1862 July 7th

July 7 1862 Monday

Battle of Cotton Plant, AR (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Morgan’s First Kentucky Raid

Forrest’s First Tennessee Raid

Bahamas. USS Quaker City, Commander James M Frailey, and USS Huntsville captured the British blockade running schooner Adela off the Bahamas Islands.

Mexico. USS Tahoma, Lieutenant John C Howell, captured the schooner Uncle Mose off Yucatan Bank with a cargo of cotton.

Arkansas. Skirmishes at Grand Prairie, Hill’s Plantation, and Bayou de View.

Arkansas. Skirmish near Devall’s Bluff.

Cotton Plant, Arkansas; also known as Hill’s Plantation, Cache River or Round Hill. Union Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis moved towards Helena in search of supplies to replace those that had been promised but never delivered by the Navy along the White River. The Confederates under Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman attempted to prevent his change of supply base by continually skirmishing with the Union troops as they marched south along the White River to Clarendon, where the supply fleet was waiting.

The Confederates based a force under Brigadier-General Albert Rust at the Cache River to block the crossings. Rust moved too slowly so the forward elements of his force did not strike until the Union command was already four miles south of the river on Parley Hill’s plantation near Cotton Plant. Union Colonel Charles L Harris moved forward towards Hill’s Plantation with elements of the 11th Wisconsin Infantry, 33rd Illinois Infantry, and the 1st Indiana Cavalry. They blundered into an ambuscade and Colonel Charles E Hovey held off a poorly organised attack by Confederate Colonel William H Parsons’ two Texas cavalry regiments, later reinforced by the 12th Texas Cavalry, 16th Texas Cavalry, and 17th Texas Cavalry. The fighting became more general and the Confederates made a frontal attack, forcing the Union troops to retreat about a quarter of a mile. The next Confederate attack was halted.

After receiving reinforcements under Union Brigadier-General William Plummer Benton, the Union troops counter-attacked and broke the Confederate line. They pursued the retreating Confederates into an increasingly chaotic rout as the day progressed. Curtis was able to complete the change of his supply base, but Hindman remained between Curtis and Little Rock, Curtis’ final objective. Troops from the 1st and 2nd Brigades of 1st Division, Army of the Southwest, were engaged and took about 63 casualties. Parsons’ Confederates lost 245 casualties. (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: COTTON PLANT, AR

Union Department of the Mississippi: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck
District of Southwest Missouri: Colonel Egbert Benson Brown
Army of the Southwest: Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis
1st Division (Southwest): Brigadier-General William Plummer Benton
1st Brigade 1st Division (Southwest): Colonel Charles L Harris
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Southwest): Colonel Charles E Hovey

Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department: Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
District of Arkansas: Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Rust’s Brigade (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Albert Rust

District of Columbia. US President Abraham Lincoln departed Washington aboard USS Ariel to visit Major-General George Brinton McClellan and the Army of the Potomac at Harrison’s Landing, Virginia.

Missouri. Skirmishes at Inman Hollow and Newark.

Oregon. Operations begin in Oregon, lasting until 7 October 1863.

South Carolina. Evacuation of James Island ended.

South Carolina. Boats from USS Flag, Commander James H Strong, and USS Restless, Acting Lieutenant Conroy captured the British blockade running schooner Emilie in Bull’s Bay.

Tennessee. Operations around Cumberland Gap until 11 July 1862.

Texas. Operations at Aransas. Pass.

Virginia. Reconnaissance to Gloucester County, King and Queen County, and Matthews County began. Incident at Middletown.

Virginia. Union Commander John Rodgers USN established the regular procedures for convoying Army transports on James River. Each day a convoy of gunboats travelled from Harrison’s Bar to near the mouth of the Chickahominy River. All transportation was to sail downriver at 9 am, convoyed by four gunboats selected for the task. At about 3 pm all the army transportation upriver would be convoyed back by the same force.

