1862 December 7th

December 7 1862 Sunday

Battle of Prairie Grove, AR (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Battle of Hartsville, TN (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Grant’s Central Mississippi Campaign

Fredericksburg Campaign

Prairie Grove Campaign

Cuba. CSS Alabama, Captain Raphael Semmes, captured the California steamer Ariel with 700 passengers on board, including 150 US Marines and Commander Louis C Sartori USN.

Prairie Grove, Arkansas, also known as Fayetteville or Illinois Creek. Confederate Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman sought to destroy Brigadier-General Francis Jay Herron’s and Brigadier-General James Gilpatrick Blunt’s divisions of the Army of the Frontier in detail before they joined forces. The Union troops were eight miles apart, with Blunt at Cane Hill and Herron between Fayetteville (twelve miles distant) and Illinois Creek. Having placed his larger force between the two Union commands, Hindman decided to deal with Herron first.

During the morning, Herron crossed Illinois Creek near Prairie Grove and deployed his footsore troops on the right of Hindman’s army. Herron opened an intense two-hour artillery barrage on the Confederate position, singling out individual Confederate guns and putting them out of action one at a time. By noon, the barrage had disabled most of the Confederate artillery and forced many Confederate troops to shelter on the reverse slopes. Seeing the powerful effect of his artillery, Herron ordered an advance on the hill rather than waiting for Blunt to arrive. His advance first encountered Confederate cavalry in the Borden wheat field at the base of a ridge overlooking the prairie. Herron thought the position of these advanced troopers indicated that Hindman was planning to attack and capture the Union artillery. Herron sent forward two regiments from his own 3rd Division to assault a Confederate battery near the Borden house. When his men arrived on the hill they found themselves facing a fierce Confederate counterattack from three sides by Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke and Brigadier-General Francis Asbury Shoup. Half of the attacking Union forces were wounded or killed within minutes, most of them near the Borden House. As the surviving Union forces fell back down the hill toward the safety of Union lines, the green Confederate soldiers pursued and attempt to break Herron’s lines. Herron’s artillery caused heavy losses to the Confederates and repulsed their attack. Herron feared the Confederates would make another rush at his artillery and ordered another pre-emptive charge. This time two regiments were selected from State Brigadier-General Daniel Huston’s 2nd Division. Hand to hand fighting ensued again near the Borden House. The Union troops repulsed one counter-attack and the pursuing Confederates rushed the Union guns again but were repulsed by troops from Brigadier-General William Ward Orme’s’ brigade.

Meanwhile, Blunt heard the guns to his rear at Prairie Grove and learned that Hindman had passed by his flank and intercepted Herron eight miles away. At 11 am, Blunt finally ignored the demonstrations of the enemy cavalry and began a march to the sound of the guns. Blunt’s forces first moved about six miles north to Reah’s Mills around 4 pm to protect their trains. They found them secure and then turned southeast towards the sound of the guns. Not knowing the precise location of the fighting, the Union troops ignored roads and traversed through farm fields and over fences straight toward the sound of battle and made the last approach at the double-quick. This advance was probably initiated first by Colonel Thomas Ewing and the 11th Kansas Infantry. Blunt did not order the manoeuvre but he quickly endorsed it.

Blunt’s division arrived on the field just as Hindman was ordering another attack on Herron’s forces. The combined Union forces were much stronger in artillery than the inexperienced Confederates. Blunt bombarded the Confederates for an hour and then attacked early in the afternoon, breaking up the Confederate flank until blocked by Colonel Joseph Orville Shelby’s cavalry. Blunt’s division struck the surprised Confederates in the flank with enfilade fire and drove them back onto the hill. The heaviest casualties of the battle were taken by the Confederate 10th Missouri Infantry, which was caught in the open, at the flank of the Confederate forces. Blunt aligned his two brigades and sent them forward toward the Morton house on the same ridge to the west of the Borden house. Blunt’s forces fought somewhat sporadically until being recalled off the ridge. Brigadier-General Mosby Munroe Parsons’ Confederate brigade swept across the prairie fields toward Blunt’s artillery. Once again, the Union soldiers and artillery repulsed the attack and darkness put an end to the fighting. Hindman failed to get his green Arkansas troops to make any more attacks. The Confederates held out until nightfall and then withdrew undetected.

