1862 February 10th

February 10 1862 Monday

Elizabeth City, NC

Forts Henry & Donelson Campaign
Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Go to February 11 1862

Alabama. Expedition to Florence ended.

Louisiana. The US Navy allocated 22 sailing vessels and 7 steamers to comprise a Mortar Flotilla. The USS Owasco was also assigned to protect and support the flotilla. Their mission would be to deliver an intensive bombardment of Fort Jackson and Fort St Philip on the banks of the Mississippi River south of New Orleans.

Missouri. The Union Army of the Southwest under Brigadier-General Samuel Ryan Curtis left Lebanon and marched towards Springfield, where the 8,000 Confederates of Major-General Sterling Price’s command had spent the winter. Price withdrew into northwest Arkansas and proposed to join forces with Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch who was retreating from Keetsville. Confederate Major-General Earl Van Dorn had been given authority over both of these forces and had orders to defeat Curtis. Van Dorn directed McCulloch and Price to seek refuge in the Boston Mountains south of Fayetteville. He sent forward reinforcements and prepared to lead an attack against the approaching Union forces.

Elizabeth City, North Carolina, also known as Cobb’s Point. Confederate Captain William Francis Lynch CSN had decided to base his Mosquito Fleet for safety by a battery of four guns located at Cobb’s Point  He placed the schooner CSS Black Warrior opposite the point and his five remaining steamships in a line across the river a short distance upstream because he expected the Union fleet to halt and reduce the battery before proceeding. His final instructions to his captains included the order not to let their ships fall into enemy hands; if all else failed, they should try to escape, or else destroy their vessels.
At dawn, Lynch made his first visit to the Cobb’s Point battery to coordinate its defence with his fleet. He found that it was manned by only seven militiamen and a single civilian. Since the battery was the strong point of the defence he had planned, he was constrained to order Lieutenant William Harwar Parker, captain of CSS Beaufort, to come ashore with most of his crew to man the guns. He left only enough crewmen on the ship to take her up the Dismal Swamp canal. With these additional crewmen, three of the four guns could mow be manned. Once the battle was joined, the militiamen promptly deserted and only two guns could be used against the enemy. In fact, Union Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan USN ordered his ships to bypass the Cobb’s Point battery. Parker and his men got off a few wild shots that did no harm and then found that their guns would not bear on target once the Union fleet was upstream.
The first vessel of the Confederate fleet to be lost was the schooner CSS Black Warrior. She was fired on by Rowan’s entire attacking force as they passed the Cobb’s Point battery, so her crew abandoned her and set her afire. Likewise, CSS Fanny was run ashore and burned. A boarding party from USS Ceres boarded and captured CSS Ellis in hand-to-hand combat. Her captain would have blown up Ellis, but a black coal heaver discovered the charges and revealed them to the boarding party. CSS Sea Bird attempted to escape but was run down, rammed and sunk by Commodore Perry. CSS Beaufort and CSS Appomattox made good their escape into the Dismal Swamp Canal. Once, there CSS Appomattox was found to be two inches too wide to pass through a lock, so she had to be burned. CSS Forrest, on the stocks to repair the damaged screw she had sustained on 8 February, was burned at the dock, along with an unnamed and uncompleted gunboat. CSS Raleigh was still at Norfolk and was not harmed. She and CSS Beaufort were the only vessels in the North Carolina Mosquito Fleet to escape either capture or destruction.
When they learned of the destruction of their fleet and the surrender of the Cobb’s Point battery, the Confederate troops retreating from Roanoke Island set fires in Elizabeth City, acting under orders from Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise to destroy the town. About two blocks had been consumed when sailors from the Union flotilla arrived and were able to save the rest. The Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal was blocked near its entrance at the North River. The retreating Confederates started the obstruction and it was then completed by the victorious Union forces, by order of Union Captain Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough.
There was no longer a Confederate presence on Albemarle Sound. This remained the case for most of the rest of the war; the only significant challenge to Union dominance was the short-lived adventure of the ironclad CSS Albemarle in the summer of 1864. Although Norfolk, Virginia, was not attacked from the south, the major port was effectively isolated and increasingly worthless to the Confederate Army and was abandoned in May 1862.
Casualties in the attacking Union fleet were two men killed and seven wounded, and two steamers were damaged, while the Confederates lost four men killed, six wounded, and 34 captured, with five vessels lost.

North Carolina. When they learned of the destruction of their fleet and the surrender of the Cobb’s Point battery, Confederate troops retreating from Roanoke Island set fires in Elizabeth City, acting under orders from Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise to destroy the town. About two blocks had been consumed when sailors from the Union flotilla arrived and were able to save the rest. The Albemarle & Chesapeake Canal was blocked near its entrance at the North River by the retreating Confederates started the obstruction and the work completed by the Union forces.

South Carolina. Skirmish at Barnwell’s Island.

Tennessee. Union Captain Andrew Hull Foote USN received repeated requests from Major-General Henry Wager Halleck to send at least two gunboats up the Cumber­land River to support transports carrying troops for an attack on Fort Donelson.

Virginia. The Confederate Secretary of War, Judah Philip Benjamin had divided the Army of the Northwest, sending some regiments to Knoxville in Tennessee, others to the District of Aquia, and the remainder to the Army of the Potomac. The remnants were stationed at Camp Allegheny and were still unofficially referred to as the Army of the Northwest or the Army of the Allegheny. Confederate Brigadier-General Edward Johnson retained command of this remaining segment of just six regiments, which were subordinated to the District of the Valley and Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson.

Union Organisation

USA: Ethan Allen Hitchcock promoted Major-General USV 10 February 1862.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Florida: Lewis Golding Arnold

Department of Kansas: David Hunter

Department of Key West: John Milton Brannan awaited

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Cairo: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: John Pope
    • Army of Western Missouri: John Pope
  • District of North Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis

Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans

  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Eastern District of Texas (“District of Eastern Texas”) was established in the Department of Texas, comprising the area between the northern and eastern boundaries of Texas, the eastern shore of Galveston Bay and the left bank of the Trinity River to the intersection of the Cross-Timbers at Alton and then following the Cross-Timbers to the Red River.
CSA: Brigadier-General Paul Octave Hébert assumed command of the Eastern District of Texas.

CSA: The Army of the Northwest was discontinued. Its forces were dispersed to eastern Tennessee, the District of Aquia, and the Army of the Potomac. The remnants continued to be referred to unofficially as the Army of the Northwest or the Army of the Allegheny. Brigadier-General Edward Johnson retained command of the elements of the discontinued force.

CSA: James Patton Anderson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 10 February 1862.

CSA: James Ronald Chalmers promoted Brigadier-General PACS 10 February 1862 to rank from 13 February 1862.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • Army of Pensacola: Samuel Jones
  • Army of Mobile: John Bordenave Villepigue

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

  • District of Albemarle: Henry Alexander Wise awaited

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Potomac: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee

  •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
  • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • District of Houston: John Creed Moore
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
  • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
  • Army of Central Kentucky: William Joseph Hardee
  • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
  • Army of the West: Benjamin McCulloch interim Earl Van Dorn awaited

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
James McQueen McIntosh
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers

Daniel Marsh Frost

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