1863 July 18th

July 18 1863 Saturday

Second Battle of Fort Wagner, SC (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Morgan’s Ohio Raid

Operations in Charleston Harbour – Siege of Fort Wagner

Alabama. USS De Soto, USS Ossipee and USS Kennebec seized the steamers James Battle and William Bagley in the Gulf of Mexico. The cargo of the first vessel was cotton and rosin It was described as the best vessel on the Alabama River, altered at great expense to act as a fast blockade runner. The second ship carried a cargo of cotton from Mobile.

Arkansas. Union reconnaissance from Cassville, Missouri, to Huntsville and Berryville began.

District of Columbia. Union Major-General George Stoneman assumed command of the US Army’s Cavalry Bureau.

Indian Territory. Incident at Cheyenne Fork.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DISTRICT OF THE FRONTIER

Union Department of the Missouri: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
District of the Frontier: Major-General James Gilpatrick Blunt
1st Brigade (Frontier): Colonel William R Judson
2nd Brigade (Frontier): Colonel William A Phillips

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE DISTRICT OF INDIAN TERRITORY

Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department: Lieutenant-General Edmund Kirby Smith
District of Indian Territory: Brigadier-General Douglas Hancock Cooper
Indian Brigade (Indian Territory): Brigadier-General William Steele
Bass’ Brigade (Indian Territory): Colonel Thomas Coke Bass

Louisiana. Skirmish at Des Allemands.

Mississippi. Reconnaissance to Danville.

Mississippi. Incidents at Brandon and Canton.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Brookhaven.

Mississippi. Boat crews from USS Vincennes and USS Clifton captured the barge H McGuin in Bay St Louis.

Missouri. Union reconnaissance from Cassville to Huntsville, Arkansas, began.

New Mexico Territory. Skirmish with Indians on the Rio Hondo.

New Mexico Territory. Incident at Rio de Los Animas.

New York. Union Major-General John Adams Dix was appointed to command the Department of the East, with specific orders to restore order in New York City after the draft riots.

North Carolina. Union Major-General John Gray Foster arrived to command XVIII Corps. His force had about 9,600 men, of whom about 7,000 were based in New Bern, with smaller garrisons at Washington, Plymouth, Beaufort, and Morehead City. The Union forces in North Carolina had usually stayed close to their fortified coastal towns while making scouting and foraging expeditions and an occasional cavalry raid.

North Carolina. Union expedition by Brigadier-General Edward Elmer Potter from New Bern to  Rocky Mount, and Tarboro (“Potter’s Raid”) began.

North Carolina. Incident at Warsaw.

Ohio. Incident at Buffington Island.

Ohio. Skirmish at Pomeroy.

Ohio. Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan’s raiding force passed through Pomeroy, 150 miles east of Cincinnati, and began to encounter resistance from local forces. At 1 pm, the column halted at Chester to close up and rest. After a wait to allow stragglers to catch up, the column arrived in Buffington after dark around 8 pm. Morgan found his intended crossing point on the Ohio River was swollen by heavy rain. The fords were blocked by a redoubt that was manned by 300 men and two guns brought upstream by transports. This garrison was too strong to attack in a night action, but Morgan decided to attack in the morning before Union gunboats could arrive to reinforce the defenders.

South Carolina. Siege of Fort Wagner began.

Second Fort Wagner, South Carolina, also known as Fort Wagner, Morris Island, Second Assault on Morris Island, or Battery Wagner. The attack on Fort Wagner in Charleston harbour was renewed by Union Rear Admiral John Adolph Bernard Dahlgren’s ironclad force of USS Montauk, USS New Ironsides, USS Catskill, USS Nantucket, USS Weehawken, and USS Patapsco. The gunboats USS Paul Jones, USS Ottawa, USS Seneca, USS Chippewa, and USS Wissahickon provided long-range support. The heavy fire from the ironclads commenced shortly after noon, closing as the tide permitted to a range of 300 yards. The naval bombardment at this close range eventually silenced the fort. The fire of the fleet diminished in its accuracy as the light failed and finally had to be suspended at nightfall. The warships were joined by 41 land-based heavy guns that Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore had emplaced. The combined force bombarded the defences for seven hours.

