1862 May 5th

May 5 1862 Monday

Battle of Williamsburg, VA (CWSAC – Major Battle – Inconclusive)

Peninsula Campaign

First Corinth Campaign

Confederate Evacuation of New Mexico

Kentucky. Skirmish at Lockridge Mills near Dresden.

Louisiana. USS Calhoun, Lieutenant Joseph E Dehaven, captured the schooner Rover with a cargo of bricks in Lake Pontchartrain.

New Mexico Territory. Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Hopkins Sibley reached Fort Bliss at the end of his failed invasion of the New Mexico Territory. His demoralised and starving army was strung out for fifty miles behind him. He had evaded the half-hearted pursuit of Brigadier-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby and had lost 1,700 men in his expedition to Albuquerque and Santa Fe, most of them to non-combat causes during the retreat through the Madalena Mountains, the Sierra de San Mateo, and along the dry bed of the Palomas River.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Lebanon involving Union Brigadier-General Ebenezer Dumont.

Virginia. Reconnaissance to Culpeper Court House ended. Incidents at Brandy Station, Columbia Bridge Franklin, and Princeton.

Virginia. A boat from USS Corwin, Lieutenant Thomas S Phelps, captured the sloop Water Witch, which had been abandoned by the Confederates the previous day above Gloucester Point.

Virginia. US President Abraham Lincoln, with Secretaries Edwin McMasters Stanton and Salmon Portland Chase, proceeded to Hampton Roads on the steamer Miami to evaluate operations on the Virginia peninsula. During the five days he remained in the area, the President observed gunboat operations in the James River and the bombardment of Sewell’s Point by the blockading squadron.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan ordered Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin’s division to board transport ships on the York River in an attempt to land and cut off the Confederate retreat from Yorktown. It took two days just to board the men and equipment onto the ships but McClellan had high hopes for his turning movement and planned to send further divisions under Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter, Brigadier-General John Sedgwick, and Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson by river to join Franklin. Their destination was Eltham’s Landing on the south bank of the Pamunkey River across from West Point, a port on the York River, which was the terminus of the Richmond & York River Railroad. From the landing, it was about five miles south to the small town of Barhamsville, a key intersection on the road to New Kent Court House. McClellan expected to outflank or even cut off the Confederate army retreating from Yorktown.

Williamsburg, Virginia, also known as Fort Magruder. Nearly 41,000 Union and nearly 32,000 Confederate troops were engaged in a rearguard action following the Confederate retreat from Yorktown. Union Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker’s division (1st Division, III Corps) encountered the Confederate rearguard of Major-General James Longstreet’s division, which had occupied some old earthworks midway between Halfway House and Williamsburg.

Slowed by rain and heavy mud, Hooker’s division was in the lead of the Union advance. They assaulted Fort Magruder and a line of rifle pits and smaller fortifications that extended in an arc south-west from the fort but were repulsed. Confederate counterattacks directed by Longstreet threatened to overwhelm Hooker’s division, while he waited for the main body of the army to arrive in support. Hooker had expected Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith’s 2nd Division of IV Corps, marching north on the Yorktown Road, to hear the sound of battle and to come in on his right flank in support. However, Smith had been halted by Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner more than a mile away from Hooker’s position. Sumner was concerned that the Confederates would leave their fortifications and attack him on the Yorktown Road. Longstreet’s men did leave their fortifications, but they attacked Hooker, not Smith or Sumner. The Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox applied strong pressure to Hooker’s line. Confederate counterattacks directed by Longstreet threatened to overwhelm Hooker’s left flank until Brigadier-General Philip Kearny’s division (2nd Division, III Corps) arrived in the late afternoon to stabilise the Union position. Kearny pushed the Confederates off the Lee’s Mill Road and into the woods and abattis of their defensive positions. Sharp fire-fights continued until late in the afternoon.

Confederate Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill counter-marched his division to reinforce Longstreet and arrived on his left flank. Smith’s Union division (2/IV) finally took up the fight opposite Hill about noon. While Hooker continued to confront the Confederate forces in front of Fort Magruder, Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock’s 1st Brigade of Smith’s division marched a few miles past the Union right and crossed Cub Creek at the point where it was dammed to form the Jones’ Mill pond. They quickly occupied two abandoned redoubts and began firing on Longstreet’s left flank around noon. Hill, commanding Longstreet’s reserve, had previously detached a brigade under Brigadier-General Jubal Anderson Early to the grounds of the College of William and Mary. Hearing the sounds of Union artillery, Early and Hill hurried in that direction. Splitting his command, Early led two of his four regiments (the 24th Virginia Infantry and 38th Virginia Infantry) through the woods but without performing adequate reconnaissance. They found that they had emerged not on the enemy’s flank but directly in front of Hancock’s guns, placed in the two redoubts. Early led the 24th Virginia in a futile assault and fell wounded.

