1862 August 30th

August 30 1862 Saturday

Battle of Richmond, KY (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Second Battle of Bull Run, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Second Bull Run Campaign

Smith’s Invasion of Kentucky

Bragg’s Invasion of Kentucky

Alabama. Skirmish near Larkinsville.

Florida. USS R R Cuyler, Acting Master Simeon N Freeman, captured the schooner Anne Sophia east of Jacksonville.

Richmond, Kentucky, also known as White’s Farm, or Mount Zion Church. The two brigades of Union Major-General William Nelson’s division had occupied defensive positions near Richmond after the skirmish the previous day near Rogersville. They were made up of 7,000 hastily trained and inexperienced volunteers under Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson and Brigadier-General Charles Cruft. Their period of service ranged from three days to three weeks, having been recruited in a panicky response to the invasion of Kentucky. At 2.30 am Nelson was advised of the previous day’s engagement and left Lexington to join his troops. He sent instructions not to engage in open fighting but to adopt defensive positions.

Confederate Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne resumed the engagement at about 6 am with his two brigades currently attached to the Army of Kentucky from the army of General Braxton Bragg. He marched north, passed through Kinston, dispersed the Union skirmishers, and approached Manson’s battle line near Zion Church. As soon as Manson learned of the Confederate approach he sent for Cruft’s brigade from Richmond to join him at a defensive position on a wooded ridge about half a mile south of Rogersville. Following an hour-long artillery duel and skirmishing, Colonel Thomas H McCray’s Confederate brigade from Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill’s division arrived and attacked the Union left. Cruft’s brigade arrived as the assault on the Union left reached its peak with the 16th Indiana Infantry, 55th Indiana Infantry, 71st Indiana Infantry, and seven companies of 69th Indiana Infantry. He sent the 59th Ohio Infantry to bolster the right flank and the regiment was ordered to charge a Confederate gun position. The attack was shattered by intense fire and when the charge faltered the Confederates counterattacked, forcing the Union right flank to give way. The Union left also began to break up under pressure. The 18th Kentucky Infantry arrived next to reinforce the Union left flank but was driven back with the collapsing line and then the 12th Indiana Infantry and 66th Indiana Infantry set up a position about a mile to the rear near White’s Farm. The remnants of the withdrawing Union line rallied around them.

Nelson arrived about noon and he ordered a retreat to the outskirts of Richmond. Manson found it impossible to disengage. His 95th Ohio and 69th Indiana held the left flank for some time but finally gave way, and the 18th Kentucky and 12th Indiana had a similar experience on the right. Manson’s brigade was routed and Cruft’s brigade withdrew in confusion into Rogersville, making a futile stand at their old bivouac. Nelson rallied some troops behind the rocky walls of the cemetery on the outskirts of town but they were soon routed. leaving Nelson to face the assault virtually alone with his staff. Manson was pinned under his horse and taken prisoner but Nelson and some men escaped.

The Confederates captured at least 4,000 men and nine guns, along with the Union supply train. Nelson’s unofficial and short-lived Union “Army of Kentucky” was largely eliminated. Of the 6,500 Union troops engaged, casualties were reported as between 5,353 (206 killed, 844 wounded, 4,303 missing or captured). The Confederate had engaged with 6,000 infantry and 850 cavalry and reported their loss as between 451 (78 killed, 372 wounded and 1 missing). (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: RICHMOND, KY

Union Department of the Ohio: Brigadier-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Army of Kentucky: Major-General William Nelson
1st Brigade (Kentucky): Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson
2nd Brigade (Kentucky): Brigadier-General Charles Cruft.
Cavalry Brigade (Kentucky): Brigadier-General James Streshly Jackson

Confederate Department of East Tennessee: Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith
Army of Kentucky: Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith
3rd Division (Kentucky): Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill
1st Brigade, 3rd Division (Kentucky): Colonel Thomas H McCray
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Kentucky): Colonel Evander McNair
4th Division, (Kentucky): Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
1st Brigade, 4th Division, (Kentucky): Colonel Preston Smith
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, (Kentucky): Colonel Benjamin Jefferson Hill
Cavalry Brigade (Kentucky): Colonel John S Scott

New York. The innovative ironclad warship USS Passaic was launched at Greenpoint and was commissioned in November 1862.

