1862 October 4th

October 4 1862 Saturday

Second Battle of Corinth, MS (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Galveston Harbour, TX (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Smith’s Invasion of Kentucky

Bragg’s Invasion of Kentucky

Second Corinth Campaign

District of Columbia. US President Abraham Lincoln returned to Washington after his visit to confer with Major-General George Brinton McClellan at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.

Florida. USS Somerset, Lieutenant-Commander Earl English, attacked the Confederate salt works at Depot Key. The landing party was augmented by a strong force from USS Tahoma, Commander John C Howell, and the salt works were destroyed. Salt was among the most critical strategic material resources of the Confederacy, required for conserving rations and many industrial processes.

Kentucky. Skirmish near Bardstown on the Bardstown Pike.

Kentucky. Skirmishes at Springfield and Clay Village.

Kentucky. Confederate Major Richard Hawes was inaugurated Governor of Kentucky at Frankfort in the presence of Confederate General Braxton Bragg. Hawes remained in post nominally but without true authority until the end of the war. At about 1.30 pm, Union artillery fired long-range shells into the outskirts of the capital. This was the advance guard of Brigadier-General Joshua Woodrow Sill and Brigadier-General Ebenezer Dumont, whose two divisions were now within twelve miles of the town. The governor’s inaugural ball scheduled for that evening was cancelled.

Kentucky. Confederate General Braxton Bragg had left the Army of Mississippi under Major-General Leonidas Polk at Bardstown with orders to join Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith and his Army of Kentucky at Frankfort. Bragg received word early in the morning from Polk that the four divisions of the Army of Mississippi had already begun to withdraw towards Harrodsburg and Danville rather than marching to attack the enemy column approaching Frankfort. Hearing Polk’s explanation that he was being threatened by strong Union forces, Bragg concurred with the change of plans and ordered Polk to concentrate at Harrodsburg while Smith’s army remained concentrated at Frankfort.

When the inauguration at Frankfort came under long-range artillery fire, Bragg sent new instructions that Smith’s army would destroy the bridges at Frankfort and the two armies would now unite at Harrodsburg as quickly as possible. Bragg’s cavalry had already been sent away. Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry was in middle Tennessee recruiting for his brigade and Colonel John Hunt Morgan’s brigade had been sent to pursue the Union garrison of Cumberland Gap in its flight across the Kentucky Barrens to Greenup on the Ohio River. Short of cavalry, Bragg was finding it difficult to scout the exact strength and location of the Union forces and was convinced that the smaller diversionary column approaching Frankfort was the main Union army. In fact, the main Union force of Major-General Don Carlos Buell was aiming for Bardstown and Polk’s troops. The Confederate Army of Mississippi evacuated Bardstown during the day. After Union troops arrived during the evening, they continued onwards in three columns towards Mackville, Springfield and Lebanon.

Louisiana. Skirmish near Donaldsonville.

Maryland. Reconnaissance to Conrad’s Ferry.

Mississippi. Incident at Middletown.

Second Corinth, Mississippi, also known as Corinth. Confederate Major-General Earl Van Dorn planned to resume his attack on the Union forces at Corinth at daybreak. At 4.30 am, the Confederate artillery opened fire on the Union inner line of entrenchments with a six-gun battery. Union guns replied from Battery Robinett, Battery Williams, and Battery Phillips until the Confederate guns fell silent after sunrise. The Union troops prepared themselves to resist an attack but the attack was slow in coming. During the extended lull Rosecrans pushed forward a regiment to scout the silent woods but it was struck hard by rifle fire and its colonel was captured. This proved that Van Dorn had not slipped away behind a diversionary cannonade.

Van Dorn had directed Brigadier-General Louis Hébert to begin the engagement at daylight and the artillery fire was merely a preliminary to enable Hébert to get into position for the assault. At 7 am, Hébert sent word to Van Dorn that he was too ill to lead his division and Brigadier-General Martin Edwin Green was ordered to assume his command and advance at once. Nearly two hours more elapsed before Green moved forward to the attack. His four brigades advanced in echelon until they occupied a position in the woods north of town. There they formed a battle line, facing south, and made a charge on Battery Powell with the brigades of Colonel Elijah Gates and Colonel McLain, while the brigades of Colonel Moore (deputising for Green) and Colonel W Bruce Colbert attacked Union Brigadier-General Charles Smith Hamilton’s division at about 9 am. Union artillery caused heavy casualties but the Confederates pressed on. They stormed Battery Powell, capturing the guns and scattering the defenders into the town. Confederate Colonel Charles Phifer’s brigade entered the town and engaged in a fierce battle by the Tishomingo Hotel. Part of Union Brigadier-General Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan’s brigade, held as a reserve on Hamilton’s left, charged in and threw the Confederates into confusion in the narrow streets. A few Confederates fought their way deeper into Corinth, but they were quickly driven out after reaching the railroad depot unsupported. As they fell back they came within range of batteries on both flanks and the cross-fire routed them utterly.

