1863 July 15th

July 15 1863 Wednesday

Gettysburg Campaign

Morgan’s Ohio Raid

Gillmore’s Operations in Charleston Harbour

Siege of Jackson

New York Draft Riots

Atlantic Ocean. CSS Georgia, Lieutenant William Lewis Maury, captured the American ship Prince of Wales, from Bath, Maine, in the mid-South Atlantic and released her on bond.

Canada. Former US Congressman Clement Laird Vallandigham, who had been banished from the United States for expressing anti-war and pro-Confederate sentiments, opened his campaign for election as Governor of Ohio by making a speech in Niagara Falls on the US-Canadian border.

France. Lucien Arman, a naval constructor at Bordeaux, was contracted by Confederate Commander James Dunwoody Bulloch to build two steam rams. The warships would be designed with hulls of wood and iron, powered by 300-horsepower engines, two propellers, and with two armoured turrets. Only one of the rams (later commissioned as CSS Stonewall) reached Confederate hands in Havana, Cuba, late in the war but it was eventually surrendered to the USA.

Florida. Boat crews from USS Stars and Stripes and USS Somerset, under Lieutenant-Commander Alexander F Crosman, landed at Marsh’s Island, and destroyed salt works.

Florida. USS Santiago de Cuba, Commander Robert H Wyman, captured the steamer Lizzie east of the Florida coast.

Florida. An expedition from USS Port Royal captured a supply of cotton ready to be run through the blockade at Apalachicola.

Indian Territory. Union and Confederate troops had frequently skirmished in the vicinity of Honey Springs where the Confederates had established a supply depot. Union Major-General James Gilpatrick Blunt correctly surmised that Confederate forces, mostly Native American troops under the overall command of Brigadier-General Douglas Hancock Cooper but led locally by Brigadier-General William Steele, were about to concentrate for an attack his own force at Fort Gibson. He decided to defeat the Confederates at Honey Springs Depot before they were reinforced by Brigadier-General William Lewis Cabell’s brigade, which was marching from Fort Smith, Arkansas. Blunt left Fort Gibson and began crossing the swollen Arkansas River with troops from the District of the Frontier.

Kentucky. Confederate cavalry raiders occupied Hickman.

Louisiana. After the loss of Vicksburg, the Confederates resorted to positioning mobile batteries along the Mississippi to disrupt Union river traffic. They were usually identified and forced to move by Union gunboats before they could cause serious disruption. The merchant steamer Imperial arrived at New Orleans having left St Louis. Missouri, on 8 July. Her safe arrival at the port city without incident proved that the Union now controlled the inland rivers with little hindrance.

Maryland. Incident at Jones’ Cross Roads.

Mississippi. Reconnaissance to Pearl River.

Mississippi. Skirmish with Confederate cavalry by Forked Deer River.

Mississippi. Skirmish near Jackson.

New York. Mobs continued to terrorise New York City in protest against the draft. They also carried out racially motivated attacks and, in some areas, their control was undisputed. Union troops detached from the Union Army of the Potomac began to arrive during the evening and commenced the ruthless suppression of the rioters.

Ohio. Confederate Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan and his Confederate raiding party turned their course towards Buffington which was reported to be an excellent crossing point for a return to Kentucky. They were pursued by Union troops from Cincinnati towards the Ohio River.

South Carolina. Reconnaissance to Battery Wagner ended.

South Carolina. Confederate batteries at Grimball’s Landing on the Stono River opened a heavy fire on USS Pawnee, Commander George G Balch, and USS Marblehead, Lieutenant-Commander Robert V Scott. USS Pawnee was struck 40 times by accurate fire. At the same time, Confederate troops assaulted a Union position on James Island held by Brigadier General Alfred Howe Terry’s division. The Union gunboats provided support for the Union defence until the Confederates broke off the attack and then both ships were compelled to drop downriver to reapir damage.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Pulaski.

Virginia. USS Yankee, Acting Ensign Turner, captured the schooner Nanjemoy in the Coan River.

Virginia. The Confederate retreat from their defeat in Pennsylvania continued as General Robert Edward Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia headed southwards along the Shenandoah Valley.