North Carolina. Skirmish at Plymouth.

Tennessee. Skirmishes at Altamont, Little Pond, McMinnville, Medon, Medon Station

Tennessee. Skirmish at Bolivar on the Mississippi Central Railroad..

Tennessee. Union Brigadier-General Don Carlos Buell ordered a general pursuit of the Confederate forces of General Braxton Bragg and Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith to begin from Tennessee into Kentucky. His Army of the Ohio was around Decherd and was ordered to move first to Nashville.

Virginia. Incidents at Buckhannon, Lewis’ Ford, Sycamore Church, Waterloo Bridge, and Sulphur Springs.

Second Bull Run, Virginia, also known as Second Manassas, Groveton, Groveton Heights, Manassas or Manassas Heights. The final element of Confederate Major-General James Longstreet’s command, the division of Major-General Richard Heron Anderson, marched 17 miles and arrived on the battlefield at 3 am. Exhausted and unfamiliar with the area, they halted on a ridge east of Groveton. At dawn, they realised they had camped in an isolated position much too close to the enemy and fell back.

Union Major-General John Pope’s belief that the Confederate army was in retreat was confirmed by this retrograde movement by Anderson, which followed the withdrawal of Brigadier-General John Bell’s Hood’s division the night before. At 8 am Pope held a council of war at his headquarters. His subordinates attempted to convince their commander to act cautiously. Probes of the Confederate line on Stony Ridge around 10 am indicated that Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s men were still firmly in their defensive positions. Brigadier-General John Fulton Reynolds indicated that the Confederates were also in great strength south of the turnpike. Major-General Fitz John Porter arrived later with similar intelligence of the enemy’s strength. However, Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman and Major-General Irvin McDowell conducted a personal reconnaissance that failed to discover Jackson’s defensive line. With conflicting opinions and information, Pope relied on his intuition and finally made up his mind to attack what he considered was a retreating Confederate army.

Shortly after midday, Pope issued orders for Porter’s V Corps, supported by the divisions of Brigadier-General John Porter Hatch and Reynolds, to advance westwards along the turnpike. Porter’s Corps was not in a suitable position to pursue westwards along the turnpike but was in the woods north of the turnpike near Groveton. It took about two hours for his 10,000 men to be reorganised for the assault against Jackson’s line to their front, and they were not ready to begin until 2 pm. At the same time, Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts, Brigadier-General Philip Kearny, and Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker were ordered to advance with their divisions on the Union right. This dual movement was intended to crush the retreating Confederates.

The Confederates were not retreating and were indeed hoping to be attacked again. General Robert Edward Lee was awaiting an opportunity to counterattack with Longstreet’s force massed on his right flank. Lee considered a wide flank attack by crossing Bull Run above Sudley Springs but he was warned of the impending heavy assault and cancelled the plan. He warned Jackson, who concealed his depleted ranks in the woods.

