiment on each side of the road, Willich’s men drove their way up the slope. A frontal assault against the breastworks was not feasible so fierce flanking attacks were made against the Confederate brigades of Brigadier-General St John Richardson Liddell and Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne. By the time a second Union brigade arrived in the evening to support Willich, the Union troops had pushed a half-mile beyond the southern entrance to the Gap.

Middleton, Tennessee, also known as Shelbyville Pike. One division of Union Major-General David Sloane Stanley’s cavalry corps and Major-General Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps (with only one division present as the remainder were left to garrison Nashville and elsewhere) demonstrated towards Shelbyville and skirmished with Confederate cavalry at Middleton and on the Shelbyville Pike. The Union troops ensured that they were detected and built campfires nightly to suggest that this was the main force. The Confederate cavalry had been weakened by the departure of Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan for his Kentucky raid, but the divisions of Brigadier-General John Austin Wharton, Brigadier-General William Thompson Martin, and Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest were very active in scouting the advance.

ORDER OF BATTLE TULLAHOMA: UNION ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND

Union Department of the Cumberland: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans
Army of the Cumberland: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans
XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General George Henry Thomas
1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Scribner
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Hambright
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): King
2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General James Scott Negley
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Beatty
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Lewis Stoughton
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Sirwell
3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Milton Brannan
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Moses B Walker
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General James Blair Steedman
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Ferdinand Van Derveer
4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Joseph Jones Reynolds
1st “Lightning” Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James Thomas Wilder
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Albert S Hall
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General George Crook
XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Alexander McDowell McCook
1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Philip Sidney Post
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Passmore Carlin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Hans C Heg
2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Richard William Johnson
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Johann August Ernst von Willich
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Joseph B Dodge
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Philemon P Baldwin
3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Haines Lytle
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Bernard Laibodt
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Luther Prentice Bradley
XXI Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Thomas Joseph Wood
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George Pearson Buell
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General George Day Wagner
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles Garrison Harker
2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Major-General John McAuley Palmer
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Charles Cruft
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Babcock Hazen
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Grose
3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Samuel Beatty
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George Frederick Dick
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXI Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Sidney M Barnes
Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Major-General David Sloane Stanley
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Robert Byington Mitchell
1st Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Archibald P Campbell
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Edward Moody McCook
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Basil Turchin
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Robert H G Minty
2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Eli Long
Reserve Corps (Cumberland) “Army of Kentucky” (Cumberland): Major-General Gordon Granger
1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Absalom Baird
1st Brigade 1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Louis D Watkins
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William P Reed
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles Champion Gilbert
2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General James Dade Morgan (detached at Nashville)
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Green Clay Smith
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Daniel McCook
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles Camp Doolittle (detached at Nashville and Murfreesboro)
3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Robert Seaman Granger

1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Penn Lyon
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Reserve Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward

ORDER OF BATTLE TULLAHOMA: CONFEDERATE WESTERN DEPARTMENT

Confederate Military Division of the West: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Western Department: General Braxton Bragg
Army of Tennessee: General Braxton Bragg
I Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk
Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Maney’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General George Earl Maney
Wright’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Marcus Joseph Wright
Smith’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Preston Smith
Strahl’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Otho F Strahl
Withers’ Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Jones Mitchell Withers
Deas’ Brigade, Withers’ Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Zachariah C Deas
Anderson’s Brigade, Withers’ Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General James Patton Anderson
Manigault’s Brigade, Withers’ Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Arthur Middleton Manigault
Walthall’s Brigade, Withers’ Division, I Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Edward Cary Walthall
II Corps (Tennessee): Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee
Cleburne’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Polk’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Lucius Eugene Polk
Liddell’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General St John Robinson Liddell
Wood’s Brigade, Cleburne’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
(Churchill’s Brigade detached Arkansas)
Stewart’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Alexander Peter Stewart
Johnson’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson
Bate’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Brimage Bate
Brown’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Calvin Brown
Clayton’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Henry De Lamar Clayton
Jackson’s Brigade, Stewart’s Division, II Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John King Jackson
“Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Major-General Joseph Wheeler
Wharton’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Austin Wharton
Crews’ Cavalry Brigade, Wharton’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Colonel C C Crews
Harrison’s Cavalry Brigade, Wharton’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Colonel Thomas Harrison
Martin’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Thompson ‘Martin
Morgan’s Cavalry Brigade, Martin’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Colonel James Hagan
Roddey’s Cavalry Brigade, Martin’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Colonel A A Russell
Morgan’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan (detached Kentucky)
Duke’s Cavalry Brigade, Morgan’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Colonel Basil W Duke
Cluke’s Cavalry brigade, Morgan’s Cavalry Division, “Cavalry Corps” (Tennessee): Colonel R S Cluke
District of Northern Alabama: Brigadier-General Philip Dale Roddey
Forrest’s Cavalry Division: Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest
Armstrong’s Cavalry Brigade, Forrest’s Cavalry Division: Brigadier-General Frank Crawford Armstrong
Dibrell’s Cavalry Brigade, Forrest’s Cavalry Division: Colonel George G Dibrell