Gillmore ordered his troops to attack the fort at 7.30 pm, with the benefit of twilight to spoil the defenders’ aim. Gillmore deployed 6,000 men for a direct assault on the fort. They included Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry’s Union division (1/X), which was summoned from its diversionary operations on James Island in Charleston harbour.

The approach to Fort Wagner was constricted into a strip of beach 200 yards wide, with the ocean to the east and the marsh of Vincent’s Creek to the west. Upon rounding this narrow defile, the attackers were presented with the 250-yard south face of Fort Wagner which stretched from Vincent’s creek to the sea. Surrounding the fort was a shallow moat riveted with sharpened palmetto logs, as abattis, and the moat on the seaward side had planks with spikes positioned beneath the water. The armament of Fort Wagner consisted of one 10-inch seacoast mortar, two 32-pounder carronades, two 8-inch shell guns, two 32-pounder howitzers, a 42-pounder carronade and an 8-inch seacoast mortar on the land face. Company A of the 1st South Carolina Artillery also had two guns positioned outside of Wagner’s southern face by Vincent’s creek to provide enfilading fire. The sea face of Wagner was armed with one 32-pounder carronade, one 10-inch Columbiad, and two 12-pounder howitzers. The garrison of Battery Wagner consisted of about 1,000 men in the 1st South Carolina Artillery, the Charleston Battalion, the 31st North Carolina and the 51st North Carolina.

The assault was made by Brigadier-General George Crockett Strong brigade (1/1/X) and Colonel Haldimand S Putnam’s brigade (2/1/X). They were backed by two more brigades with nine regiments. Strong’s brigade was composed of the 54th Massachusetts (Colored) Infantry, 6th Connecticut Infantry, 48th New York Infantry, 3rd New Hampshire Infantry, 76th Pennsylvania Infantry, and the 9th Maine Infantry. Putnam’s brigade consisted of the 7th New Hampshire Infantry, 62nd Ohio Infantry, 6th Ohio Infantry, and the 100th New York Infantry. Brigadier-General Truman Seymour’s brigade was held in reserve and did not enter the action.

The assault began at 7:45 pm and was conducted in three stages. The 54th Massachusetts, composed of African-American soldiers led by white officers, was chosen to lead the Union attack. They hit the curtain of Wagner to the west, with the remainder of Strong’s brigade and Putnam’s brigade attacking the seaward salient on the south face. Members of the attacking brigade scaled the parapet but after brutal hand-to-hand combat, they were driven out with heavy casualties. The effort was halted by 10pm after suffering heavy losses.

The fort was reinforced by Confederate Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood’s brigade shortly after the assault. The garrison was changed during the night and Hagood assumed command. He was later relieved by Colonel Laurence M Keitt who commanded the fort until it was abandoned on 7 September 1863.

In the days immediately following the battle, Union forces besieged the Confederate works on Morris Island with an array of military novelties. Union gunners made use of a new piece of artillery known as the Requa gun, consisting of 25 rifle barrels mounted on a field carriage. While sappers dug zig-zag trenches toward Fort Wagner. a second innovation, the calcium floodlight, was used to light the way. Bright lights were flashed at the defenders, blinding them enough to decrease accurate return fire while the Union gunners worked safely behind the lights. The Confederate defenders enjoyed some advantages. The ground the Union sappers were digging through was shallow sand with a muddy base and the trenches were difficult to maintain. The digging efforts uncovered Union dead from the previous assaults on Fort Wagner. Disease and bad water plagued soldiers on both sides.

Strong was mortally wounded and Putnam was killed in the salient while giving the order to withdraw. Colonel Chatfield of the 6th Connecticut was mortally wounded while Colonel Robert Gould Shaw of 54th Massachusetts was killed upon the parapet. The 54th Massachusetts lost 272 out of 650 engaged and were hailed for their conduct, raising the reputation of African Americans as soldiers. Union casualties were reported as 1,515 out of 5,264 engaged; the Confederates reported their loss as 174 out of 1,785. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: SECOND FORT WAGNER, SC