The Union attack would focus on Jackson’s old division, now led by Brigadier-General William Edwin Starke. The leading division in the Union assault by Porter’s V Corps was commanded by Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield, replacing Major-General George Webb Morell: with Colonel Henry Weeks’ brigade on the left and Colonel Charles W Roberts’ brigade in the centre. Hatch’s division came in on the right of the corps line. Two brigades of Regular Army troops under Brigadier-General George Sykes were in reserve. The Union men faced a formidable task. Butterfield’s division had to cross 600 yards of the open pasture land of the widow Lucinda Dogan farm, the final 150 yards of which were steeply uphill, to attack a strong position behind the unfinished railroad. Hatch’s division had only 300 yards to traverse, but it was required to perform a complex right wheel under fire to hit the Confederate position squarely. They experienced devastating fire from the Confederate batteries and then withering volleys from the infantrymen in the line. Nevertheless, this was the strongest and most coordinated Union attack of the battle so far and they were able to break the Confederate line, routing the 48th Virginia Infantry. The entire Confederate line was stretched to breaking point and almost no reserves remained. Colonel W S H Baylor’s Confederate brigade rushed in to restore the line, taking heavy casualties, including its commander. Colonel Bradley Tyler Johnson’s and Colonel Leroy Augustus Stafford’s brigades ran out of ammunition and resorted to throwing large rocks at the 24th New York Infantry, prompting some of the surprised New Yorkers to throw them back. To support Jackson’s exhausted defence, 18 artillery pieces under Colonel Stephen Dill Lee were placed on high ground northeast of the Brawner Farm, ideally situated to bombard the open fields in front of Jackson’s position. They opened fire against the Union reinforcements that were attempting to exploit the opportunity. Firing across open ground at a range of 2,000 yards they had an angle of enfilade and their shot smashed along the lines of infantry. The front line wavered and the second and third lines retreated in disorder from the exposed ground. Having suffered significant casualties, Porter chose not to bring up Sykes’ division from reserve and halted his assault, leaving his leading brigades to extricate themselves without support. The withdrawal was costly. Some of the jubilant Confederates in Starke’s brigade attempted a pursuit, but were beaten back by the Union reserves posted along the Groveton-Sudley Road. Jackson’s command was too depleted to counterattack, allowing Porter to stabilise the situation north of the turnpike. Concerned about Porter’s situation, however, McDowell ordered Reynolds’ division to leave Chinn Ridge and come to Porter’s support.

As the Union advance wavered and lost momentum, Lee and Longstreet agreed that the time was right for their long-postponed attack. They set the objective as Henry House Hill which, if captured, would dominate the potential Union line of retreat. Longstreet had 25,000 men in five divisions stretching for nearly a mile and a half from the Brawner Farm in the north to the Manassas Gap Railroad in the south. To reach the hill they would have to traverse nearly two miles of ridges, streams, and heavily wooded areas. Longstreet knew that he would not be able to coordinate a battle line across this terrain, so he relied on the drive and initiative of his individual division commanders to keep up the momentum. The lead division on the left, closest to the turnpike, was Brigadier-General John Bell Hood’s division of two brigades, supported by Brigadier-General Nathan George Evan’s brigade. On Hood’s right were Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper’s and then Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones’ divisions. Major-General Richard Heron Anderson’s tired division was held as a reserve. The Union defenders south of the turnpike consisted of only two brigades, commanded by Colonel Nathaniel Collins McLean (from Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck’s division of I Corps) and Brigadier-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren (a Volunteer detached from Sykes’ Regular division of V Corps). McLean held Chinn Ridge and Warren was near Groveton, about 800 yards further west. Hood’s men began the assault at 4 pm, immediately overwhelming Warren’s two regiments, the 5th New York Infantry (Duryée’s Zouaves) and the 10th New York Infantry (National Zouaves). These gaudy troops were the only volunteer regiments in Sykes’ Regular division and they had been stationed as the final flank guard with a battery. The Zouaves were wrecked and their supporting artillery barely escaped being overrun.

As Pope and McDowell realised the danger of their situation, they ordered units to occupy Henry House Hill, but until that happened, McLean’s brigade was the only obstacle to the Confederate onslaught. His 1,200 men in four Ohio regiments lined up, facing west on Chinn Ridge, with one artillery battery in support. They were able to repulse two assaults, first by Hood and then by Evans’ brigade. The third assault, by Colonel Montgomery Dent Corse’s brigade (Kemper’s division) was successful. McLean’s men mistakenly believed the men approaching the southern tip of the ridge were friendly and withheld their fire. When they realised their mistake, a fierce fight ensued for over 10 minutes at point-blank range. Fire from a Louisiana artillery battery then caused the Union line to collapse. McLean’s Ohio brigade suffered heavy casualties, but they bought Pope an additional thirty minutes to bring up reinforcements.