Virginia. Expedition to Yorktown began.

Virginia. Union Peninsula Operation began.

Virginia. Incidents at Haymarket and Middleburg.

Virginia. The USS Sumpter, Acting Lieutenant Peter Hays, collided with the transport steamer General Meigs in a heavy mist near Hampton Roads and sank.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart left Salem towards midnight for his “third ride” around the Union Army of the Potomac. This left Confederate General Robert Edward Lee with insufficient cavalry with the main body of his Army of Northern Virginia to properly scout the enemy and screen his own movements. Stuart’s primary role was to screen Lee’s advance into Pennsylvania but the circuitous route he was forced to take meant that he did not rejoin Lee until 2 July at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Stuart took with him the veteran cavalry brigades of Brigadier-General Wade Hampton, Brigadier-General Fitzhugh Lee, and Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (under Colonel John Randolph Chambliss) , leaving three brigades with the army who were more accustomed to raiding operations than reconnaissance for a major army. Stuart opted to move around the right and rear of the Union army rather than by the nearer and shorter route along the Blue Ridge.

Virginia. Union Major-General Joseph Hooker established the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac at Fairfax Court House.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of West Virginia was established, comprising western Virginia south of Ohio County and west of Hancock, Maryland, including the adjacent counties in Ohio. The Ohio counties south of Belmont and neighbouring western Virginia were transferred from the Department of the Ohio to the Department of West Virginia.

USA: Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Kelley was appointed to command the Department of West Virginia, arriving on 28 June 1863.

Kelley, Benjamin Franklin / New Hampshire / Born 10 April 1807 New Hampton, New Hampshire / Died Oakland, Maryland 16 June 1891
Colonel USV 1st (West) Virginia Infantry (4th Virginia Militia) 22 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Resigned USV 1 June 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 5 August 1864 / WIA Philippi 3 June 1861 CIA Cumberland 21 February 1865 Exchanged 20 March 1865
Kelley’s Brigade Army of Occupation 17 May 1861-3 June 1861 / District of Grafton 3 August 1861-20 December 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland 22 October 1861-20 December 1861 / Railroad District 20 December 1861-26 June 1862 / Railroad Division VIII Corps Middle Department 27 June 1862-20 September 1862 / Railroad Division District of West Virginia 20 December 1862-16 March 1863 / 3rd Division VIII Corps Middle Department 16 March 1863-27 March 1863 / 1st Division VIII Corps Middle Department 27 March 1863-26 June 1863 / Department of West Virginia 28 June 1863-10 March 1864 / Forces West of Sleepy Creek Department of West Virginia April 1864-21 February 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
    • District of Southeast Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
    • District of the Pamlico: Henry Prince
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Central Kentucky: Samuel Davis Sturgis
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: Ferris Foreman temporary
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
      • III Corps Potomac: Daniel Edgar Sickles
      • V Corps Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton
  • Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
  • Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley awaited

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
      • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
      • Defences of Vicksburg: Martin Luther Smith
      • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Arnold Elzey
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Read Scurry temporary
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
William Smith
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales

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