Virginia. During his diversionary operations towards Richmond at the time of the Gettysburg campaign, the commander of the Union IV Corps, Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes, had retreated from a position near Baltimore Cross Roads. His superior officer, Major-General John Adams Dix, deemed Keyes’ opponents to be greatly inferior in number and removed Keyes from command for his timidity. This decision was emphasised by the discontinuation of IV Corps on August 1 1863 and the allocation of its forces to other sectors. Keyes asked for an investigation of the charges that led to his removal from command, but the request was never granted. He was not assigned to another major command and served on various boards and commissions, including the board for retiring disabled officers, from 15 July 1863 until his resignation and retirement from the army on 6 May 1864.

West Virginia. Skirmishes at Halltown and Charlestown.

West Virginia. Skirmish at Shepherdstown.

Union Organisation

USA: The counties of Vernon, Barton, Jasper, Newton, and McDonald were transferred from the District of the Frontier to the District of Southwest Missouri.

USA: The Department of North Carolina was discontinued and its area was taken over by the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: The Department of Virginia was discontinued and its area was taken over by the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: The Department of Virginia and North Carolina was established with headquarters at Fortress Monroe, comprising the areas formerly under the authority of the separate Department of North Carolina and the Department of Virginia.

USA: Major-General John Gray Foster was appointed to command the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, arriving on 18 July 1863.

USA: XVIII Corps (North Carolina) was transferred from the Department of North Carolina to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: Major-General John Gray Foster retained command of XVIII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina).

Foster, John Gray / New Hampshire / Born 27 May 1823 Whitefield, New Hampshire / Died Nashua, New Hampshire 2 September 1874
USMA 1 July 1846 4/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 May 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 April 1854 / Captain USA 1 July 1860 / Brigadier-General USV 23 October 1861 / Major-General USV 18 July 1862 / Major USA 3 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 7 March 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 1 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 26 December 1860 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8 February 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 12 March 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
1st Brigade Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition 20 December 1861-2 April 1862 / 1st Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 6 July 1862-29 March 1863 / XVIII Corps North Carolina 24 December 1862-29 March 1863 / Department of North Carolina 16 April 1863-15 July 1863 / XVIII Corps North Carolina 16 April 1863-15 July 1863 / VII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-20 July 1863 / XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-29 July 1863 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 August 1863-28 August 1863 / XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 16 August 1863-2 May 1864 /Department of the Ohio 9 December 1863-8 February 1864 / Army of the Ohio 9 December 1863-8 February 1864 / Department of the South 26 May 1864-9 February 1865 / Department of Florida 27 June 1865-6 August 1865

USA: The District of Albemarle transferred from the Department of North Carolina to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: Brigadier-General Henry Walton Wessells retained command of the District of Albemarle.

Wessells, Henry Walton / Connecticut / Born 20 February 1809 Litchfield, Connecticut / Died 12 January 1889
USMA 1 July 1833 29/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 28 June 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / Major USA 6th US Infantry 6 June 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Kansas 29 September 1861 / Resigned USV 7 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Commissary-General for Prisoners of War 11 November 1864-1 February 1865 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 18th US Infantry 16 February 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Retired USA 1 January 1871 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 20 April 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 CIA Plymouth 19 April 1864 Exchanged 3 August 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 19 May 1862-24 My 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 24 May 1862-7 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 7 June 1862-26 September 1862 / Wessells’ Brigade VII Corps Department of Virginia 26 September 1862-24 December 1862 / 1st Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 28 December 1862-2 January 1863 / 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-12 March 1863 / 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 14 April 1863-3 May 1863 / District of Albemarle 23 April 1863-21 August 1863 / Sub-District of Albemarle 21 August 1863-19 April 1864

USA: The District of Beaufort (NC) transferred from the Department of North Carolina to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: Brigadier-General Charles Adam Heckman retained command of the District of Beaufort (Virginia and North Carolina).

