1862 January 1st

January 1 1862 Wednesday

Mason-Slidell Controversy Resolved

East Kentucky Operations

Jackson’s Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Raid

CSA. Confederate Commissioners James Murray Mason and John Slidell were released from prison in Boston after the resolution of a diplomatic dispute with Great Britain. US Secretary of State Seward averted hostilities by declaring a technical resolution that the men were seen as “personal contraband” but their capture was a mistake insofar as Captain Charles Wilkes of the USS San Jacinto had not also brought in the British steamer Trent. They travelled to Provincetown where they embarked on the British warship HMS Rinaldo, bound for England.

Florida. Union guns at Fort Pickens bombarded Fort McRae and Fort Barrancas in Pensacola Bay.

Kentucky. General Albert Sidney Johnston was in command of all the Confederate forces from Arkansas to the Cumberland Gap with garrisons and field forces spread thinly over a tenuous and long defensive line. His left flank under Major-General Leonidas Polk was in Columbus, Tennessee, with 17,000 men. His central position was at Bowling Green with 25,000 men under Major-General William Joseph Hardee. There were about 4,000 more men in East Tennessee under Major-General George Bibb Crittenden. Brigadier-General Lloyd Tilghman was collecting about 4,500 recruits for the construction of the new fortifications of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. West of the Mississippi there were about 20,000 men in disparate commands comprising militia, state troops, national troops, and Indians. Outnumbered overall by about 90,000 Union men under arms against his own 50,000, he issued bold exaggerations of his strength and made aggressive demonstrations to deter the Union commanders from attacking him during the winter.

ORDER OF BATTLE CONFEDERATE WESTERN DEPARTMENT

Confederate Western Department: General Albert Sidney Johnston
Army of Central Kentucky: Major-General William Joseph Hardee
1st Division (Central Kentucky): Major-General William Joseph Hardee
1st Brigade, 1st Division (Central Kentucky): Brigadier-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Central Kentucky): Colonel Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
3rd Brigade, 1st Division (Central Kentucky): Colonel Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
2nd Division (Central Kentucky): Brigadier-General Simon Bolivar Buckner
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (Central Kentucky): Brigadier General John Cabell Breckenridge
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (Central Kentucky): Colonel William Edwin Baldwin
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division (Central Kentucky): Colonel John Calvin Brown
3rd Division (Central Kentucky): Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd
1st Brigade, 3rd Division (Central Kentucky): Brigadier General John Buchanan Floyd
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Central Kentucky): Colonel John Stevens Bowen
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division (Central Kentucky): Brigadier General Charles Clark

Missouri. Expedition to Dayton, Morristown, and Rose Hill began.

Missouri. A Union expedition was sent from Morristown to Dayton. In Dayton, they found that the Confederates had already left. The Union commander Lieutenant-Colonel D R Anthony (1st Kansas Cavalry) destroyed the town as a reprisal for guerrilla activity.

South Carolina. Incidents at Coosaw River and Port Royal Ferry.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson marched north in bitter cold from Winchester to Bath with the objective of disrupting the traffic along the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal.

Virginia. USS Yankee, Lieutenant Eastman, and USS Anacostia, Lieutenant Oscar C Badger, exchanged fire with Confederate batteries at Cockpit Point on the Potomac River. USS Yankee was damaged slightly.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of Kansas: David Hunter

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Cairo: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: John Pope
    • Army of Western Missouri: John Pope
  • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Western Kentucky: Horatio Gouverneur Wright

Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General William Joseph Hardee assumed command of the Army of Central Kentucky, succeeding General Albert Sidney Johnston.

Hardee, William Joseph / Georgia / Born 12 October 1815 Camden, Georgia / Died Wytheville, Virginia 6 November 1873
USMA 1 July 1838 26 /45 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 December 1839 / Captain USA 13 September 1844 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 22 July 1856-8 September 1860 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1st US Cavalry 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 31 January 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 7 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / Brevet Major USA 25 March 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 August 1847 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / CIA Carricitos Ranch 25 April 1846 Exchanged 11 May 1846 WIA La Rosia 1847 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
District of Upper Arkansas 25 June 1861-28 October 1861 / Forces in Missouri 3 August 1861-4 August 1861 / 1st Division Army of Central Kentucky 28 October 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 4 December 1861-18 December 1861 / 1st Division Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-30 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 30 December 1862-23 February 1862 / III Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-15 August 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 July 1862-15 August 1862 / Left Wing Mississippi 15 August 1862-6 November 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / II Corps Tennessee 20 November 1862-23 July 1863 / Army of Mississippi 30 July 1863-23 October 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 August 1863-2 December 1863 / I Corps Tennessee 23 October 1863-2 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 2 December 1863-22 December 1863 / Army of Tennessee 2 December 1863-16 December 1863 / I Corps Tennessee 27 December 1863-31 August 1864 / I Corps and II Corps Army of Tennessee 31 August 1864-2 September 1864 / I Corps Tennessee 2 September 1864-28 September 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 28 September 1864-24 February 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 23 February 1865-15 March 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Constantine Wayne resigned his commission and became Commanding General of Georgia Militia.

Wayne, Henry Constantine / Georgia / Born 18 September 1815 Savannah, Georgia / Died Savannah, Georgia 15 March 1883
USMA 1 July 1838 14/45 Artillery-Quartermaster’s Department / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1838 / 1st US Artillery 12 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 16 May 1842-22 February 1851 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 11 May 1846 / Resigned USA 31 December 1860 / Colonel Georgia Militia 13 December 1860 / Chief of Staff Defences of Georgia 17 April 1861-16 December 1861 / Major-General Quartermaster-General Georgia Militia 30 November 1861 / Colonel Adjutant-General and Inspector-General Georgia Militia 16 December 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 16 December 1861 / Resigned PACS 1 January 1862 / Major-General Adjutant-General and Inspector-General Georgia Militia 11 January 1862 / Commanding General Georgia Militia January 1862-September 1864 / Paroled Georgia 8 May 1865 / Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Army of Pensacola Braxton Bragg

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Albert Pike

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Alexander Wise awaited

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
  • District of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Potomac: Earl Van Dorn
    • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee

  •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
  • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
  • Army of Central Kentucky: William Joseph Hardee
  • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
  • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
John Clifford Pemberton
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Henry Constantine Wayne RES
Raleigh Edward Colston
Daniel Marsh Frost

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