Virginia. Following the Union bombardments of their battery at Aquia Creek, the Confederates had reinforced their defences in the area by constructing a third battery on the bluff at Aquia and a fourth across the mouth of Aquia Creek at Brent Point. They had also placed torpedoes (naval mines) off Aquia Creek in the Potomac River, marking the first such use in the war. The mines were 80-gallon casks supporting a boiler-iron torpedo and enough gunpowder to blow up a ship. Union sailors aboard of the USS Pawnee spotted the devices were floating toward them and they were later removed from the river by sailors from the USS Resolute. One of the torpedos sank into the river and was not recovered.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck assumed temporary command of I Corps (Virginia), succeeding Major-General Franz Sigel.

Schenck, Robert Cumming / Ohio / Born 4 October 1809 Franklin, Ohio / Died Washington, District of Columbia 23 March 1890
Brigadier-General Ohio Militia April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 17 September 1862 to rank from 30 August 1862 / Resigned USV 5 December 1863 / WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862
2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 12 June 1861-25 July 1861 / Schenck’s Brigade Department of Washington 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Schenck’s Brigade Army of Occupation September 1861-11 October 1861 / 1st Brigade District of the Kanawha 11 October 1861-11 March 1862 / District of the Cumberland 11 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Schenck’s Brigade Mountain Department 7 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-30 August 1862 / I Corps Virginia 28 June 1862-30 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 7 July 1862-12 July 1862 / Middle Department 17 December 1862-12 March 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 22 December 1862-12 March 1863 / Middle Department 20 March 1863-10 August 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 22 March 1863-10 August 1863 / Middle Department 31 August 1863-22 September 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 31 August 1863-22 September 1863 / Middle Department 10 October 1863-21 November 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 10 October 1863-5 December 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Charles Henry Davis
Potomac Flotilla: Samuel Magaw

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
  • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside interim John Gray Foster awaited

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
    • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin

Department of the South: David Hunter

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Army of Virginia: John Pope

  • I  Corps Virginia: Robert Cumming Schenck temporary
  • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA:  Francis Crawford Armstrong promoted Brigadier-General PACS 7 July 1862 unconfirmed and later cancelled.

Armstrong, Francis Crawford (Frank) / Indian Territory / Born 22 November 1835 Choctaw Agency, Indian Territory / Died Bar Harbor, Maine 8 September 1909
2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 7 June 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 9 March 1859 / ADC (W S Harney) April 1861 / Captain USA 6 June 1861 / 2nd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Resigned USA 13 August 1861 / 2nd Lieutenant ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 Declined / ADC (B McCulloch) 10 August 1861 / ADC (J M McIntosh) 19 November 18611-4 January 1862 / Assistant Adjutant-General 18 March 1862 / Colonel PACS 3rd Louisiana Infantry 14 May 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 7 July 1862 Unconfirmed Cancelled 16 October 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 23 January 1863 to rank from 20 January 1863 / Paroled Columbus, Mississippi 15 May 1865 / CIA Selma 1865
2nd Division Cavalry Army of the West May 1862 / Cavalry Army of the West 7 July 1862 / Armstrong’s Brigade Price’s Cavalry Division Army of the West 7 July 1862-October 1862 / Armstrong’s Brigade W H Jackson’s Division Cavalry Corps Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana January 1863-February 1863 / 1st Cavalry Brigade 2nd Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana February 1863 / 1st Cavalry Brigade 2nd Division Army of Tennessee March 1863-Septemberr 1863 / Armstrong’s Division Forrest’s Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee September 1863-Octonber 1863 / 3rd Division Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps October 1863-5 March 1864 / Armstrong’s Brigade W H Jackson’s Cavalry Division Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 5 March 1864-4 May 1864 / Armstrong’s Brigade W H Jackson’s Cavalry Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 4 May 1864-18 February 1865 / Armstrong’s Brigade Chalmers’ Division Forrest’s Cavalry Corps Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 18 February 1865-4 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin

  • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
  • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary

  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • Trans-Mississippi District: Vacant
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Braxton Bragg

  • District of the Mississippi: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
    • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
    • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
  • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
  • Army of Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee temporary
    • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
    • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Army of the West: Sterling Price

Forces in Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Philip Kearny
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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