1862 March 2nd

March 2 1862 Sunday

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

New Madrid Campaign

Arkansas. Union Brigadier-General Franz Sigel moved his two divisions of the Army of the Southwest from Bentonville to McKissick’s farm, with an outpost at Smith’s Mills (Osage Mills) about seven miles further to the east. Cavalry was also placed at Osage Springs to maintain contact with Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis’ Union division at Cross Hollows.

Kentucky. Confederate forces under Major-General Leonidas Polk completed the evacuation of the fortifications at Columbus. About 140 heavy guns had been extracted from their emplacements without detection and the garrison of 17,000 was divided. About 7,000 men marched towards New Madrid, Missouri, while the other 10,000 headed towards Humboldt, Tennessee.

Union troops under Brigadier-General George Washington Cullum arrived to probe the defences and found the so-called “Gibraltar of the West” abandoned. The powerful Fort De Russy, which dominated the Mississippi River, was renamed Fort Halleck and the vital railroad and river terminus remained in Union hands for the duration of the war. It became the headquarters for commissary, quartermasters’ and transportation operations in the western theatre and a landing point for troops arriving from all across the Midwest. The surrounding area was strongly pro-Confederate and strong garrisons were required to protect the position. As liberated and escaped slaves drifted northwards, Columbus also became a refuge and then a major post for the enlistment and training of US Colored Troops.

Missouri. Skirmish near New Madrid.

Missouri. The construction of Confederate fortifications at New Madrid and Island No 10 was accelerated. The defences were located on a peninsula of the Mississippi, ten miles long and three miles wide. There was a redoubt for two regiments at New Madrid, defending two more forts: Fort Thompson lay to the west with 14 guns and Fort Bankhead with 7 guns to the east where St John’s Bayou met the Mississippi. There were also land batteries and a floating battery at Island No 10. By the middle of March five batteries containing 24 guns had been built on the shore above Island No 10; twenty-three (or nineteen) guns were in five batteries on the island itself; and the floating battery New Orleans, with sixteen (or nine) guns was moored at the west end of the island. The guns for the fortifications were either obtained from the Pensacola Navy Yard or had been withdrawn from Columbus, Kentucky.

The Confederate Navy also supported the position as Flag Officer George N Hollins commanded six gunboats in the river between Fort Pillow and Island No 10. None of these was armoured. The armoured ram CSS Manassas was intended to be present but was unable to operate in the relatively shallow water. CSS Manassas had been damaged by running aground on the way north and was sent back to New Orleans.

Mississippi. Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard ordered higher priority to be given to the construction of Fort Pillow, a hundred miles downriver from New Madrid. The new design would permit a garrison of 3,000 rather than the original intended complement of 10,000 men to hold it.

New Mexico Territory. Evacuation of Albuquerque and Santa Fe began. Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Hopkins Sibley was leading his column northwards along the Rio Grande River and arrived at Albuquerque, The Union garrison learned of their approach and Captain Herbert M Enos either moved or destroyed all military supplies before evacuating the town.

Tennessee. The Union gunboats USS Lexington and USS Tyler engaged Confederate batteries at Pittsburg Landing.

Virginia. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks moved a scouting force forward from his line at Charlestown to occupy Martinsburg.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General James Shields assumed temporary command of the District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland, succeeding the late Brigadier-General Frederick West Lander.

Shields, James / Ireland / Born 10 May 1810 Altmore, Ireland / Died Ottumwa, Iowa 1 June 1879
Brigadier-General USV 1 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 20 July 1848 / Brigadier-General USV 19 August 1861 / Major-General USV 23 March 1862 Withdrawn 28 April 1862 Rejected 23 June 1862 / Resigned USV 28 May 1863 / Adjutant-General Missouri Militia / Brevet Major-General USV 18 April 1847 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 18487 WIA Winchester 22 March 1862
District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland 2 March 1862-12 March 1862 / Lander’s Division Department of Western Virginia 6 March 1862-13 March 1862 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-22 March 1862 / 2nd Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-10 May 1862 / Shields’ Division Department of the Rappahannock 10 May 1862-26 June 1862

USA: Brigadier-General Frederick West Lander died of pneumonia brought on by wounds and exacerbated by dysentery and exposure.

Lander, Frederick West / Massachusetts / Born 17 December 1821 Salem, Massachusetts / Died Paw Paw, Virginia 2 March 1862
ADC (G B McClellan) May 1861-June 1861 / ADC (T A Morris) May 1861-July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / WIA Edward’s Ferry 22 October 1861
2nd Brigade Stone’s Division Army of the Potomac 9 September 1862-20 October 1862 / District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland 20 October 1861-22 October 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland 1 December 1861-2 March 1862 / Lander’s Division Army of the Potomac 5 January 1862-2 March 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Cairo: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: James Shields
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • Army of Pensacola: Samuel Jones
    • Army of Mobile: John Bordenave Villepigue
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith awaited
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee
    •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
    • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Army of the West: Benjamin McCulloch interim Earl Van Dorn awaited
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander DEC
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Benjamin McCulloch
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom

Daniel Marsh Frost

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