Union Department of the South: Brigadier-General Quincy Adams Gillmore
X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Quincy Adams Gillmore
Morris Island: Brigadier-General Alfred Howe Terry
1st Brigade, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Israel Vogdes
2nd Brigade, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Colonel Joshua B Howell
3rd Brigade, Morris Island, X Corps (South): Brigadier-General Thomas Greely Stevenson
Folly Island: Colonel William Watts Hart Davis
Davis’ Brigade, Folly Island, X Corps (South): Colonel William Watts Hart Davis
Column of Assault, X Corps: Brigadier-General Truman Seymour
Strong’s Brigade, Seymour’s Command, X Corps: Brigadier-General George Crockett Strong
Putnam’s Brigade, Seymour’s Command, X Corps: Colonel Haldimand S Putnam
Stevenson’s Brigade, Seymour’s Command, X Corps: Brigadier-General Thomas Greely Stevenson

Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
District of South Carolina: Brigadier-General Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
1st Sub-District, South Carolina: Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood
1st Sub-Division, 1st Sub-District, South Carolina: Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood
2nd Sub-Division, 1st Sub-District, South Carolina: Colonel Lawrence M Keitt
3rd Sub-Division, 1st Sub-District, South Carolina: Brigadier-General William Booth Taliaferro
4th Sub-Division, 1st Sub-District, South Carolina: Colonel Alfred Rhett

Tennessee. Skirmish near Memphis.

Tennessee. Union pickets were captured near Germantown by Confederate cavalry who were tearing up the railroad tracks two miles from the town.

Virginia. Expedition to Mathias Point. Incidents at Ashby’s Gap, Snicker’s Gap, and Wytheville.

Virginia. The Union Army of the Potomac continued to cross the Potomac River at Harper’s Ferry.

Virginia. USS Jacob Bell, with USS Resolute and USS Racer in company, drove off Confederate troops firing on the ship George Peabody, which had run aground at Mathias Point.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Hedgesville.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Martinsburg.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General John Adams Dix assumed command of the Department of the East, succeeding Major-General John Ellis Wool.

Dix, John Adams / New Hampshire-New York / Born 24 July 1798 Boscawen, New Hampshire / Died New York, New York 21 April 1879
Ensign USA 14th US Infantry 10 May 1813 / 3rd Lieutenant USA 21st US Infantry 7 March 1814 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 March 1814 / Corps of Artillery 9 August 1814 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 March 1818 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 3rd US Artillery 16 August 1821 / Captain USA 30 August 1825 / Resigned USA 31 December 1828 / Adjutant-General New York Militia 1830 / Major-General New York Militia 6 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 / WIA Niagara 25 July 1814
Department of Annapolis 16 May 1861-31 May 1861 / Department of Maryland 17 July 1861-245July 1861 / Department of Pennsylvania 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Dix’s Command Department of the Potomac 24 August 1861-22 March 1862 / Middle Department 22 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Department of Virginia 2 June 1862-6 April 1863 / VII Corps Virginia 22 July 1862-16 July 1863 / Department of Virginia 14 April 1863-15 July 1863 / Department of the East 18 July 1863-10 April 1865 / Department of the East 19 April 1865-15 July 1865

USA: Major-General John Gray Foster arrived to command the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

Foster, John Gray / New Hampshire / Born 27 May 1823 Whitefield, New Hampshire / Died Nashua, New Hampshire 2 September 1874
USMA 1 July 1846 4/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 May 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 April 1854 / Captain USA 1 July 1860 / Brigadier-General USV 23 October 1861 / Major-General USV 18 July 1862 / Major USA 3 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 7 March 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 1 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 26 December 1860 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8 February 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 12 March 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
1st Brigade Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition 20 December 1861-2 April 1862 / 1st Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 6 July 1862-29 March 1863 / XVIII Corps North Carolina 24 December 1862-29 March 1863 / Department of North Carolina 16 April 1863-15 July 1863 / XVIII Corps North Carolina 16 April 1863-15 July 1863 / VII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-20 July 1863 / XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-29 July 1863 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 August 1863-28 August 1863 / XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 16 August 1863-2 May 1864 /Department of the Ohio 9 December 1863-8 February 1864 / Army of the Ohio 9 December 1863-8 February 1864 / Department of the South 26 May 1864-9 February 1865 / Department of Florida 27 June 1865-6 August 1865

USA: The District of Yorktown was established in the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, comprising the vicinity of Yorktown, Virginia.