Confederate Brigadier-General William Lewis Cabell’s brigade of Brigadier-General Dabney Herndon Maury’s division was sent to reinforce the troops that had captured Battery Powell but, before they arrived, Davies and Hamilton had recaptured it. Cabell advanced against a murderous fire that forced his men to retreat. Maury’s division had been engaged since about 9 am. As soon as Maury heard the firing on his left, he realised that Davies and Hamilton would be kept too busy to interfere with his movements and gave the order for his division to move straight towards the town instead. His right flank encountered stubborn resistance at about 11 am from Battery Robinette, a three-gun redan just north of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad. Fierce hand-to-hand combat ensued and he was forced to retire with heavy losses. Confederate Colonel William P Rogers led three assaults on Battery Robinett but all of them failed.

At about 3 pm, Hamilton was ordered to change his front and to attack the Confederates on the left flank. A misunderstanding of the order and the unmasking of a force on Union Brigadier-General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford’s front delayed the movement. So much time was lost that it was sunset before the division was in position for the movement and it had to be abandoned.

Meanwhile, Confederate Major-General Mansfield Lovell had been skirmishing with the Union left in the vicinity of Battery Phillips, in preparation for a general advance. Before his arrangements were complete, he was ordered to send one brigade to Maury’s assistance, and soon afterward received orders to move his command so as to cover the retreat of the army to Chewalla. As a result, Lovell’s Division contributed little to the attack. The Confederates ended their attack by 1 pm and were in retreat.

At 4 pm, Union reinforcements from Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, under the command of Brigadier-General James Birdseye McPherson, arrived from Jackson to seal the victory. Union Brigadier-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord arrived and camped near Pocahontas during the night of 4-5 October. Union Major-General William Starke Rosecrans postponed any pursuit until the morning. Van Dorn’s Army of West Tennessee at first retreated unhindered from Corinth. Van Dorn attributed his defeat to the failure of Hébert to open the second-day engagement on time.

The Union army lost 2,520 men (315 or 355 killed, 1,812 or 1,841 wounded, and 232 or 324 missing). Confederate losses were either 4,233 (473 killed, 1,997 wounded, and 1,763 captured or missing) or 1,423 killed, 5,692 wounded and 2,268 captured). (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Missouri. Skirmish at Granby.

Missouri. Skirmish in Monroe County

Missouri. Skirmish at Newtonia. The Confederates of Colonel Douglas Hancock Cooper and Colonel Joseph Orville Shelby evacuated Newtonia and retreated towards the Boston Mountains, screened aggressively by Shelby’s cavalry.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Middleton.

Galveston Harbour, Texas, also known as First Galveston or Galveston. The US Navy had established a blockade of Galveston Harbour in July 1861 but the town remained in Confederate hands for the next fourteen months. At 6 am, Commodore William B Renshaw, commanding the Union blockading ships in the Galveston Bay area, sent USS Harriet Lane, Commander Jonathan M Wainwright, into the harbour, flying a flag of truce. The intention was to inform the military authorities in Galveston that if the town did not surrender, the US Navy ships would attack. A time limit of one hour was set for a reply.

Colonel Joseph J Cook, the Confederate military commander in the area, and his subordinate Colonel Xavier Blanchard Debray, would not come out to the Union ship or send an officer to receive the communication, so USS Harriet Lane weighed anchor and returned to the fleet. Four Union steamers with a mortar boat in tow entered the harbour and moved to the same area where USS Harriet Lane had anchored. Observing this activity, Confederates at Fort Point opened fire and the US Navy ships answered. Eventually, the Union ships disabled the single Confederate gun at Fort Point and engaged other targets. Two Confederate guns from another location then opened on the Union ships.

The boat that Colonel Cook had dispatched now approached the Union vessels and two Confederate officers boarded USS Westfield. Renshaw demanded an unconditional surrender of Galveston or he would begin shelling the town. Cook refused Renshaw’s terms and conveyed to Renshaw that the responsibility of destroying the town and killing women, children and aliens rested on him. Renshaw threatened to resume the shelling and made preparations for towing the mortar boat into position. One of the Confederate officers asked whether he could have time to talk again with Cook. This officer, a major, negotiated with Renshaw for a four-day truce to evacuate the women, children, and aliens from the city. Cook approved the truce but added a stipulation that if Renshaw would not move troops closer to Galveston, Cook would not permit his men to come below the city. The agreement was finalised but never written down, which later caused problems. The Confederates did evacuate, taking all of their weapons, ammunition, supplies, and whatever they could carry with them. Renshaw did not think that the agreement allowed for all this but did nothing, due to the absence of a written agreement. The fall of Galveston closed an important Confederate port to commerce raiders. (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Virginia. Operation in Highland County, Pendleton County, and Pocahontas County began.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Conrad’s Ferry began.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance from Loudoun Heights to Hillsboro and Neersville began.

