1863 July 23rd

July 23 1863 Thursday

Battle of Manassas Gap, VA (CWSAC Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Potter’s Raid, NC

Morgan’s Ohio Raid

Operations in Charleston Harbour – Siege of Fort Wagner

Potter’s Raid, North Carolina. Union Brigadier-General Edward Elmer Potter completed a four-day expedition into the eastern part of North Carolina. Potter’s forces had destroyed the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad bridge over the Tar River, a Confederate ironclad under construction at Tarboro, two other Confederate steamships, the Rocky Mount Mills, and large quantities of Confederate military provisions and supplies. Potter’s men also captured 100 Confederate prisoners and brought 300 liberated slaves back to New Bern.

Ohio. Skirmish at Rockville.

South Carolina. Confederate Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley proposed that a fire ship loaded with explosives should be used against USS New Ironsides and other Union ships in the narrow waterways at Charleston harbour. After further analysis, the plan was abandoned as unlikely to be successful.

Tennessee. Expedition from Memphis to Raleigh ended.

Virginia. Skirmish near Chester Gap.

Virginia. Skirmish near Gaines’ Cross Roads.

Virginia. Skirmish near Snicker’s Gap.

Manassas Gap, Virginia, also known as Wapping Heights. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee reached Culpeper at the head of his Army of Northern Virginia, marching from the Shenandoah Valley. Union Major-General George Gordon Meade aimed to outflank the Confederates by moving from Harper’s Ferry and Berlin, Maryland, across the Blue Ridge and into the Loudoun valley. The Union III Corps (Major-General William Henry French) would attempt to force a passage into the upper Shenandoah Valley across the Blue Ridge Mountains into the rearguard of the Confederate column while the main body of the Army of the Potomac headed south-eastwards for Warrenton.

French headed westwards for Front Royal to force a passage through Manassas Gap. French began his attack at dawn with the Excelsior Brigade, led by Brigadier-General Francis Barretto Spinola. Confederate Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright’s brigade was defending the pass under the command of Colonel Edward J Walker. The fight developed slowly, with superior Union numbers slowly pushing Walker from his defensive position and back through the gap. In the late afternoon, at around 4:30 pm, French made a concerted assault on Walker’s brigade, finally driving it from the gap. The Confederates were quickly reinforced by Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes’ division and artillery to halt the Union advance. The Union attack had lost impetus by dusk and was abandoned. During the night, the Confederates withdrew into the Luray Valley. Casualties were estimated at 440 in total. (CWSAC Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Union Organisation

USA: The District of St Mary’s was established with territory detached from the Department of the Potomac, under the direct authority of the War Department, comprising St Mary’s county in Maryland.

USA: Brigadier-General Gilman Marston assumed command of the District of St Mary’s.

Marston, Gilman / New Hampshire / Born 20 August 1811 Orford, New Hampshire / Died Exeter, New Hampshire 3 July 1890
Colonel USV 2nd New Hampshire Infantry 10 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 20 April 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
District of St Mary’s 23 July 1863-2 April 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 20 April 1864-18 June 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 18 June 1864-20 June 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division X Corps Army of the James 20 June 1864-27 August 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 3 September 1864-15 September 1864 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 24 September 1864-29 October 1864

USA: Kenner Garrard promoted Brigadier-General USV 23 July 1863.

Garrard, Kenner / Kentucky / Born 32 September 1827 Fairfield, Kentucky / Died Cincinnati, Ohio 15 May 1879
USMA 1851 8/42 Artillery-Dragoons-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1847 / 4th US Artillery 1 July 1851 / 1st US Dragoons 20 February 1852 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 October 1853 / 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Regt Adjutant 20 April 1855-31 May 1858 / Captain USV 27 February 1861 / 5th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 1 December 1861-25 September 1862 / Colonel USV 146th New York Infantry 23 September 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 23 July 1863 / Major USA 3rd US Cavalry 2 November 1863 / Mustered Out 24 August 1865 / Resigned USA 9 November 1866 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1851 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2 July 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 22 July 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 15 December 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA San Antonio 23 April 1861 Exchanged 15 August 1861
3rd Brigade 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 3 July 1863-7 December 1863 / Chief Cavalry Bureau 2 January 1864-29 January 1864 / 2nd Division Cavalry Army of the Cumberland 3 February 1864-23 October 1864 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Military Division of the Mississippi 29 October 1864-16 November 1864 / 2nd Division Detachment Army of the Tennessee 7 December 1864-18 February 1865 / 2nd Division XVI Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-20 July 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer temporary
    • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
  • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
  • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

  • District of Delaware: Daniel Tyler
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

  • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of North Missouri: Odon Guitar
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
  • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron

Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully

Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
  • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
  • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • I Corps Potomac: John Newton
    • II Corps Potomac: William Hays temporary
    • III Corps Potomac: William Henry French
    • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
  • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: John Gray Foster

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
  • District of the Pamlico: Joseph Miller McChesney temporary
  • District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
  • District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
  • Defences of New Bern: Charles Adam Heckman
  • IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina: George Washington Getty temporary
  • XVIII Corps North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer temporary

Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

District of St Mary’s: Gilman Marston

Confederate Organisation

CSA: III Corps (Tennessee) was established in the Army of Tennessee, comprising the field forces of the Department of East Tennessee and the former Army of East Tennessee.

