1862 February 20th

February 20 1862 Thursday

Fort Craig, NMT

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

District of Columbia. US President Abraham Lincoln and Mrs Mary Todd Lincoln were struck with grief as their beloved eleven year old son, William Wallace “Willie” Lincoln, died from typhoid fever.

Mississippi. Union Captain David Glasgow Farragut arrived at Ship Island aboard USS Hartford to prepare the attack on New Orleans. Union naval and army forces had been gathering strength at Ship Island for several weeks in anticipation of Farragut’s arrival.

Mississippi. An armed boat expedition from USS New London, Lieutenant A Read, to Cat Island captured twelve sloops and schooners which were suspected of acting as pilot vessels to blockade runners.

Missouri. Union Major-General Henry Wager Halleck ordered Brigadier-General John Pope to send part of his force to operate in central Missouri and to organise the remainder of the force to capture New Madrid on the Mississippi. Pope’s troops formed the nucleus of the future Army of the Mississippi.

Fort Craig, New Mexico Territory. Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Hopkins Sibley’s expedition avoided attacking the strong defences of Fort Craig and headed north towards Valverde, looking instead to cut off the fort’s lines of communications. Union Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby detached one regiment from his garrison at Fort Craig to shadow the Confederate column on the west side of the Rio Grande. The Union pursuers came close to the Confederates, who turned to face them, pinned them down and forced them to retreat to the fort after nightfall. Meanwhile at Valverde Union Captain James Graydon packed six 24-pound howitzer shells onto two mules and led them close to the picket lines of the approaching Confederates and tried to turn them into a surprise explosive device. The mules refused to cooperate with the raid and ran uncontrolled into the Confederate camp, exploding their loads without harm to the enemy.

North Carolina. Expedition to Currituck Sound ended.

North Carolina. USS Delaware, Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan, and USS Commodore Perry, Lieutenant Flusser, covered the landing of Union troops at Winton to de­stroy military stores and quarters before re-embarking.

Tennessee. Pro-Confederate Governor Isham Harris moved the state capital from Nashville to Memphis, away from the advance of Union forces.

Tennessee. Confederate Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd abandoned Nashville with his rearguard brigade, leaving Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest to continue the removal of supplies for one more day. Forrest stayed for four days, sending rare rifling machinery and other machine tools vital for making weapons and ordnance to Atlanta. He also saved huge quantities of food and other supplies despite the resistance of local mobs who wanted to acquire them for themselves. The main Confederate army under General Albert Sidney Johnston and Major-General William Joseph Hardee marched to Murfreesboro.

Texas. USS Portsmouth, Commander Swartwout, captured the sloop Pioneer off Boca Chica with a cargo of tobacco.

Virginia. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston attended a military conference with President Jefferson Finis Davis in Richmond. Johnston reported a weakening of training and discipline after he had been deprived of the services of several competent subordinates. General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard had been sent to Mississippi, Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson was operating independently in the Shenandoah Valley, Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith was earmarked to command in eastern Tennessee, and Major-General Earl Van Dorn was now commanding west of the Mississippi. Johnston caused alarm by suggesting that the army was short of experienced officers, was dangerously exposed at Manassas, and that it ought to withdraw further south into Virginia. Rumours of the impending retreat immediately circulated and put the manoeuvre at risk. Johnston was annoyed that the conclusions of a secret conference had quickly reached the newspapers and dangerously exposed his intentions. Preparations began the following day but they were delayed by heavy rain and reliance on the inadequate single-tracked Orange & Alexandria Railroad. The process took several weeks to remove the accumulation of stores and equipment to Culpeper.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of New England was discontinued and the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut reverted to local control.

USA: James Abram Garfield confirmed Brigadier-General USV 20 February 1862 to rank from 11 January 1862.

Garfield, James Abram / Ohio / Born 19 November 1831 Orange, Ohio / Died Elberon, New Jersey 19 September 1881
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 42nd Ohio Infantry 21 August 1861 / Colonel USV 27 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 February 1862 to rank from 11 January 1862 / Major-General USV 19 September 1863 Declined / Resigned USV 6 December 1863
18th Brigade Army of the Ohio 16 December 1862-26 March 1862 / District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River 11 March 1862-8 June 1862 / 20th Brigade 6th Division Army of the Ohio 5 April 1862-7 July 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of the Cumberland 14 January 1863-October 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan awaited
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Cairo: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Louis Trezevant Wigfall resigned to enter Congress.

Wigfall, Louis Trezevant / South Carolina / Born 21 April 1816 Edgefield, South Carolina / Died 18 February 1874
Lieutenant-Colonel USV South Carolina Infantry 1838 / Colonel South Carolina Militia / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 10 April 1861-29 May 1861 / Colonel PACS ADC 12 April 1861 / ADC (J F Davis) 29 May 1861-28 August 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Texas Infantry 28 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 October 1861 / Resigned PACS 20 February 1862 / ADC (J Longstreet) 1 June 1862-7 July 1862 / ADC (J E Johnston) February 1864-26 April 1865
Wigfall’s Brigade District of the Potomac 3 August 1861-17 February 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • Army of Pensacola: Samuel Jones
    • Army of Mobile: John Bordenave Villepigue
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
    • District of Albemarle: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee
    •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
    • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • District of Houston: John Creed Moore
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
    • Army of Central Kentucky: William Joseph Hardee
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Army of the West: Benjamin McCulloch interim Earl Van Dorn awaited
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Benjamin McCulloch
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall RES
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Daniel Marsh Frost

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