During the night, Blunt began to call up all of his reserves. Hindman had no reserves and was low on ammunition and food and he had no choice but to withdraw secretly under cover of darkness towards his base at Van Buren. The Confederate forces suffered from severe demoralisation and lost many conscript soldiers to desertion. Union casualties were reported as 1,251 men (333 in Blunt’s force and 918 in Herron’s) and Confederate losses as 1,317 men, including many wounded men who died of exposure during the freezing night. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)


Union Department of the Missouri: Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis
Army of the Frontier: Brigadier-General James Gilpatrick Blunt
1st Division (Frontier): Brigadier-General James Gilpatrick Blunt
1st Brigade, 1st Division (Frontier): Brigadier-General Frederick C Salomon
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Frontier): Colonel William A Weer
3rd Brigade, 1st Division (Frontier): Colonel William F Cloud
2nd Division (Frontier): (Brigadier-General James Totten), Colonel Daniel Huston
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (Frontier): Colonel John G Clark
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (Frontier): Colonel William Dye
3rd Division (Frontier): Brigadier-General Francis Jay Herron
1st Brigade, 3rd Division (Frontier): Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Bertram
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Frontier): Colonel William W Orme
Cavalry Brigade (Frontier): Colonel Dudley Wickersham

Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department: Lieutenant-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
District of Arkansas: Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
1st Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General John Selden Roane
1st Brigade, 1st Division (Arkansas): Colonel Stand Watie
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General John Selden Roane
2nd Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Francis Asbury Shoup
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General James Fleming Fagan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Dandridge McRae
3rd Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Daniel Marsh Frost
1st Brigade, 3rd Division (Arkansas): Brigadier-General Mosby Monroe Parsons
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Arkansas): Colonel Robert Glenn Shaver
4th Cavalry Division (Frontier): Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke
1st Cavalry Brigade, 4th Cavalry Division (Frontier): Colonel James C Monroe
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 4th Cavalry Division (Frontier): Colonel Joseph O Shelby
3rd Cavalry Brigade, 4th Cavalry Division (Frontier): Colonel Emmett MacDonald

Mississippi. The anomalous command situation of the Confederate forces in Mississippi was resolved by organising the new Army of Mississippi under the Department commander, Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton.  When he assumed command of the Army of Mississippi, Pemberton organised his available forces into two new Corps. I Corps (Mississippi) was established to comprise the former “Army of West Tennessee” of Major-General Earl Van Dorn, and II Corps (Mississippi) was established to comprise the forces of the unofficial “Army of the West” of Major-General Sterling Price. Major-General Mansfield Lovell, who had previously commanded one half of the new army was relieved of command in order for him to face an enquiry into unsubstantiated criticism about his performance in the defence of New Orleans.

Hartsville, Tennessee. Hartsville was a crossing point on the Cumberland River about 40 miles upstream from Nashville, and north of Murfreesboro. The Union 39th Brigade of XIV Corps was guarding the crossing to prevent Confederate cavalry from raiding. The brigade was made up of the 106th Ohio Infantry, 108th Ohio Infantry, 104th Illinois Infantry, and 2nd Indiana Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Absalom B Moore. Under the cover of darkness, Confederate Colonel John Hunt Morgan crossed the river with two cavalry brigades (one under Colonel Roger Weightman Hanson) numbering about 1,400 men, but he was outnumbered by about 1,000 men by the Union brigade. Another larger Union force was encamped nine miles away at Castalian Springs, close enough to hear the guns but too distant to support the garrison immediately. Moore stated in his after-action report that Morgan’s advance guard wore Union blue uniforms which got them through the picket lines undetected. Others stated that they wore civilian clothes and posed as refugees.