USA: Brigadier-General Isaac Jones Wistar assumed command of the District of Yorktown.

Wistar, Isaac Jones / Pennsylvania / Born 14 November 1827 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Claymont, Delaware 18 September 1905
Captain USV 71st Pennsylvania Infantry 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 28 June 1861 / Colonel USV 11 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 15 September 1864 / WIA Ball’s Bluff 21 October 1861 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 /
Reserve Brigade VII Corps Department of Virginia 13 May 1863-June 1863 / Wistar’s Brigade VII Corps Department of Virginia June 1863-18 July 1863 / District of Yorktown 18 July 1863-21 August 1863 / Sub-District of Yorktown 21 August 1863-22 September 1863 / District of Yorktown 23 September 1863-22 December 1863 / District of Yorktown 22 January 1864-15 February 1864 / District of Yorktown 8 March 1864-20 April 1864 / 2nd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 22 April 1864-7 May 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 7 May 1864-18 May 1864

USA: Brigadier-General Innis Newton Palmer assumed temporary command of XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina), succeeding Major-General John Gray Foster.

Palmer, Innis Newton / New York / Born 30 March 1824 Buffalo, New York / Died Chevy Chase, Maryland 10 September 1900
USMA 1 July 1846 38/59 Mounted Rifles-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / US Mounted Rifles 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 20 July 1847 / Regt Adjutant 1 May 1850-1 July 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA US 27 January 1853 / Captain USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Major USA 25 April 1861 / 5th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 to rank from 23 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 23 September 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 9 June 1868 / Retired USA 29 March 1879 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1 Lt USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1 July 1861 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Cavalry Army of Northeastern Virginia July 1861 / Cavalry Army of the Potomac August 1861 / 3rd Brigade Casey’s Division Army of the Potomac December 1862-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-7 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 7 June 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-29 March 1863 / Department of North Carolina 29 March 1863-16 April 1863 / 1st Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 16 April 1863-23 May 1863 / XVIII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-14 August 1863 / Defences of New Bern 14 August 1863-7 October 1863 / Defences of New Bern 7 November 1863-5 March 1864 / District of North Carolina 4 January 1864-4 February 1864 / Sub-District of New Bern 5 March 1864-25 April 1864 / District of North Carolina 25 April 1864-21 October 1864 / District of North Carolina 31 January 1865-1 March 1865 / 1st Division District of Beaufort NC 1 March 1865-18 March 1865 / District of Beaufort North Carolina 18 March 1865-1 June 1865

USA: George Crockett Strong promoted Major-General USV 18 July 1863 posthumously unconfirmed.

USA: Brigadier-General George Crockett Strong was mortally wounded at Fort Wagner, South Carolina.

Strong, George Crockett / Vermont-Massachusetts / Born 16 October 1832 Stockbridge, Vermont / DOW New York, New York 30 July 1863
USMA 1 July 1857 5/38 Ordnance / Cadet USMA 1 July 1853 / Ordnance 1 July 1857 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 July 1859 / 1st Lieutenant USA 25 January 1861 / Major USV Assistant Adjutant-General 1 October 1861-17 July 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 29 November 1862 / Captain USA 3 March 1863 / Major-General USV 18 July 1863 posthumously Unconfirmed / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1857 / MWIA Fort Wagner 18 July 1863
Chief of Ordnance Army of Northeastern Virginia June 1861-1 October 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Department of New England 6 October 1861-22 February 1862 / Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General Department of the Gulf 23 February 1862 / Forces St Helena Island X Corps Department of the South 13 June 1863-5 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division X Corps Department of the South 6 July 1863-18 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • XXI Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer temporary
    • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

  • District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
  • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
  • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
  • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
  • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck

  • District of Delaware: Daniel Tyler
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck

Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

  • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
  • District of Southeast Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of North Missouri: Odon Guitar
  • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
  • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
  • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron

Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully

Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
  • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
  • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • I Corps Potomac: John Newton
    • II Corps Potomac: William Hays temporary
    • III Corps Potomac: William Henry French
    • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
    • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
    • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
  • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: John Gray Foster

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
  • District of the Pamlico: Joseph Miller McChesney temporary
  • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
  • District of Yorktown: Isaac Jones Wistar
  • IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina: Henry Morris Naglee
  • XVIII Corps North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer temporary

Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
  • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Joseph Wheeler assumed command of Cavalry Corps (Tennessee), succeeding Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson.