Heckman, Charles Adam / Pennsylvania / Born 3 December 1822 Easton, Pennsylvania / Died Germantown, Pennsylvania 14 January 1896
Sergeant USA US Voltigeurs and Riflemen 1847 / Discharged USA 1848 / Captain USV 1st Pennsylvania Infantry April 1861 / Major USV 9th New Jersey Infantry 3 October 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 8 October 1861 / Colonel USV 10 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 25 May 1865 / WIA New Bern 14 March 1862 WIA Young’s Cross Roads 26 July 1862 WIA Port Walthall 7 May 1864 CIA Drewry’s Bluff 16 May 1864 Exchanged 12 September 1864
1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / Heckman’s Brigade Department of North Carolina 10 December 1862-2 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-30 January 1863 / 2nd Division XVIII Corps Department of the South 23 February 1863-12 April 1863 / District of Beaufort North Carolina 30 May 1863-15 July 1863 / District of Beaufort Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-20 July 1863 / Defences of New Bern 21 July 1863-14 August 1863 / Sub-District of Beaufort North Carolina 14 August 1863-11 October 1863 / Getty’s Division XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 14 January 1864-28 April 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XIII Corps Army of the James 28 April 1864-16 May 1864 / XVIII Corps James 29 September 1864-1 October 1864 / 3rd Division XXV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-30 December 1864 / XXV Corps James 1 January 1865-2 February 1865

USA: The District of the Pamlico transferred from the Department of North Carolina to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: Colonel Joseph Miller McChesney (1st North Carolina Infantry) assumed temporary command of the District of the Pamlico, succeeding Brigadier-General Henry Prince.

McChesney Joseph Miller / New Jersey / Born 25 September 1838 Trenton, New Jersey / DOW Beaufort, North Carolina 14 August 1865
Captain USV 9th New Jersey infantry 19 November 1861 / Colonel USV 1st North Carolina Infantry 20 February 1863 9th New Jersey and 1st District of Columbia / Resigned USV 13 May 1865 / WIA Washington 1864
District of the Pamlico 15 July 1863-30 July 1863 / Sub-District of the Pamlico 26 October 1863-10 March 1864

USA: IV Corps (Virginia) transferred from the Department of Virginia to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes retained command of IV Corps (Virginia and North Carolina).

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin / Massachusetts-Maine / Born 29 May 1810 Brimfield, Massachusetts / Died Nice, France 14 October 1895
USMA 1 July 1832 10/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant 1 August 1833 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 September 1836 / ADC (W Scott) 1837-1841 / Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1838-16 November 1838 / Captain USA 3rd US Artillery 30 November 1841 / Major USA 1st US Artillery 12 October 1858 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Military Secretary (W Scott) 1 January 1860-12 April 1861 / Colonel USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 re-dated 10 March 1863 to rank from 5 May 1862 / Resigned USV 6 May 1864 / Resigned USA 6 May 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1832 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862
Keyes’ Brigade 1st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 1 July 1861-20 August 1861 / Keyes’ Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-2 October 1861 / 1st Brigade McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 November 1861 / Keyes’ Division Army of the Potomac 9 November 1861-13 March 1862 / IV Corps Potomac 3 March 1862-16 August 1862 / IV Corps Virginia 16 August 1862-1 August 1863 / Department of Virginia 6 April 1863-15 July 1863 / Keyes’ Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 14 April 1863-18 July 1863 / IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-31 July 1863

USA: VII Corps (Virginia) was transferred from the Department of Virginia to the Department of Virginia and North Carolina.

USA: Brigadier-General George Washington Getty assumed temporary command of VII Corps (Virginia and North Carolina), succeeding Major-General John Adams Dix.

Getty, George Washington / District of Columbia / Born 2 October 1819 Georgetown, District of Columbia / Died Forest Glen, Maryland 1 October 1901
USMA 1 July 1840 15/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 October 1845 / Captain USA 4 November 1853 / 5th US Artillery 14 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV ADC (G B McClellan) 28 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 25 September 1862 / Major USA 5th US Artillery 1 August 1863 / Colonel USA 37th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 9 October 1866 / 3rd US Infantry 15 March 1869 / 3rd US Artillery 31 December 1870 / 4th US Artillery 17 July 1882 / Retired USA 2 October 1883 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 19 April 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 4 May 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Wilderness 6 May 1864
2nd Brigade Reserve Artillery Army of the Potomac July 1862-August 1862 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 4 October 1862-23 March 1863 / 2nd Division VII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 21 March 1863-1 August 1863 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-18 July 1863 / VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-18 July 1863 / VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 20 July 1863-25 July 1863 / Getty’s Division XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 1 August 1863-21 August 1863 / Getty’s Division District of Virginia 21 August 1863-23 September 1863 / Inspector-General Army of the Potomac 27 January 1864-24 March 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-6 May 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 28 June 1864-8 July 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-19 October 12864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 19 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 1864- 6 December 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 December 1864-16 January 1865 / VI Corps Potomac 16 January 1865-11 February 1865 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 11 February 1865-28 June 1865 / 1st Division Provisional Corps Military Division of the Atlantic 28 June 1865-July 1865

USA: Major-General John McAuley Palmer assumed temporary command of XXI Corps (Cumberland), succeeding Major-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden.

