1862 January 19th

January 19 1862 Sunday

Battle of Mill Springs, KY (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

East Kentucky Operations

Go to January 20 1862

Florida. USS Itasca, Lieutenant Charles H B Caldwell, captured the schooner Lizzie Weston on its way to Jamaica with a cargo of cotton.

Mill Springs, Kentucky, also known as Logan Cross Roads, Somerset, Beech Grove, or Fishing Creek. Confederate Major-General George Bibb Crittenden and his 4,000 men marched through the night in rain and mud and arrived at Logan’s Crossroads in a cold and miserable state. Many men carried antique flintlock muskets which were almost useless in the wet weather. The slowness of the march cost them the element of surprise because a dawn patrol of Union cavalry encountered the head of the column. Nevertheless, they launched a spirited attack, led from the front by Brigadier-General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer, and achieved some initial success.
Union Brigadier-General George Henry Thomas’s division had 4,000 men available in Colonel Mahlon Dickerson Manson’s brigade (2/1/Ohio), two regiments from Colonel Robert Latimer McCook’s brigade (3/1/Ohio), a battalion of Wolford’s 1st Kentucky Cavalry Battalion and Kinney’s Battery C 1st Ohio Artillery. Reinforcements from Union Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf’s brigade would arrive too late for the fighting. Manson ordered the 10th Indiana Infantry to oppose the advancing Confederates and sent Colonel Speed Smith Fry’s 4th Kentucky Infantry in support. The 10th Indiana was forced back to a wood and Fry’s Kentuckians then arrived on their left to stabilise the position until further reinforcements arrived.
Some of Zollicoffer’s troops approached to close quarters along a concealed route through a ravine and came under fire from the 4th Kentucky. The 15th Mississippi Infantry and the 20th Tennessee Infantry pushed back the Union 4th Kentucky and 10th Indiana as well as some Union cavalry at about 5.30 am. During a lull in the fighting, Fry rode to reconnoitre the enemy flank and encountered an officer in a white raincoat. The unknown officer told Fry that his men were shooting into their own side. As he was about to order his regiment to cease fire, Fry’s horse was shot and wounded by a Confederate soldier on horseback. Fry and other Union troops observed the incident and shot the white-coated stranger dead. The stranger turned out to be Zollicoffer. Zollicoffer had mistakenly approached the 4th Kentucky in the belief that they were Confederates firing on their own men.
The sudden death of their commander and heavy fire from Fry’s regiment caused the centre of the Confederate line to fall back momentarily and the two nearest Confederate regiments were thrown into confusion. Crittenden rallied them and he brought up Brigadier-General William Henry Carroll’s brigade to make a general advance. Thomas then committed Colonel Samuel Powhatan Carter’s brigade (12/Ohio) to protect the left of the 4th Kentucky and McCook brought up the 2nd Minnesota Infantry and 9th Ohio Infantry to relieve the 10th Indiana and 4th Kentucky, who were almost out of ammunition. Crittenden made another attack but was repulsed. The two withdrawn Union regiments refilled their ammunition boxes and returned to the action. Carter’s brigade advanced on the left with 1st the East Tennessee Infantry and 2nd East Tennessee Infantry while the 2nd Minnesota laid down heavy fire. The 9th Ohio Infantry advanced on the right flank with fixed bayonets. The Union counterattack led by McCook crushed the Confederate right and then their entire line broke. The Confederate troops streamed back towards the river crossing at Mill Springs in a disorderly rout and Crittenden was powerless to stop them. They crossed in a panic to the south side of the Cumberland on flatboats, abandoning twelve artillery pieces, 150 wagons, and more than 1,000 horses and mules. The retreat continued until the troops reached Chestnut Mound, Tennessee, (near Murfreesboro), about fifty miles east of Nashville. Thomas pursued them in poor weather as far as Beech Grove.
Crittenden was later accused of drunkenness and treason. His army was dispersed and he was reassigned to a new command under Brigadier-General Simon Bolivar Buckner at Bowling Green.
The actions at Mill Springs and Middle Creek broke the Confederate defensive line anchored in eastern Kentucky. Union casualties were reported as 246 (39 killed, 207 wounded) and Confederate as 125 killed and 404 wounded or missing. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)


Union Department of the Ohio: Major-General Don Carlos Buell
Army of the Ohio: Major-General Don Carlos Buell
1st Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General George Henry Thomas
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Ohio): Colonel Mahlon Dickerson Manson
3rd Brigade, 1st Division (Ohio): Colonel Robert Latimer McCook
12th Brigade, 1st Division (Ohio): Colonel Samuel Powhatan Carter
Schoepf’s Brigade (Ohio): Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf

Confederate District of East Tennessee: Major-General George Bibb Crittenden
Zollicoffer’s Brigade (East Tennessee): Brigadier-General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Carroll’s Brigade (East Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Henry Carroll

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Polk County began.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold

Department of Kansas: David Hunter

Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan awaited

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Cairo: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: John Pope
    • Army of Western Missouri: John Pope
  • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Western Kentucky: Horatio Gouverneur Wright

Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: Joseph Rodman West temporary

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The “Western Army” was discontinued and incorporated into the Army of the West.

CSA: The Army of the West was established in the Western Department, comprising the discontinued “Western Army”.
CSA: Major-General Earl Van Dorn was appointed to command the Army of the West, arriving on 4 March 1862.

CSA: Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch assumed interim command of the Army of the West, pending the arrival of Major-General Earl Van Dorn.

CSA: Brigadier-General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer was killed at Logan’s Cross Roads, Kentucky.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Army of Pensacola Braxton Bragg

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Albert Pike

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Alexander Wise

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
  • District of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee

  •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • District of Houston: John Creed Moore
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
  • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn awaited
  • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
  • Army of Central Kentucky: William Joseph Hardee
  • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
  • Army of the West: Benjamin McCulloch interim Earl Van Dorn awaited

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer KIA
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh
Daniel Marsh Frost

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