Morgan’s men approached the Union camp and the pickets sounded the alarm, holding up the Confederates until the brigade could form a battle line. The Confederate attack commenced at 6.45 am with a simultaneous artillery bombardment and infantry advance, while cavalry struck the Union flanks and rear. It continued until about 8.30 am when one of Moore’s units broke and ran, causing widespread confusion and forcing the Union forces to fall back. By 8.30 am, the Confederates had surrounded most of the Union force and convinced Moore to surrender. By noon Morgan was back across the Cumberland.

Union casualties were reported as 58 (or 300) plus 1,762 or 1,844 prisoners and Confederate as 125 or 149. (CWSAC Formative Battle – Confederate Victory)

Padre Island, Texas. Two boats from USS Sachem got underway in the morning to intercept an armed Confederate schooner which was sounding the channel at Corpus Christi Pass. They caught sight of their quarry after some 28 miles and gave chase. After pursuing the schooner, Queen of the Bay, for about 8 miles, the boats forced Captain H Willke CSN to run the Queen of the Bay aground on Padre Island. The Confederates abandoned their ship and opened fire on the Union boats from the shore, killing three men and wounding three others including the commander of the boat party, Acting Ensign Alfred H Reynolds. The remaining Union sailors and marines landed on nearby Mustang Island, abandoned their boats, and retreated overland 30 miles to rejoin USS Sachem at Aransas Bay.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Army of the Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
    • XIV Corps Cumberland: William Starke Rosecrans
      • Right Wing XIV Corps Cumberland: Alexander McDowell McCook
      • Left Wing XIV Corps Cumberland: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
      • Centre XIV Corps Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited

  • District of Pensacola: Neal S Dow
  • District of La Fourche: Godfrey Weitzel
  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of the Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis

  • District of St Louis: vacant
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • Army of the Southwest: Willis Arnold Gorman
  • District of Northeast Missouri: Lewis Merrill
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
  • District of Central Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • District of Rolla: John Montgomery Glover
  • District of Eastern Arkansas: Willis Arnold Gorman
  • District of Nebraska Territory: James Craig
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Army of the Frontier: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Army of Southeastern Missouri: John Wynn Davidson

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: Joseph Rodman West

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Northwest: Washington Lafayette Elliott temporary

  • 1st District Northwest: John Cook
  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Washington Lafayette Elliott

Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright

  • District of Central Kentucky: Gordon Granger
  • District of Eastern Kentucky: Jonathan Cranor
  • District of Western Kentucky: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • District of Western Virginia: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Sub-District of the Kanawha: Eliakim Parker Scammon
  • Army of Kentucky: Gordon Granger

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside

  • Army of the Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Right Grand Division: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • II Corps Potomac: Darius Nash Couch
      • IX Corps Potomac: Orlando Bolivar Willcox temporary
    • Left Grand Division Potomac: William Buel Franklin
      • I Corps Potomac: John Fulton Reynolds
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Farrar Smith
    • Centre Grand Division Potomac: Joseph Hooker
      • III Corps Potomac: George Stoneman
      • V Corps Potomac: Daniel Butterfield
    • Reserve Grand Division Potomac: Franz Sigel
      • XI Corps Potomac: Franz Sigel
      • XII Corps Potomac: Henry Warner Slocum

Department of the South: John Milton Brannan temporary

  • X Corps South: John Milton Brannan

Department of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • District of Memphis: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
  • District of Corinth: Charles Smith Hamilton
  • District of Jackson: Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
  • District of Columbus: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • Army of the Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • XIII Corps Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Right Wing XIII Corps Tennessee: William Tecumseh Sherman
      • Left Wing XIII Corps Tennessee: Charles Smith Hamilton
      • Centre XIII Corps: James Birdseye McPherson

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix

Military District of Washington: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of East Tennessee transferred from the Military Division of the West to the Western Department.

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Heth retained command of the Department of East Tennessee.