Palmer, John McAuley / Kentucky / Born 13 September 1817 Eagle Creek, Kentucky / Died Springfield, Illinois 25 September 1900
Colonel USV 14th Illinois Infantry 25 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 21 December 1861 to rank from 20 December 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 1 September 1866 / WIA Chattanooga 26 February 1863
2nd Division Army of the Mississippi 23 February 1862-4 March 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Mississippi 4 March 1862-24 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Mississippi 24 April 1862-10 August 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Mississippi 31 August 1862-29 September 1862 / 13th Division Army of the Ohio 19 September 1862-15 November 1862 / 2nd Division Left Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 December 1862-9 January 1863 / 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-15 July 1863 / XXI Corps Cumberland 15 July 1863-17 August 1863 / 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 August 1863-9 October 1863 /1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-27 October 1863 / XIV Corps Cumberland 28 October 1863-6 August 1864 / Department of Kentucky 10 February 1865-21 June 1865 / Department of Kentucky 27 June 1865-13 April 1866

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • XXI Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer temporary
      • Reserve Corps Cumberland: Gordon Granger
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of Pensacola: William Cune Holbrook
    • District of La Fourche: Henry Warner Birge
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Middle Department: Robert Cumming Schenck
    • District of Delaware: Daniel Tyler
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • Department of the Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of St Louis: William Kerley Strong
    • District of Southeast Missouri: John Wynn Davidson
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Northeast Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of North Missouri: Odon Guitar
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Border: Thomas Ewing
    • Army of the Frontier: Francis Jay Herron
  • Department of the Monongahela: William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • District of Dakota: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • District of Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Eastern Kentucky: Julius White
    • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • District of Illinois: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Indiana and Michigan: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • District of Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Army of the Ohio: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: George Lucas Hartsuff
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • I Corps Potomac: John Newton
      • II Corps Potomac: William Hays temporary
      • III Corps Potomac: William Henry French
      • V Corps Potomac: George Sykes
      • VI Corps Potomac: John Sedgwick
      • XI Corps Potomac: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Alfred Pleasonton
  • Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
    • X Corps South: Quincy Adams Gillmore
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
  • Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of West Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
      • Sub-District of Memphis: James Clifford Veatch
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Northeast Louisiana: Elias Smith Dennis
    • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • IX Corps Tennessee: John Grubb Parke
      • XIII Corps Tennessee: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
      • XV Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: John Gray Foster awaited
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Walton Wessells
    • District of the Pamlico: Joseph Miller McChesney temporary
    • District of Beaufort NC: Charles Adam Heckman
    • IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina: George Washington Getty temporary
    • XVIII Corps North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: John Henry Martindale
    • XXII Corps Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
  • Department of Western Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Department of East Tennessee: William Preston temporary
      • District of Abingdon: William Preston
    • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
      • District of the Tennessee: John King Jackson
      • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
      • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
        • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
        • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
        • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: William Hicks Jackson
    • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Joseph Eggleston Johnston temporary
      • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: vacant
      • District Four of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Adams
      • District Five of Mississippi and East Louisiana: James Ronald Chalmers
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Stoddert Ewell
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Corps Northern Virginia: James Ewell Brown Stuart
    • Valley District: Gabriel Colvin Wharton
  • Department of Richmond: Robert Ransom temporary
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • District of Georgia: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
    • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
    • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: Samuel Jones
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Philip Noland Luckett temporary
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Smith Pyne Bankhead interim Henry Eustace McCullough awaited
    • District of Arkansas: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper interim William Steele awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
John Newton
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
Alfred Pleasonton
John Buford
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
William Reading Montgomery
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
James Murrell Shackelford
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Thomas Welsh
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Hugh Thompson Reid
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Thomas Greely Stevenson
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
Joseph Gilbert Totten (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Daniel Harvey Hill

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Jubal Anderson Early
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
William Dorsey Pender
Alexander Peter Stewart

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
Micah Jenkins
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
Edward Cary Walthall
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Brown Gordon
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
John Marshall Jones
Thomas Green
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton

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