1862 February 27th

February 27 1862 Thursday

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina
Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

Go to February 28 1862

CSA. The Confederate government gave President Jefferson Finis Davis the wartime authority to suspend the writ of habeas corpus.

CSA. A debate in a secret session of the Confederate Congress concluded with the forwarding of a Bill to President Jefferson Finis Davis to create the post of Commanding General of the Army. Davis resisted all such efforts to create a post of General-in-Chief until January 1865, serving his right as President to be the Commander-in-Chief of all the nation’s military forces.

New York. Already delayed for one day by a shortage of ammunition, USS Monitor departed from the New York Navy Yard but the unseaworthy ship was compelled to turn back because of a steering failure.

Tennessee. Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston took active command of the Army of Central Kentucky at Jackson. The army had withdrawn from Nashville to Murfreesboro and then on to Decatur, Alabama, before stopping along the Memphis & Charleston Railroad south of the Tennessee River. Johnston aimed to cooperate with the forces of General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard who was directing the defence of the Mississippi River.

Virginia. Captain French Forrest CSN, commanding the Navy Yard at Norfolk, reported that a shortage of gunpowder was delaying the readiness of CSS Virginia to begin operations against the Union blockading fleet.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of the Mississippi was established in the Department of the Missouri, comprising the parts of Missouri between the Saint Francis River and the Mississippi River.
USA: Brigadier-General John Pope assumed command of the District of the Mississippi.
USA: The Army of the Mississippi transferred to the District of the Mississippi.
USA: Brigadier-General John Pope retained command of the Army of the Mississippi.
Pope, John / Kentucky-Illinois / Born 16 March 1822 Louisville, Kentucky / Died Sandusky, Ohio 23 September 1892
USMA 1 July 1842 17/56 Topographical Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 9 May 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Captain USA Topographical Engineers 1 July 1856 / Brigadier-General USV 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 17 July 1862 from 14 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 26 October 1886 / Retired USA 16 March 1886 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
District of North Missouri 29 July 1861-9 November 1861 / 2nd Division Western Army 29 September 1861-3 December 1861 / District of Central Missouri 3 December 1861-12 February 1862 / Army of Western Missouri 3 December 1861-12 February 1862 / District of North Missouri 26 December 1861-10 March 1862 / Army of the Mississippi 23 February 1862-26 June 1862 / District of the Mississippi 27 February 1862-21 April 1862 / Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / Department of the Northwest 6 September 1862-28 November 1862 / Department of the Northwest 13 February 1863-30 January 1865 / Military Division of the Missouri 30 January 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of the Missouri 27 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Third Military District 11 March 1867-26 December 1867 / Department of the Lakes 1 February 1868-6 May 1870

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: David Hunter

Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Cairo: William Tecumseh Sherman
  • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
  • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Albert Sidney Johnston arrived to command the Army of Central Kentucky, succeeding Major-General William Joseph Hardee.
Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

CSA: Carter Littlepage Stevenson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862.
Stevenson, Carter Littlepage / Virginia / Born 21 September 1817 Fredericksburg, Virginia / Died Caroline, Virginia 15 August 1888
USMA 1 July 1838 42/45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 September 1840 / Captain USA 30 June 1847 / Resigned USA 6 June 1861 Dismissed USA 25 June 1861 / Major ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 53rd Virginia Infantry July 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 21 July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862 / Major-General PACS 13 October 1862 to rank from 10 October 1862 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 16 October 1863
Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the Northwest 21 July 1861-27 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of East Tennessee March 1862 / 2nd Brigade Department of East Tennessee 30 June 1863-3 July 1862 / 1st Division Department of East Tennessee 3 July 1862-18 December 1862 / 1st Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 18 December 1862-December 1862 / District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana 1 December 1862-4 July 1863 / Stevenson’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 17 October 1863-20 February 1864 / Stevenson’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 27 July 1864-17 December 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 18 July 1864-19 July 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 17 December 1864-21 February 1865 / Stevenson’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Danville Leadbetter promoted Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862.
Leadbetter, Danville / Maine-Alabama / Born 26 August 1811 Leeds, Maine / Died Clifton, Canada 26 September 1866
USMA 1 July 1836 3/49 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1836 / Engineers 1 November 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 31 December 1836 / Engineers 31 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA Engineers 16 October 1852 / Resigned USA 31 December 1857 / Major ACSA Engineers 16 March 1861 / Acting Chief of Engineer Bureau PACS 3 August 1861-11 November 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS October 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 November 1836 to rank from 1 July 1836 Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 July 1837 to rank from 1 July 1836
Acting Chief of Engineer Bureau PACS 3 August 1861-11 November 1861 / 1st Brigade 1st Division District of East Tennessee May 1862-3 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of East Tennessee 3 July 1862-10 July 1862 / Chief Engineer District of the Gulf 19 October 1862-25 July 1863 / Chief Engineer Department of Tennessee 25 July 1863-23 October 1863/ Chief Engineer Army of Tennessee 23 October 1863-30 April 1864 / Chief Engineer District of the Gulf 30 April 1864-12 December 1864 / Gulf District 22 November 1864-12 December 1864