Wheeler, Joseph / Georgia-New York / Born 10 September 1836 Augusta, Georgia / Died New York, New York 25 January 1906
USMA 1 July 1859 19/22 Dragoons-Mounted Rifles / Cadet USMA 1 July 1854 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1859 / US Mounted Rifles 26 June 1860 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 September 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 19th Alabama Infantry 4 September 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 30 October 1862 / Major-General PACS (Temporary) 20 January 1863 / Major-General PACS 23 January 1863 to rank from 20 January 1863 / Paroled Fort Delaware, Delaware 8 June 1865 / Major-General USV 4 May 1898 / Mustered Out USV 12 April 1899 / Brigadier-General USV 12 April 1899 / Mustered out USV 16 June 1900 / Brigadier-General USA 16 June 1900 / Retired USA 10 September 1900 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1859 / WIA La Vergne 27 November 1862 WIA Ringgold 27 November 1863 CIA Conyer’s Station 9 May 1865
2nd Brigade Cavalry Left Wing Army of Mississippi 14 September 1862-October 1862 / Cavalry Army of Mississippi October 1862-20 November 1862 / Cavalry II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-December 1862 / Cavalry Army of Tennessee December 1862-22 January 1863 / Cavalry Corps Tennessee 22 January 1863-24 November 1863 / Cavalry Corps Tennessee 2 December 1863-15 November 1864 / Cavalry Army of Tennessee 15 November 1864-31 December 1864 / Cavalry Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 1 January 1865-March 1865 / Wheeler’s Cavalry Division Hampton’s Cavalry Corps Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida March 18659 May 1865

CSA: Francis Marion Cockrell promoted Brigadier-General PACS 23 July 1863 to rank from 18 July 1863.

Cockrell, Francis Marion / Missouri / Born 1 October 1834 Warrensburg, Missouri / Died Washington, District of Columbia 13 December 1915
Captain Missouri State Guard May 1861 / Brigadier-General Missouri State Guard 1861 / Private PACS 1st Missouri Infantry / 1st Lieutenant PACS / Captain PACS 15 January 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 2nd Missouri Infantry March 1862 / Colonel PACS 14 March 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 23 July 1863 to rank from 18 July 1863 / Paroled Fort Gaines, Alabama 14 May 1865 / WIA Corinth October 1862 WIA Vicksburg 1 July 1863 CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 12 September 1863 WIA Lost Mountain 19 June 1864 WIA Franklin 30 November 1864 CIA Fort Blakely 9 April 1865
1st Brigade Bowen’s Division Army of Mississippi 17 April 1863-4 July 1863 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana November 1863-March 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division District of Northern Alabama March 1864-May 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 12 May 1864-June 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade French’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee August 1864-30 November 1864 / Cockrell’s Brigade District of the Gulf March 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: Major-General William Dorsey Pender died of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Pender, William Dorsey / North Carolina / Born 2 February 1834 Edgecombe, North Carolina / DOW Staunton, Virginia 18 July 1863
USMA 1 July 1854 19/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1850 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1854 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 16 August 1854 / 1st US Dragoons 3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 17 May 1858 / Regt Adjutant 31 August 1860-31 January 1861 / Resigned USA 21 March 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 3rd North Carolina Infantry 27 May 1861 / 6th North Carolina Infantry 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 3 June 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 30 September 1862 to rank from 22 July 1862 / Major-General PACS 27 May 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1854 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Second Bull Run 29 August 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 / WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 MWIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863
6th Brigade 2nd Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 27 May 1862-1 July 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-29 August 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia September 1862-17 September 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia October 1862-13 December 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia January 1863-3 May 1863 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 May 1863-3 May 1863 / Pender’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-2 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Department of East Tennessee: William Preston temporary
    • District of Abingdon: William Preston
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Joseph Eggleston Johnston temporary
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: vacant
    • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
    • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
  • Valley District: Gabriel Colvin Wharton

Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom temporary

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Philip Noland Luckett temporary
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead interim Henry Eustace McCullough awaited
  • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton
John Buford
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Daniel Harvey Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender DOW
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell

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