Heth, Henry / Virginia / Born 16 December 1825 Chesterfield, Virginia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 27 September 1899
USMA 1 July 1847 38 /38 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 1st US Infantry 1 July 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 22 September 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 9 June 1853 / Regt Quartermaster 24 November 1854-3 March 1855 / Captain USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 25 April 1861 / Captain ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel Quartermaster-General Provisional Army of Virginia 29 April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 5th Virginia Infantry 31 May 1861 / 45th Virginia Infantry 17 June 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 11 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 January 1862 to rank from 6 January 1862 / Major-General PACS 10 October 1862 unconfirmed / Major-General PACS 17 February 1864 to rank from 24 May 1863 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1847 / WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Gettysburg 1 July 1863
Assistant Inspector-General Forces in the Kanawha 11 August 1861 / Heth’s Brigade Army of the Northwest December 1861-28 January 1862 / District of Lewisburg 28 January 1862-8 May 1862 / 2nd Division Department of East Tennessee 25 June 1862-31 October 1862 / 3rd Division Department of East Tennessee 31 October 1862-11 November 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 11 November 1862-17 January 1863 / Field’s Brigade A P Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 5 March 1863-May 1863 / Heth’s Brigade A P Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1863-3 May 1863 / A P Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 May 1863-30 May 1863 / Heth’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1863-9 April 1865

CSA: The Army of Mississippi was established in the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, but continued to be known unofficially as the “Army of West Tennessee”.

CSA: Lieutenant-General John Clifford Pemberton assumed command of the Army of Mississippi.

Pemberton, John Clifford / Pennsylvania / Born 10 August 1814 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Penllyn, Pennsylvania 13 July 1881
USMA 1 July 1837 27/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 19 March 1842 / Captain USA 16 September 1850 / Resigned USA 29 April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA 28 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 29 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 8 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Major PACS Artillery 15 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 10 January 1862 to rank from 14 January 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 13 October 1862 to rank from 10 October 1862 / Resigned as General PACS 9 May 1864 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS Artillery 12 May 1864 / Inspector-General 7 January 1865 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1837 Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Mexico City 8 September 1847 CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged 13 October 1863
Pemberton’s Brigade Department of Norfolk June 1861-November 1861 / Fourth Sub-District of South Carolina 10 December 1861-18 March 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 14 March 1862-23 September 1862 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 1 October 1862-11 October 1862 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 14 October 1862-4 July 1862 / Army of Mississippi 7 December 1862-9 December 1862 / Army of Mississippi 17 December 1862-4 July 1863 / Chief of Artillery Department of Richmond 12 May 1864-9 January 1865

CSA: I Corps (Mississippi) was established in the Army of Mississippi.

CSA: Major-General Earl Van Dorn assumed command of I Corps (Mississippi).

Van Dorn, Earl / Mississippi / Born 17 September 1820 Port Gibson, Mississippi / Died Spring Hill, Tennessee 7 May 1863
USMA 1 July 1842 52/56 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 30 November 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Major USA 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 31 January 1861 / Brigadier-General Mississippi Militia 23 January 1861 / Major-General Mississippi Militia 18 February 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Confederate Regular Cavalry 25 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 5 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 19 September 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Belen Gate 3 September 1847 WIA Wichita, Indian Territory 1 October 1858
Department of Texas 11 April 1861-17 September 1861 / 1st Division Army of the Potomac 24 September 1861-10 January 1862 / I Corps Potomac 4 October 1861-10 January 1862 / Trans-Mississippi District 10 January 1862-30 May 1862 / Army of the West 19 January 1862-24 June 1862 / District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 26 May 1862-5 September 1862 / Department No 1 20 June 1862-25 June 1862 / District of the Mississippi 2 July 1862-5 September 1862 / Army of West Tennessee 28 September 1862-9 December 1862 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 12 October 1862-13 October 1862 / 1st Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 9 December 1862-17 December 1862 / I Corps Mississippi 7 December 1862-14 December 1862 / Army of Mississippi 9 December 1862-16 December 1862 / Cavalry Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 13 January 1863-20 January 1863 / Cavalry Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 20 January 1863-February 1863 / Cavalry Division Army of Tennessee February 1863-16 March 1863 / Cavalry Corps Tennessee 16 March 1863-7 May 1863

CSA: II Corps (Mississippi) was established in the Army of Mississippi.