Hancock had been ordered repeatedly by Sumner to withdraw his command back to Cub Creek but he used the Confederate attack as an excuse to hold his ground. As the 24th Virginia charged, Hill emerged from the woods leading one of Early’s other regiments, the 5th North Carolina Infantry. He ordered an immediate attack before realising the difficulty of his situation. Hancock’s 3,400 infantrymen and eight artillery pieces significantly outnumbered the two attacking Confederate regiments, which had fewer than 1,200 men and no artillery support. Hill called off the assault after it had begun and then Hancock ordered a counterattack. The North Carolinians suffered 302 casualties, the Virginians lost 508. Union losses were about 100 men.

At about 2pm, Union Brigadier-General John James Peck’s brigade (from 1st Division, IV Corps), arrived to support and extend the right of Hooker’s line, which had been pushed back from the cleared ground in front of Fort Magruder into the abattis and heavy woods about 600 to 1,000 yards from the Confederate fortifications. The morale of Hooker’s troops had been affected terribly by the loss of Captain Charles H Webber’s Battery H 1st US Light Artillery and Captain Walter M Bramhall’s 6th Battery New York Light Artillery. Peck’s arrival on the field and his brigade’s recovery of the guns of Bramhall’s battery came at a critical moment for Hooker’s division, which was on the verge of retreat.

The costly defence of Williamsburg delayed the Union pursuit and allowed the bulk of the Confederate army to continue its withdrawal toward Richmond during the night. Union losses were reported as between 2,239 and 2,283 out of 40,768 engaged (456, killed, 1,410 wounded and 373 missing; Confederate losses were 1,560 to 1,703 out of 31,823 engaged. (CWSAC – Major Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: WILLIAMSBURG, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
III Corps (Potomac): Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
2nd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd “Excelsior” Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps: Colonel Nelson Taylor
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Francis Engle Patterson
3rd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Philip Kearny
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Charles Davis Jameson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General David Bell Birney
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps: Brigadier-General Hiram Gregory Berry
IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes
1st Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General Darius Nash Couch
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General John James Peck
2nd Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock
2nd “Vermont” Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks~3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General John Wynn Davidson
3rd Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General Silas Casey
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps: Brigadier-General Henry Morris Naglee
Cavalry Division: Brigadier-General Philip St George Cooke
1st Brigade, Cavalry Division: Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of Northern Virginia: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Right Wing Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Longstreet’s Division: Major-General James Longstreet
Hill’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Anderson’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Richard Heron Anderson
Pickett’s Brigade: Brigadier-General George Edward Pickett
Wilcox’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Pryor’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Roger Atkinson Pryor
Colston’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Raleigh Edward Colston
D H Hill’s Division: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Early’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Jubal Anderson Early
Rodes’ Brigade: Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes
Rains’ Brigade: Brigadier-General Gabriel James Rains
Featherston’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
Cavalry Brigade: Brigadier-General James Ewell Brown Stuart

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Kansas was discontinued.

USA: Brigadier-General James Gilpatrick Blunt arrived to command the Department of Kansas.

Blunt, James Gilpatrick / Maine / Born 21 July 1826 Trenton, Maine / Died Washington, District of Columbia 27 July 1881
Colonel Kansas Militia 1856 / Private Kansas Infantry / Lieutenant-Colonel 3rd Kansas Infantry July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 April 1862 to rank from 8 April 1862 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 29 July 1865
Department of Kansas 2 May 1862-19 September 1862 / Army of Kansas 16 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Kansas Division Army of the Border 19 September 1862-12 October 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Frontier 12 October 1862-20 November 1862 / District of Kansas 2 November 1862-9 June 1863 / Army of the Frontier 20 November 1862-29 December 1862 / District of the Frontier 9 June 1863-6 January 1864 / District of the Frontier Arkansas 6 January 1864-22 February 1864 / District of the Frontier 23 February 1864-17 April 1864 / District of the Upper Arkansas 2 August 1864-14 October 1864 / District of South Kansas 10 October 1864-31 October 1864 / 1st Division Army of the Border 14 October 1864-8 November 1864 / District of South Kansas 22 November 1864-3 June 1865

USA: Colonel Justus Steinburger (1st Washington Territory Infantry) assumed temporary command of the District of Oregon, succeeding Lieutenant-Colonel Albemarle Cady.

Steinburger, Justus / Died 13 October 1870
Colonel USV 1st Washington Territory Infantry 12 October 1861 / Major USA Paymaster 1866
District of Oregon 5 May 1862-6 July 1862

USA: Edwin Vose Sumner promoted Major-General USV 16 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 later adjusted to rank from 5 May 1862. He held concurrently the grade of Brigadier-General USA.