CSA: Major-General Simon Bolivar Buckner assumed temporary command of III Corps (Tennessee).

Buckner, Simon Bolivar / Kentucky / Born 1 April 1823 Munfordville, Kentucky / Died Munfordville, Kentucky 8 January 1914
USMA 1 July 1844 11/25 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 9 May 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 8 August 1847-17 December 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 December 1851 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 3 November 1852 / Resigned USA 26 March 1855 / Major Illinois Militia / Colonel Adjutant-General Illinois Militia 3 April 1857 / Captain Kentucky Militia 1858 / Inspector-General Kentucky State Guard 1860 / Major-General Adjutant-General Kentucky Militia 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 16 August 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 17 January 1865 to rank from 20 September 1864 / Paroled Shreveport, Louisiana 9 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Army of Central Kentucky 18 September 1861-28 October 1861 / 2nd Division Army of central Kentucky 28 October 1861-16 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Mississippi September 1862-20 November 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-14 December 1862 / Gulf District 14 December 1862-27 April 1863 / Department of East Tennessee 27 April 1863-26 June 1863 / III Corps Tennessee 23 July 1863-31 October 1863 / District of East Tennessee 25 July 1863-2 September 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee November 1863-December 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee 25 February 1864-8 March 1864 / District of East Tennessee 8 March 1864-18 March 1864 /Field’s Division Department of East Tennessee 31 March 1864-12 April 1864 District of East Tennessee 7 April 1864-2 May 1864 / I Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / District of West Louisiana 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Department 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Army 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / District of Arkansas and West Louisiana 19 April 1865-26 May 1865 / Chief of Staff Trans-Mississippi Department 9 May 1865-9 June 1865

CSA: Francis Marion Cockrell confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 23 July 1863 to rank from 18 July 1863.

Cockrell, Francis Marion / Missouri / Born 1 October 1834 Warrensburg, Missouri / Died Washington, District of Columbia 13 December 1915
Captain Missouri State Guard May 1861 / Brigadier-General Missouri State Guard 1861 / Private PACS 1st Missouri Infantry / 1st Lieutenant PACS / Captain PACS 15 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 2nd Missouri Infantry March 1862 / Colonel PACS 14 March 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 July 1863 to rank from 18 July 1863 / Paroled Fort Gaines, Alabama 14 May 1865 / WIA Corinth October 1862 WIA Vicksburg 1 July 1863 CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 12 September 1863 WIA Lost Mountain 19 June 1864 WIA Franklin 30 November 1864 CIA Fort Blakely 9 April 1865
1st Brigade Bowen’s Division Army of Mississippi 17 April 1863-4 July 1863 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana November 1863-March 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division District of Northern Alabama March 1864-May 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 12 May 1864-June 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee August 1864-30 November 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade District of the Gulf March 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: James Patrick Major promoted Brigadier-General PACS 23 July 1863 to rank from 21 July 1863.

Major, James Patrick / Missouri / Born 14 May 1836 Fayette, Missouri / Died Austin, Texas 7 May 1877
USMA 1 July 1856 23/49 Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / 1st US Cavalry 1 July 1856 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 December 1856 / Resigned USA 21 March 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / ADC (E Van Dorn and D E Twiggs) 1 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st Cavalry Missouri State Guard 1861 / Colonel Missouri State Guard 186-11862 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Cavalry June 1861 / Colonel PACS Artillery June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 July 1863 to rank from 21 July 1863 / Paroled New Iberia, Louisiana 11 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1856 / WIA Donaldsonville 28 June 1863
Chief Engineer Army of the West July 1862-September 1862 / Major-s Brigade District of West Louisiana July 1863-March 1864 / Major’s Brigade Wharton’s Cavalry Division District of West Louisiana March 1864-September 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Cavalry Division II Corps Trans-Mississippi Army September 1864-26 May 1865

CSA: Samuel Wragg Ferguson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 28 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863.

Ferguson, Samuel Wragg / South Carolina / Born 3 November 1834 Charleston, South Carolina / Died Jackson, Mississippi 3 February 1917
USMA 1 July 1857 19 /38 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1857 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 14 June 1858 / Resigned USA 1 March 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Captain PACS ADC (P G T Beauregard) 6 March 1861-April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 28th Mississippi Cavalry 24 February 1862 / Colonel PACS 5th South Carolina Infantry 7 May 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863 / Paroled Forsyth, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1857 / WIA Pearl River 24 February 1864
Ferguson’s Brigade Chalmers’ Cavalry Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana August 1863-January 1864 / Ferguson’s Brigade W H Jackson’s Division Cavalry Corps Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana January 1864-28 January 1864 / Ferguson’s Brigade Jackson’s Division S D Lee’s Cavalry Corps Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 28 January 1864-4 May 1864 / Ferguson’s Brigade Jackson’s Cavalry Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 4 May 1864-26 July 1864 / Ferguson’s Brigade Jackson’s Cavalry Division Army of Tennessee 26 July 1864-August 1864 / Ferguson’s Brigade P M B Young’s Division Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee January 1865-April 1865 / Ferguson’s Brigade P M B Young’s Division Hampton’s Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee April 1865-5 May 1865

CSA: Lunsford Lindsay Lomax promoted Brigadier-General PACS 30 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863.

