1862 May 7th

May 7 1862 Wednesday

Battle of Eltham’s Landing, VA (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Peninsula Campaign

First Corinth Campaign

Jackson‘s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

California. Skirmish at Croghan’s Ranch.

Missouri. Skirmish at Horse Creek.

North Carolina. Union expedition by Colonel Rush C Hawkins from Roanoke Island to Gatesville began.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Purdy.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance to Mulberry Point on the James began by Major Robert Morris (6th Pennsylvania Cavalry).

Virginia. Occupation of Pearlsburg.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Somerville Heights (South Fork Shenandoah River), McDowell, Cow Pasture, and Giles Court House.

Virginia. Union troops from Major-General John Charles Frémont’s command engaged guerrillas at Wardensviille, who had previously murdered a party of soldiers and convalescents on their way from Winchester to Moorefield.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson met Brigadier-General Edward Johnson and combined their forces at West View, seven miles west of Staunton. Jackson’s troops had marched 92 miles and ridden 25 miles by rail in four marching days. The largely untried force marched west along the Parkersburg turnpike to McDowell with Johnson’s brigade providing the vanguard.

At mid-afternoon, Union pickets were encountered at Rodgers’ tollgate, where the turnpike crosses Ramsey’s Draft. The entire Union force in the area was about 3,500 strong total but the advanced guard consisted of portions of three regiments (3rd West Virginia Infantry, 32nd Ohio Infantry and 75th Ohio Infantry) under the overall command of Brigadier-General Robert Huston Milroy. The Union troops withdrew hastily, abandoning their baggage at the tollgate, and retreated to the crest of Shenandoah Mountain. Hearing of Jackson’s unexpected appearance, Union Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck set out to march the 34 miles from Franklin in 23 hours to reinforce Milroy with his brigade of 1,500 men.

The Confederate force divided into two columns to envelop the Union position on Shenandoah Mountain. Milroy then ordered his force to withdraw once again and to concentrate at McDowell, where he waited to receive reinforcements. Milroy also positioned a section of artillery on Shaw’s Ridge to impede Johnson’s descent from the crest of Shenandoah Mountain. These guns were soon withdrawn to McDowell, along with their supports .

By dusk, Johnson’s advance regiments had reached Shaw’s Fork, where they encamped. Because of the narrow roads and shortage of practical campsites, Jackson’s army stretched back for eight to ten miles along the turnpike with its rear guard at Dry Branch Gap. Jackson established his headquarters at Rodgers’ tollgate. During the night, Milroy withdrew behind the Bullpasture River to McDowell, establishing his headquarters in the Hull House.

Eltham’s Landing, Virginia, also known as West Point or Barhamsville. USS Wachusett, Commander W Smith, USS Chicora, and USS Sebago had escorted Army transports up the York River and supported the landing of Union Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin’s division at Eltham’s Landing on the York River.

Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston had assigned Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith’s Division the task of guarding  the nearby road to Barhamsville and the line of retreat of the army. Smith assigned the task of counterattacking at the landing to the small division of two brigades under Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting, aided by Hampton’s Legion under Colonel Wade Hampton.

Franklin posted Brigadier-General John Newton’s brigade in the woods on either side of the landing road, supported in the rear by portions of two more brigades under Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum and Brigadier-General Philip Kearny. Newton’s skirmish line was pushed back as Confederate Brigadier-General John Bell Hood’s Texan Brigade advanced, with Hampton on his right. Hood was concerned about casualties from friendly fire in the thick woods so he ordered his men to advance with the bayonet and unloaded rifles. Whiting’s own brigade under Colonel Evander McIver Law followed Hood on his left and the Union troops retreated from the woods to the plain before the landing where they gained the protection afforded by the Union gunboats. Whiting employed artillery fire against the gunboats but his guns had insufficient range and he had to disengage around 2 pm. The Union troops moved back into the woods after the Confederates left, but made no attempt to advance any further. Although the action was inconclusive, Franklin had missed an opportunity to intercept the Confederate retreat from Williamsburg and Hood’s aggressive charge deterred enemy interference of the Confederate retreat. There were 194 Union casualties and 48 Confederate. (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: ELTHAM’S LANDING, VA

Union Department of the Rappahannock: Major-General Irvin McDowell
1st Division, Rappahannock: Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin (attached to Army of the Potomac)
1st Brigade, 1st Division, Rappahannock: Brigadier-General Philip Kearny
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Rappahannock: Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Rappahannock: Brigadier-General John Newton

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of Northern Virginia: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Left Wing Northern Virginia: Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith
Smith’s Division, Left Wing Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting
Whiting’s Brigade, Smith’s Division, Left Wing Northern Virginia: Colonel Evander McIver Law
Hood’s Brigade, Smith’s Division, Left Wing Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Hampton’s Brigade, Smith’s Division, Left Wing Northern Virginia: Colonel Wade Hampton

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Mississippi: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of St Louis: Lewis Merrill
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
    • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Adams Dix
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont
    • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Central and Northern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell
    • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
    • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
    • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Braxton Bragg arrived to assume temporary command of the Army of Mississippi, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

Bragg, Braxton / North Carolina / Born 22 March 1817 Warrenton, North Carolina / Died Galveston, Texas 27 September 1876
USMA 1 July 1837 5/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / Regt Adjutant 19 November 1837-8 March 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 3 January 1856 / Colonel Louisiana Militia / ADC (T O Moore) / Major-General Louisiana Militia 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 7 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 12 September 1861 / General ACSA 12 April 1862 to rank from 6 April 1862 / Paroled Monticello, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 February 1847
Department of Louisiana 22 February 1861-21 March 1861 / Forces in New Orleans 22 February 1861-16 April 1861 / Department of West Florida 7 March 1861-14 October 1861 / Forces in Pensacola 7 March 1861-3 October 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 7 October 1861-28 February 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 4 March 1862-2 April 1862 / Army of Pensacola 22 October 1861-26 January 1862 / II Corps (Second Grand Division) Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-28 March 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 May 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Mississippi 30 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 May 1862-5 July 1862 / Western Department 17 June 1862-24 October 1862 / Army of Mississippi 15 August 1862-28 September 1862 / Western Department 3 November 1862-25 July 1863 / Army of Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-2 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 25 July 1863-21 December 1863 / Military Adviser to the President 24 February 1864-31 January 1865 / Defences of Wilmington 24 October 1864-11 November 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 11 November 1864-6 March 1865 /Defences of Augusta 22 November 1864-2 December 1864 / Defences of Savannah 2 December 1864 / Defences of Charleston December 1864 / Defences of Wilmington January 1865 / II Corps Tennessee 22 February 1865-8 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Reserve Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams

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