1862 January 30th

January 30 1862 Thursday

Great Britain. The Confederate Commissioners James Murray Mason and John Slidell arrived at Southampton, after being released by the Federal authorities.

Florida. USS Kingfisher, Acting Lieutenant Joseph P Couthouy, captured the blockade-runner Teresita, bound from Havana to Matamoras.

Kentucky. Expedition to the Little Sandy River and Piketon ended.

New York. The USS Monitor, the Union’s first sea-going steam-driven ironclad warship, was launched at Greenpoint. The designer John Ericsson was present to witness the launch of his innovation.

Tennessee. The Union military command in the West suffered from a lack of unified command, especially after it had been reorganised into three separate departments: the Department of Kansas under Major-General David Hunter, the Department of Missouri under Major-General Henry Wager Halleck, and the Department of the Ohio under Brigadier-General Don Carlos Buell.

By January 1862, this disunity of command was exposed because no coordinated strategy for operations in the Western theater had been agreed. Under intense political pressure to invade and hold pro-Union eastern Tennessee, Buell was moving slowly in the direction of Nashville. Successes in eastern Kentucky were important but the prospects for converting those into an invasion of Tennessee through the Cumberland Gap were faint, because of poor weather, shortages of supplies, and impassable roads.

In Halleck’s Department, Brigadier-General Ulysses Simpson Grant was demonstrating up the Tennessee River to divert attention from Buell’s slow advance across Kentucky. Hunter was too weak to do any more than limit guerrilla activity across an immense and peripheral region.

Halleck and all the other generals in the West were under political pressure from President Abraham Lincoln to participate in a general offensive by Washington’s Birthday. Despite his propensity to extreme caution and the inclement weather which had reduced roads to quagmires, Halleck reacted positively to Grant’s proposal that he should move to capture Fort Henry and ordered him to proceed promptly. Greater urgency was imparted by rumours that Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard would soon arrive in the theatre with large numbers of reinforcements; as many as fifteen regiments were reported to be accompanying Beauregard on his transfer from Virginia. Grant’s dynamic diversions and reconnaissances seemed to offer the only foundation for an immediate and impactful advance.

Tennessee. USS Conestoga, Lieutenant Samuel L Phelps, and USS Lexington, Lieutenant Shirk,  reconnoitred the Tennessee River again, making final preparations for the advance to Fort Henry.

Virginia. The Confederate Secretary of War Judah Philip Benjamin directed Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson to withdraw Brigadier-General William Wing Loring’s Army of the Northwest from Romney after Loring lodged a complaint about the unreasonably exposed and difficult conditions for his troops.

Union Organisation

USA: Frederick Steele confirmed Brigadier-General USV 30 January 1862 to rank from 29 January 1862.

Steele, Frederick / New York / Born 14 January 1819 Delhi, New York / Died San Mateo, California 12 January 1868
USMA 1 July 1843 30/39 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 March 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 June 1848 / Regt Adjutant 6 September 1849-5 February 1855 / Captain USA 5 February 1855 / Major USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Iowa Infantry 23 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 January 1862 to rank from 29 January 1862 / Major-General USV 17 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 26 August 1864 / Colonel USA 20th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered USV 1 January 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1839 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 4 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
2nd Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861 / Steele’s Brigade 5th Division Western Army September 1861 / District of Southeast Missouri 1 March 1862-10 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Southwest 9 May 1862-29 August 1862 / Army of the Southwest 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / 1st Division District of Eastern Arkansas 2 November 1862-December 1862 / 11th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee December 1862-13 December 1862 / 4th Division Right Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 13 December 1862-4 January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / 1st Division XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 12 January 1863-27 July 1863 / Army of Arkansas 27 July 1863-22 December 1864 / Department of Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 6 January 1864-21 March 1864 / Department of Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / VII Corps Arkansas 22 May 1864-22 December 1864 / 1st Division Reserve Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 3 February 1865-8 February 1865 / Pensacola Column Army of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-17 May 1865 / Western District of Texas 27 June 1865-20 July 1865 / Department of the Columbia 7 October 1866-29 April 1867

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan awaited
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Cairo: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Central Missouri: John Pope
      • Army of Western Missouri: John Pope
    • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Western Kentucky: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
  • Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: Joseph Rodman West temporary
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • Army of Pensacola: Samuel Jones
    • Army of Mobile: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Northwest: Edward Johnson temporary
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee
    •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
    • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • District of Houston: John Creed Moore
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
    • Army of Central Kentucky: William Joseph Hardee
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Army of the West: Benjamin McCulloch interim Earl Van Dorn awaited
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Daniel Marsh Frost

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