Lomax, Lunsford Lindsay / Rhode Island / Born 4 November 1835 Newport, Rhode Island / Died Washington, District of Columbia 29 May 1913
USMA 1 July 1856 21/49 Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / 2nd US Cavalry 1 July 1856 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Cavalry 30 September 1856 / 1st Lieutenant USA 21 March 1861 / Resigned USA 25 April 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Captain PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 28 April 1861 / Captain Cavalry Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General 19 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Assistant Adjutant-General July 1862 / Colonel PACS 11th Virginia Cavalry 8 February 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 30 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863 / Major-General PACS (Temporary) 10 August 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1856 / CIA Woodstock 9 October 1864 Escaped 9 October 1864
Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the Potomac 29 April 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Western Army 4 August 1861-19 January 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General Army of the West 19 January 1862-20 July 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General Army of East Tennessee July 1862-October 1862 / Lomax’s Brigade F Lee’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia 9 September 1863-10 August 1864 / Ransom’s Cavalry Division Valley District 10 August 1864-29 March 1865 / Valley District 29 March 1865-9 April 1865 / Lomax’s Division Hampton’s Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Laurence Simmons Baker promoted Brigadier-General PACS 28 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863.

Baker, Laurence Simmons (Lawrence) / North Carolina / Born 15 May 1830 Gates, North Carolina / Died Suffolk, Virginia 10 April 1907
USMA 1 July 1851 42/42 Mounted Rifles / Cadet USMA 1 July 1847 / US Mounted Rifles 1 July 1851 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 March 1853 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 November 1859 / Resigned USA 10 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina Cavalry 8 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 1 March 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863 / Paroled Raleigh, North Carolina 8 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1851 / WIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863 WIA Brandy Station 1 August 1863 WIA North Carolina 22 September 1864
Hampton’s Brigade Stuart’s Cavalry Division Army of Northern Virginia 3 July 1863-1 August 1863 / Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 9 June 1864-26 April 1865 / Baker’s Brigade Hampton’s Division Cavalry Army of Northern Virginia September 1864 / 1st Brigade Junior Reserves Hoke’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee March 1865-9 April 1865 / 1st Brigade Hoke’s Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-8 May 1865

CSA: James Deshler promoted Brigadier-General PACS 28 July 1863 to rank from July 23 1863 unconfirmed.

Deshler, James / Alabama / Born 18 February 1833 Tuscumbia, Alabama / KIA Chickamauga, Georgia 20 September 1863
USMA 1 July 1854 7/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1850 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1854 / 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 17 September 1858 / Dropped from rolls USA 15 July 1861 / Captain Artillery Virginia Militia 28 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery July 1861 / ADC (H R Jackson) 13 July 1861-21 July 1861 / ADC (E Johnson) December 1861 / Colonel PACS 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General August 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 July 1863 to rank from 23 July 1863 Unconfirmed / WIA Alleghany Summit 13 December 1861 CIA Arkansas Post 11 January 1863 Exchanged June 1863
Chief of Artillery Army of the Northwest July 1861 / Chief of Artillery Department of North Carolina April 1862-June 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General Trans-Mississippi Department August 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Trans-Mississippi Army December 1862 / Deshler’s Brigade Cleburne’s Division D H Hill’s Corps Army of Tennessee September 1863

CSA: Josiah Gorgas promoted Colonel Chief of Ordnance.

Gorgas, Josiah / Pennsylvania / Born 1 July 1818 Running Pumps, Pennsylvania / Died Tuscaloosa, Alabama 15 May 1883
USMA 1 July 1841 6 /52 Ordnance / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / Ordnance 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 1 July 1855 / Resigned USA 3 April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Major ACSA Ordnance 8 April 1861 / Chief of Engineer Bureau 8 April 1861-3 August 1861 / Chief of Ordnance Burau 8 April 1861-April 1865 / Colonel PACS 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Special) 15 November 1864 to rank from 10 November 1864 / Paroled Centreville, Georgia 14 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841
Acting Chief of Engineers 8 April 1861-3 August 1861 / Chief of Ordnance Bureau 8 April 1861-April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Department of East Tennessee: William Preston temporary
    • District of Abingdon: William Preston
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Joseph Eggleston Johnston temporary
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: vacant
    • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
    • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Gabriel Colvin Wharton interim John Daniel Imboden awaited

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom temporary

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Philip Noland Luckett temporary
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead interim Henry Eustace McCullough awaited
  • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Western Department: Braxton Bragg

  • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
    • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
    • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee interim Daniel Harvey Hill awaited
    • III Corps Tennessee: Simon Bolivar Buckner temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton
John Buford
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Daniel Harvey Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax

Laurence Simmons Baker

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