Virginia. Operation in Hampshire County ended.

Virginia. Incidents at Little Cacapon Bridge, Paw Paw Tunnel, Hanging Rock, Blue’s Gap and Franklin.

Virginia. A raiding party from USS Thomas Freeborn, Lieutenant-Commander Samuel Magaw, entered Dumfries and destroyed the telegraph office and the wires of the line running from Occoquan to Richmond via Fredericksburg.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General George Crook returned from Maryland to western Virginia with two brigades of the Kanawha Division. He joined Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox for a new three-pronged offensive. Brigadier-General Robert Huston Milroy would lead Cox’s former division from Clarksburg towards Beverly; Crook would advance from Sutton on Gauley, while Cox led the third force himself up the Kanawha towards Charleston. The Confederates under Major-General William Wing Loring were outnumbered and were soon forced once again to abandon western Virginia.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox assumed command of the District of Western Virginia, succeeding Brigadier-General Quincy Adams Gillmore.

Cox, Jacob Dolson / Canada-Ohio / Born 27 October 1828 Montreal, Canada / Died Gloucester, Massachusetts 4 August 1900
Brigadier-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861-30 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 6 October 1862 Expired 3 March 1863 Reverted to Brigadier-General USV / Reappointed Major-General USV 7 December 1864 / Resigned USV 1 January 1866
Kanawha Brigade Department of the Ohio July 1861-25 July 1861 / Kanawha Brigade Army of Occupation 25 July 1861-11 October 1861 / District of the Kanawha 11 October 1861-26 July 1862 / Defences of Washington 30 August 1862-7 September 1862 / Kanawha Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-14 September 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 14 September 1862-8 October 1862 / District of Western Virginia 13 October 1862-December 1862 / District of Ohio 14 April 1863-16 November 1863 / District of Michigan 2 June 1863-5 June 1863 / XXIII Corps Ohio 21 December 1863-10 February 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio 3 March 1864-31 March 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 4 April 1864-9 April 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 9 April 1864-26 May 1864 / Army of the Ohio 25 May 1864-27 May 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 26 May 1864-27 May 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 27 May 1864-14 September 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 14 September 1864-22 October 1864 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 22 October 1864-30 November 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 30 November 1864-1 December 1864 /3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 1 December 1864-13 January 1865 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 17 January 1865-9 February 1865 /3rd Division XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 9 February 1865-15 February 1865 / Cox’s Provisional Corps Department of North Carolina 25 February 1865-31 March 1865 / District of Beaufort North Carolina 25 February 1865-18 March 1865 / XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 31 March 1865-19 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 31 March 1865-16 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 19 June 1865-27 June 1865

USA: John Henry Hobart Ward promoted Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862.

Ward, John Henry Hobart / New York / Born 17 June 1823 New York City, New York / Died Monroe, New York 28 July 1903
Private USA 7th US Infantry 13 April 1842 / Corporal USA / Sergeant USA / Sergeant-Major USA 7th US Infantry / Discharged USA 13 April 1847 / Assistant Commissary General of Subsistence New York Militia 1851-1855 / Commissary General of Subsistence New York Militia 1855-1859 / Colonel USV 38th New York Infantry 8 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 / Mustered Out USV 18 July 1864 / WIA Monterrey September 1847 WIA Wapping Heights 1863 WIA Kelly’s Ford 1863 WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863 WIA Wapping Heights 23 July 1863 WIA Rappahannock Station 7 November 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864
2nd Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 21 July 1861-August 1861 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 30 May 1862-9 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 1 September 1862-13 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 30 October 1862-26 January 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 15 February 1863-March 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac April 1863-29 May 1863 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 29 May 1863-3 June 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 3 June 1863-2 July 1863 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 1863-7 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 7 July 1863-August 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac September 1863-29 December 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 17 January 1864-28 January 1864 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 28 January 1864-17 February 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 20 April 1864-12 May 1864

USA: John Milton Thayer promoted Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862.