The first two Union brigades to arrive were from Ricketts’ division, commanded by Brigadier-General Zealous Bates Tower and Colonel Robert Stiles. Tower’s brigade was overwhelmed by attacks coming from three sides. His artillery battery was captured and he was seriously wounded. Stiles’ brigade fell victim to two newly engaged brigades from Kemper’s division, commanded by Brigadier-General Micah Jenkins and Colonel Eppa Hunton. Two more Union brigades were drawn into the battle from Major-General Franz Sigel’s I Corps, commanded by Colonel John A Koltes and Colonel Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski, but they had no more success than their predecessors. The lead elements of D R Jones’ Confederate division, the brigades of Colonel George Thomas Anderson and Brigadier-General Henry Lewis Benning, had swept all Union resistance off Chinn Ridge by 6 pm. Henry House Hill was still several hundred yards distant and there was only an hour of daylight remaining.

During the first two hours of the Confederate assault, Pope had been able to place four brigades in defence of Henry House Hill: two drawn from Reynolds’ division, one of Sykes’ Regular brigades, and Brigadier-General Robert Huston Milroy’s independent brigade. Lee realized that additional combat power would be required to complete his assault, so he ordered up Anderson’s division from reserve. While these troops were advancing, Jones launched an attack on the hill with the brigades of Benning and G T Anderson. With 3,000 men, this was the largest concentrated attack of the afternoon, but it was poorly coordinated and the four Union brigades held their ground. Additional pressure was applied with the arrival of the first two brigades from Anderson’s division under Brigadier-General William Mahone and Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright. The US Regulars from Sykes’ division had no natural defensive advantage on the end of the line and they were driven back toward the Henry House. Inexplicably, Anderson declined to exploit his opening, perhaps because of the growing darkness. The hill remained in Union hands.

Jackson, with ambiguous orders from Lee to support Longstreet, launched an attack north of the turnpike at 6 pm. This attack coincided with Pope’s order to withdraw the units north of the turnpike to assist in the Henry House Hill defence. Jackson’s men were able to overrun a number of moving artillery and infantry units in their fierce assault.

By 7 pm, Pope had established a strong defensive line that aligned with and depended on the units on Henry House Hill. At 8 pm, he ordered a general withdrawal along the turnpike to Centreville. The Union troops were demoralised but did not fall into panic. The rearguard earned sufficient time for most to escape across Bull Run via the Stone Bridge and neighbouring fords. Nevertheless, the retreat to Centreville was precipitate. The Stone Bridge was blown up by the Iron Brigade of Brigadier-General John Gibbon, who were the final troops to retire. The Confederates did not pursue during the night.

Union casualties were estimated at 13,830 but actually lost 1,724 killed, 8,372 wounded, 5,958 missing for a total of 16,054. Confederate losses were: 1,481 killed, 7,627 wounded and 89 missing for a total of 9,197. Lee claimed 5,000 unwounded prisoners and 30 captured guns. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Arizona was established in the Department of New Mexico, comprising the Arizona Territory.

USA: Brigadier-General James Henry Carleton assumed command of the District of Arizona, succeeding Brigadier-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby.

