1862 January 7th

January 7 1862 Tuesday

East Kentucky Operations

Jackson’s Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Raid

Kentucky. USS Tyler, USS Lexington, and USS Essex reconnoitred down the Mississippi, the latter being one of the first new river-based ironclads. Pursuing a Confederate gunboat, Captain Andrew Hull Foote USN brought his gunboats within range of the artillery batteries at Columbus, and found one of several “submarine batteries,” although the river was found to be generally clear of obstructions.

Kentucky. The Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General Gideon Johnson Pillow was withdrawn by rail from Bowling Green to Clarksville, Tennessee. At Clarksville, there were vital ironworks to be defended and Pillow focused more on that task than to strengthen the garrisons at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, sixty miles away. The brigades of Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd and Brigadier-General Simon Bolivar Buckner were also pulled back from Bowling Green and sent to Russellville, halfway to Clarksville.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Jennie’s Creek and Paintsville. Union Colonel James Abram Garfield commanded the 18th Brigade of the Department of the Ohio, numbering approximately 1,500 men. Garfield sent his 40th Ohio Infantry to march from Lexington to Prestonsburg to cut off the Confederate line of retreat from Middle Creek while the 42nd Ohio Infantry and the 14th Kentucky Infantry and 22nd Kentucky Infantry proceeded up the Big Sandy Valley from their base at Catlettsburg. At Louisa, they were joined by the 1st Ohio Infantry, the 1st Kentucky Infantry, and the 2nd West Virginia Cavalry. The brigade then advanced slowly over muddy roads towards Paintsville.

Confederate Brigadier-General Humphrey Marshall’s brigade was made up of the 29th Virginia Infantry and 54th Virginia Infantry, strengthened by Captain Jeffress’ Virginia battery. Marshall and his men had reached Pound Gap in December, where they were reinforced by Colonel John Stuart Williams and the 5th Kentucky Infantry, after their defeat at Ivy Mountain. Williams’ men had established winter quarters at Pound Gap following their retreat from Pikeville on 8 November. Marshall marched down the Big Sandy Valley and established a fortified camp at Hager Hill and a cavalry camp at the mouth of Jennies Creek, near Paintsville. The 2nd West Virginia Cavalry surprised the Confederate cavalry as they were breaking camp at the mouth of Jennie’s Creek. They initially routed them but their pursuit halted in an ambush. Garfield advanced on Hager Hill to find that the Confederates had abandoned their camp. When Garfield’s message to Colonel Jonathan Cranor, who was advancing from Salyersville, was intercepted, he ordered Cranor and his regiment, the 40th Ohio Infantry, to join him at Paintsville. Meanwhile, Marshall was moving south to the Forks of Middle Creek. There he hoped to avoid the planned entrapment and guard his supply line and line of retreat into Virginia.

Maryland. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson abandoned the bombardment of Hancock and withdrew towards Romney in western Virginia.

North Carolina. Expedition to Roanoke Island began.

North Carolina. Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise arrived at Roanoke Island in preparation to assume command of forces in the area.

Tennessee. The gunboat USS Conestoga (Lieutenant Samuel L Phelps) made an expedition up the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers and gained valuable intelligence about Confederate activity at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. At Fort Donelson near Dover, they discovered obstruc­tions in the river, twelve miles below their battery and they decided that the forts could only be attacked with a powerful naval force.

Despite his dissatisfaction with the selection of unsuitable locations for Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, Confederate Brigadier-General Lloyd Tilghman failed to either abandon them or to start new works in better positions. He was reinforced to a strength of 5,700 men (3,400 men at Fort Henry and 2,300 men at Fort Donelson) and continued his unpromising engineering projects.

Virginia. Skirmishes near Romney at Bloomery Gap, Blue’s Gap, and Hanging Rock Pass. Part of Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s force was defeated by Union troops under Colonel Dunning. Jackson pressed on through freezing weather from Hancock, Maryland, towards Romney.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of North Carolina was established, comprising the parts of North Carolina occupied by Union forces detached from the Department of Virginia.

USA: Brigadier-General Ambrose Everett Burnside was appointed to command the Department of North Carolina, arriving on 13 January 1862.

Burnside, Ambrose Everett / Indiana / Born 23 May 1828 Liberty, Indiana / Died Bristol, Rhode Island 13 September 1881
USMA 1 July 1847 18/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 8 September 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 12 December 1851 / Resigned USA 2 October 1853 / Brigadier-General Rhode Island Militia 1855-1857 / Colonel 1st Rhode Island Militia 1861 / Colonel USV 1st Rhode Island Infantry 2 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 2 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 6 August 1861 / Major-General USV 18 March 1862 / Resigned USV 15 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1847 / WIA Las Vegas, New Mexico Territory 23 August 1849
Burnside’s North Carolina Expeditionary Force 12 September 1861-2 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia June 1861-2 July 1861 / Department of North Carolina 13 January 1862-6 July 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 20 July 1862-2 August 1862 / IX Corps Virginia 3 August 1864-3 September 1862 / Right Wing Army of the Potomac 7 September 1862-19 September 1862 / Defences of Harper’s Ferry 13 October 1862-26 October 1862 / Department of the Potomac 5 November 1862-26 January 1863 / Army of the Potomac 7 November 1862-26 January 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 17 March 1863-19 March 1863 / Department of the Ohio 17 March 1863-9 December 1863 / Army of the Ohio 1 April 1863-8 December 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 17 September 1863-16 January 1864 / IX Corps Department of the Potomac 13 April 1864-14 August 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Cairo: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Central Missouri: John Pope
      • Army of Western Missouri: John Pope
    • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Western Kentucky: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
  • Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside awaited
  • Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Johnson Kelly Duncan promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 January 1862 to rank from 7 January 1862.

Duncan, Johnson Kelly / Pennsylvania / Born 19 March 1827 York, Pennsylvania / Died Knoxville, Tennessee 18 December 1862
USMA 1 July 1849 5/43 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1845 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1849 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 31 October 1849 / 1st Lieutenant USA 24 December 1853 / Resigned USA 31 January 1855 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Major PACS 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery 1861 / Colonel PACS 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Louisiana Artillery April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 January 1862 to rank from 7 January 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1849 / CIA Fort Jackson 28 April 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Defences of Louisiana 25 March 1861-28 April 1862 / 4th Brigade Reserve Division Army of Mississippi 21 August 1862-12 October 1862 / Reserve Division Army of Mississippi 12 October 1862-10 November 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-18 December 1862

CSA: Sterling Alexander Martin Wood promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 January 1862 to rank from 7 January 1862.

Wood, Sterling Alexander Martin / Alabama / Born 17 March 1823 Florence, Alabama / Died Tuscaloosa, Alabama 26 January 1891
Captain Alabama Militia 3 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 7th Alabama Infantry 18 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 January 1862 to rank from 7 January 1862 / Resigned PACS 17 October 1863 / WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Perryville 8 October 1862
3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of Central Kentucky October 1861-23 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Mississippi 7 July 1862-September 1862 / 4th Brigade 3rd Division Army of Mississippi September 1862-8 October 1862 / 4th Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-December 1862 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Tennessee December 1862-April 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Tennessee April 1863-September 1863 / Wood’s Brigade Cleburne’s Division D H Hill’s Corps Army of Tennessee September 1863-17 October 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of Pensacola Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Albert Pike
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Alexander Wise awaited
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • District of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: Earl Van Dorn
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee
    •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
    • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • District of Houston: John Creed Moore
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
    • Army of Central Kentucky: William Joseph Hardee
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
John Clifford Pemberton
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
Daniel Marsh Frost

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