CSA: Major-General Sterling Price assumed command of II Corps (Mississippi).

Price, Sterling / Virginia-Missouri / Born 20 September 1809 Prince Edward, Virginia / Died St Louis, Missouri 29 September 1867
Brigadier-General Missouri Militia / Colonel USV 2nd Missouri Infantry 12 August 1846 / Brigadier-General USV 20 July 1847 / Discharged USV 25 November 1848 / Major-General Missouri State Guard 18 May 1861 / Major-General PACS 6 March 1862 / No Record of Parole / WIA Wilson’s Creek 10 August 1861 WIA Pea Ridge 7 March 1862
Missouri State Guard 18 May 1861-17 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of the West 17 March 1862-April 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the West April 1862-May 1862 / Army of the West 3 July 1862-28 September 1862 / District of the Tennessee 21 July 1862-27 September 1862 / District of Missouri 20 August 1862-28 September 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 28 September 1862-7 December 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 7 December 1862-28 February 1863 / Price’s Division District of Arkansas 30 March 1863-24 July 1863 / District of Arkansas 24 July 1863-25 September 1863 / Price’s Division District of Arkansas 30 March 1863-24 July 1863 25 September 1863-11 March 1864 / District of Arkansas 11 March 1864-1 August 1864 / Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-8 September 1864 / Army of Missouri 8 September 1864-3 December 1864 / Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi 3 December 1864-12 March 1865 / District of Arkansas 8 March 1865-11 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Military Division of the West: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • Department of East Tennessee: Henry Heth
    • District of the Tennessee: John Porter McCown
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • Army of Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Tennessee: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • Smith’s Corps Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Carter Littlepage Stevenson
    • District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
    • Army of Mississippi: John Clifford Pemberton
      • I Corps Mississippi: Earl Van Dorn
      • II Corps Mississippi: Sterling Price

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith

  • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Valley District: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

Department of Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
  • District of East Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • District of Middle Florida: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of West Florida: John Horace Forney

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Stuart Williams temporary Samuel Jones awaited

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Southwest Army: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: vacant

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Charles Smith Hamilton
Jacob Dolson Cox
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
George Stoneman
John Fulton Reynolds
George Gordon Meade
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
William Henry French
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
Hiram Gregory Berry
Richard James Oglesby
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
William Wallace Burns
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Rufus King
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Abram Duryée
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Ebenezer Dumont
Willis Arnold Gorman
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gabriel René Paul
George Crook
Thomas Leiper Kane
Gershom Mott
Edward Ferrero
Francis Laurens Vinton
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
William Woods Averell
Alexander Hays
Henry Hastings Sibley
Calvin Edward Pratt
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
John Milton Thayer
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Joseph Warren Revere
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
William Haines Lytle
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Edward Needles Kirk
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Thomas Campbell
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Stephen Gardner Champlin
Edward Elmer Potter
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
James St Clair Morton
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
George Crockett Strong
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson

Joshua Thomas Owen
James Barnes

Theophilus Toulmin Garrard
Edward Harland
Samuel Kosciuszko Zook
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Ward Orme
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris

John Beatty
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson

Hector Tyndale
Charles Cleveland Dodge
Albert Lindley Lee
Charles Leopold Matthies
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
George Washington Deitzler
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Robert Christie Buchanan
Wladimir Bonawentura Krzyzanowski
James Allen Hardie
Isham Nicolas Haynie
Frederick Shearer Stumbaugh
David Stuart
John Blair Smith Todd
Orlando Metcalfe Poe

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
Leonidas Polk
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
John Clifford Pemberton

Major-General PACS

Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
David Rumph Jones
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Bell Hood
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John King Jackson
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Junius Daniel
Abraham Buford
William Steele
James Fleming Fagan
William Read Scurry
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
William Edmondson Jones
William Edwin Baldwin
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
William Brimage Bate
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Preston Smith
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Joseph Wheeler
George Pierce Doles
Carnot Posey
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Elisha Franklin Paxton
Evander McNair
William George Mackey Davis
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Stephen Dill Lee
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin

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