Sumner, Edwin Vose (Sr) / Massachusetts-New York / Born 30 January 1797 Boston, Massachusetts / Died Syracuse, New York 21 March 1863
2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 3 March 1819 / 1st Lieutenant USA 25 January 1823 / Captain USA 1st US Dragoons 4 March 1833 1st US Dragoons / Major USA 2nd US Dragoons 30 June 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1st US Dragoons 13 July 1848 / Colonel USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA 16 March 1861 / Major-General USV 16 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 adjusted to rank from 5 May 1862 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 31 May 1862 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Glendale 30 June 1862
Department of the Pacific 23 March 1861-20 October 1861 / Sumner’s Division Army of the Potomac 25 November 1861-13 March 1862 / II Corps Potomac 3 March 1862-7 October 1862 / Right Grand Division Potomac 14 November 1862-5 February 1863

USA: Samuel Peter Heintzelman promoted Major-General USV 5 May 1862.

Heintzelman, Samuel Peter / Pennsylvania / Born 30 September 1805 Manheim, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 1 May 1880
USMA 1 July 1826 17/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 March 1833 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 7 July 1838-18 June 1846 / Captain USA 2nd US Infantry 4 November 1838 / Major USA 1st US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Colonel USA 17th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 5 May 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Major-General USA Retired 22 February 1869 / Retired USA 22 February 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Major USA 9 October 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 19 December 1851 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Alexandria 24 May 1861 Exchanged WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 WIA Glendale 30 June 1862
Assistant Inspector-General Department of Washington May 1861 / Heintzelman’s Brigade Department of Northeastern Virginia 28 May 1861-8 July 1861 / 3rd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-14 August 1861 / Heintzelman’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 14 August 1861-3 October 1861 / Heintzelman’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / III Corps Potomac 3 March 1862-30 October 1862 / Defences South of the Potomac 9 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Military District of Washington 27 October 1862-2 February 1863 / Department of Washington 2 February 1863-14 October 1863 / XXII Corps Washington 2 February 1862-14 October 1863 / Northern Department 12 January 1864-1 October 1864

USA: Joseph Hooker promoted Major-General USV 5 May 1862.

Hooker, Joseph / Massachusetts / Born 13 November 1814 Hadley, Massachusetts / Died Garden City, New York 31 October 1879
USMA 1 July 1837 29/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 November 1838 / Regt Adjutant 1 September 1841-11 June 1846 / Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 1st US Artillery 29 October 1848 / Vacated 29 October 1848 / Resigned USA 21 February 1853 / Colonel California Militia 1859-1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 5 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 20 September 1862 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General Retired USA 15 October 1868 / Retired USA 15 October 1868 / Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Captain USA AAG 3 March 1847 Brevet Major USA 11 June 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863
Hooker’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 4 August 1861-3 October 1861 / Hooker’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-15 September 1862 / III Corps Virginia 6 September 1862-12 September 1862 / I Corps Potomac 12 September 1862-17 September 1862 / V Corps Potomac 10 November 1862-16 November 1862 / Centre Grand Division Potomac 16 November 1862-24 January 1863 / Department of the Potomac 26 January 1863-27 June 1863 / Army of the Potomac 26 January 1863-28 June 1863 / Hooker’s Command Department of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-13 April 1864 / XX Corps Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 July 1864 / Northern Department 1 October 1864-27 June 1865 / Department of the East 15 July 1865-13 August 1866 / Department of the Lakes 23 August 1865-1 June 1867

USA: Erasmus Darwin Keyes promoted Major-General July 16 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862, adjusted 10 March 1863 to rank from 5 May 1862.

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin / Massachusetts-Maine / Born 29 May 1810 Brimfield, Massachusetts / Died Nice, France 14 October 1895
USMA 1 July 1832 10/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant 1 August 1833 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 September 1836 / ADC (W Scott) 1837-1841 / Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1838-16 November 1838 / Captain USA 3rd US Artillery 30 November 1841 / Major USA 1st US Artillery 12 October 1858 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Military Secretary (W Scott) 1 January 1860-12 April 1861 / Colonel USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 re-dated 10 March 1863 to rank from 5 May 1862 / Resigned USV 6 May 1864 / Resigned USA 6 May 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1832 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862
Keyes’ Brigade 1st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 1 July 1861-20 August 1861 / Keyes’ Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-2 October 1861 / 1st Brigade McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 November 1861 / Keyes’ Division Army of the Potomac 9 November 1861-13 March 1862 / IV Corps Potomac 3 March 1862-16 August 1862 / IV Corps Virginia 16 August 1862-1 August 1863 / Department of Virginia 6 April 1863-15 July 1863 / Keyes’ Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 14 April 1863-18 July 1863 / IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-31 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Mississippi: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of St Louis: Lewis Merrill
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
    • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Adams Dix
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont
    • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
    • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Central and Northern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell
    • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
    • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
    • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Reserve Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Maxcy Gregg
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Daniel Smith Donelson
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
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States Rights Gist
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Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
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Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
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