Thayer, John Milton / Massachusetts / Born 24 January 1820 Bellingham, Massachusetts / Died Lincoln, Nebraska 19 March 1906
Lieutenant Massachusetts Militia / Brigadier-General Nebraska Territory Militia / Major-General Nebraska Militia / Colonel USV 1st Nebraska Infantry 21 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 9 April 1863 to rank from 13 March 1863 / Resigned USV 19 July 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
3rd Brigade 3rd Division District of Cairo 14 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Dost of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 162 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Army of West Tennessee 13 March 1862-June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862/ 3rd Brigade 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-12 December 1862 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-1 August 1863 / 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 27 July 1863-28 July 1863 / District of the Frontier Kansas 6 January 1864-1 February 1864 / District of the Frontier 19 May 1864-1 February 1865 / District of Eastern Arkansas 13 May 1865-5 June 1865

USA: Joseph Jackson Bartlett promoted Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 unconfirmed.

Bartlett, Joseph Jackson / New York / Born 21 November 1834 Binghamton, New York / Died Baltimore, Maryland 14 January 1893
Private USV April 1861 / Major USV 27th New York Infantry 21 May 1861 / Colonel USV 21 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 October 1862 to rank from 14 September 1862 Expired Unconfirmed 4 March 1863 / Brigadier-General 4 October 1862 to rank from 2 April 1862 Unconfirmed / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 30 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 / WIA Wilderness 5 May 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 13 May 1862-November 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac December 1862-1 July 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 1863-4 July 1863 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 5 August 1863-6 November 1863 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-4 August 1863 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 6 November 1863-31 December 1863 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 3 February 1864-3 April 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 3 April 1864-20 July 1864 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 21 June 1864-9 August 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 9 August 1864-17 August 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 1 October 1864-23 December 1864 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 24 December 1864-4 January 1865 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 6 January 1865-27 January 1865 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 7 March 1865-1 April 186 / 2nd Division IX Corps Department of Washington 22 March 1865–3 May 1865 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 1 April 1865-25 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Charles Henry Davis
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis

  • District of St Louis: John Wynn Davidson
  • District of Southwest Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • Army of the Southwest: Frederick Steele
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Lewis Merrill
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
  • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • Army of Southwestern Missouri: John McAllister Schofield

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Pensacola: Neal S Dow
  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Wisconsin: Washington Lafayette Elliott

Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright

  • District of Louisville: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Western Virginia: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Sub-District of the Kanawha: Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • I Corps Ohio: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • II Corps Ohio: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
    • III Corps Ohio: Charles Champion Gilbert

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
    • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
    • IX Corps Potomac: Jacob Dolson Cox temporary
    • XI Corps Potomac: Franz Sigel
    • XII Corps Potomac: Alpheus Starkey Williams temporary

Department of the South: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel

  • X Corps South: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Sub-District of Jackson: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

District of Colorado: John Milton Chivington

Military District of Washington: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Elkanah Brackin Greer promoted Brigadier-General PACS October 4 1862 to rank from October 8 1862.

Greer, Elkanah Brackin / Mississippi-Texas / Born 11 October 1825 Paris, Tennessee / Died 25 March 1877
Private USV 1st Mississippi Rifles 1845-1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Texas Cavalry 1 July 1861 / South Kansas and Texas Cavalry August 1861 / Resigned PACS 1 June 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 4 October 1862 to rank from 8 October 1862 / No Record of Parole / WIA Pea Ridge March 1862
Cavalry Brigade Army of the West 13 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi 27 March 1865-26 May 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General William Duncan Smith died of fever at Charleston, South Carolina.

Smith, William Duncan / Georgia / Born 28 July 1826 Augusta, Georgia / Died Charleston, South Carolina 4 October 1862
USMA 1 July 1846 35/59 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 August 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 August 1851 / Captain USA 4 June 1858 / Resigned USA 28 January 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Major ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Major PACS 1st Georgia Regular Infantry April 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 25 June 1861 / Colonel PACS 20th Georgia Infantry 14 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 7 March 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
1st Brigade District of Georgia 30 April 1862-8 July 1862 / First Sub-District of South Carolina 8 July 1862-4 October 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

Department of East Tennessee: John Porter McCown

  • Army of Kentucky: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton awaited

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith

    • Sub-District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Valley District: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

Department of Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Southwest Army: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: vacant

Western Department: Braxton Bragg

  • District of the Tennessee: John Porter McCown
  • District of Middle Tennessee: Samuel Jones
  • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
  • Army of Mississippi: Leonidas Polk temporary
    • Right Wing Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • Left Wing Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Army of West Tennessee: Earl Van Dorn

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Saloman
James Streshly Jackson
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
Francis Preston Blair
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
William Rufus Terrill
Edward Ferrero
Francis Laurens Vinton
Henry Jackson Hunt
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Henry Hastings Sibley
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
John Milton Thayer

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
David Rumph Jones

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith DEC
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Allison Nelson
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
John Sappington Marmaduke
Elkanah Brackin Greer

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