CSA: William Whann Mackall promoted Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862.
Mackall, William Whann / District of Columbia-Maryland / Born 18 January 1816 Cecil, Maryland / Died Langley, Virginia 12 August 1891
USMA 1 July 1837 8/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 9 July 1838 / Regt Adjutant 20 January 1840-31 August 1841 / Brevet Captain Assistant Adjutant-General 29 December 1846 / Captain USA 1st US Artillery 20 August 1847 / Vacated 20 August 1847 / Brevet Major Assistant Adjutant-General 5 August 1853 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Assistant Adjutant-General 11 May 1861 Declined / Resigned USA 3 July 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Assistant Adjutant-General 9 September 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 March 1862 to rank from 27 February 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / WIA New River Inlet 11 February 1839 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 CIA Island No 10 7 April 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 CIA Macon 20 April 1865
Assistant Adjutant-General Department of the Pacific February 1861-20 May 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General Western Department 15 September 1861 / Chief of Staff Department of East Tennessee 5 November 1862-8 December 1862 / Gulf District 8 December 1862-22 December 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Tennessee 17 April 1863-12 October 1863 / Mackall’s Brigade J H Forney’s Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 16 October 1863-26 January 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of Tennessee 26 January 1864-254 August 1864 / Forces in South Georgia 23 March 1865-20 April 1865

CSA: Captain Franklin Buchanan CSN assumed command of the James River Naval Squadron.
Buchanan, Franklin / Maryland / Born 17 September 1800 Baltimore, Maryland / Died Talbot, Maryland 11 May 1874
Midshipman USN 28 June 1815 / Passed Midshipman USN 1822 / Lieutenant USN 13 January 1825 / Commander USN 8 September 1841 / Superintendent US Naval School 3 September 1845-15 March 1847 / Captain USN 14 September 1855 / Resigned USN 22 April 1861 / Reinstatement USN 4 May 1861 Denied 14 May 1861 / Captain CSN 5 September 1861 / Bureau of Orders and Details 24 September 1861-24 February 1862 / Admiral NCSA 21 Aug 1862 / Flag Officer CSN 21 August 1862-5 August 1864 / Admiral PCNS 13 May 1863 / Paroled 17 May 1865 / WIA Hampton Roads 8 March 1862 WIA and CIA Mobile Bay 5 August 1864 Exchanged 7 March 1865
Washington Navy Yard 26 May 1859-22 April 1861 / Bureau of Orders and Details 24 September 1861-24 February 1862 / James River Squadron 27 February 1862-22 March 1862 / Flag Officer CSN 21 August 1862-5 August 1864 / Mobile Squadron 20 September 1862-5 August 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • Army of Pensacola: Samuel Jones
  • Army of Mobile: John Bordenave Villepigue

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith awaited

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee

  •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
  • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
  • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
  • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
  • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
  • Army of the West: Benjamin McCulloch interim Earl Van Dorn awaited

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Benjamin McCulloch
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall

Daniel Marsh Frost

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