Carleton, James Henry / Maine / Born 27 December 1814 Lubec, Maine / Died San Antonio, Texas 7 January 1873
Lieutenant Maine Militia 1839 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 18 October 1839 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 17 March 1845 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / 1st US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 1st California Infantry 19 August 1861 / Major USA 6th US Cavalry 7 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 28 April 1862 / Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Cavalry 31 July 1866 / Brevet Major USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1234 March 1865 Brevet Col, USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
District of Southern California 14 October 1861-12 January 1862 / District of Southern California 5 February 1862-15 May 1862 / California Column 13 April 1862-20 September 1862 / District of Western Arizona June 1862-21 July 1862 / District of Arizona 30 August 1862-4 September 1862 / Department of New Mexico 18 September 1862-14 August 1865 / District of New Mexico 14 May 1865

USA: The Army of Kentucky was discontinued officially and integrated into the Army of the Ohio, although various elements of the Army of the Ohio continued to be referred to unofficially as the “Army of Kentucky”.

USA: Robert Cumming Schenck promoted Major-General USV 17 September 1862 to rank from 30 August 1862.

Schenck, Robert Cumming / Ohio / Born 4 October 1809 Franklin, Ohio / Died Washington, District of Columbia 23 March 1890
Brigadier-General Ohio Militia April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 17 September 1862 to rank from 30 August 1862 / Resigned USV 5 December 1863 / WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862
2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 12 June 1861-25 July 1861 / Schenck’s Brigade Department of Washington 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Schenck’s Brigade Army of Occupation September 1861-11 October 1861 / 1st Brigade District of the Kanawha 11 October 1861-11 March 1862 / District of the Cumberland 11 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Schenck’s Brigade Mountain Department 7 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-30 August 1862 / I Corps Virginia 28 June 1862-30 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 7 July 1862-12 July 1862 / Middle Department 17 December 1862-12 March 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 22 December 1862-12 March 1863 / Middle Department 20 March 1863-10 August 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 22 March 1863-10 August 1863 / Middle Department 31 August 1863-22 September 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 31 August 1863-22 September 1863 / Middle Department 10 October 1863-21 November 1863 / VIII Corps Middle 10 October 1863-5 December 1863

USA: Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson was captured at Richmond, Kentucky.

Manson, Mahlon Dickerson / Ohio / Born 20 February 1820 Piqua, Ohio / Died Frankfort, Indiana 4 February 1895
Captain USV 5th Indiana Infantry 8 October 1847 / Mustered Out USV 28 July 1848 / Captain USV 10th Indiana Infantry 17 April 1861 / Major USV 25 April 1861 / Colonel USV 10 May 1861 / Mustered Out 6 August 1861 / Colonel USV 10th Indiana Infantry 18 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 March 1862 to rank from 24 March 1862 / Resigned USV 21 December 1864 / WIA Richmond 29 August 1862 CIA Richmond 30 August 1862 Exchanged October 1862 WIA Resaca 14 May 1864
2nd Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-22 March 1862 / 22nd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Ohio 30 May 1862-16 August 1862 / 1st Brigade Army of Kentucky 25 August 1862-30 August 1862 / 1st Division Army of Kentucky 7 October 1862-8 June 1863 /1st Brigade 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 24 June 1863-6 August 1863 /2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 6 August 1863-21 August 1863 / XXIII Corps Ohio 24 September 1863-20 December 1863 / 2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 24 December 1863-26 January 1864 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 7 April 1864-14 May 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant-Commander Samuel Magaw USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

  • Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
      • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
        • Army of the Southwest: Frederick Steele
      • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall
    • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander Logan
      • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of Pensacola: Lewis Golding Arnold
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • Army of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby interim James Henry Carleton awaited
    • District of Arizona: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • District of Louisville: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
    • IX Corps Virginia: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of Richmond was established to include all field forces and prisons in and around Richmond, Virginia, and incorporating the Forces in Richmond and the field forces of the Department of Henrico.

CSA: Forces in Richmond was discontinued and incorporated into the Department of Richmond.

CSA: The field forces of the Department of Henrico were transferred to the Department of Richmond. The Department of Henrico retained responsibility for administrative, garrison and guard duties around Richmond, Virginia.

CSA: Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith assumed command of the Department of Richmond.

Smith, Gustavus Woodson / Kentucky / Born 1 January 1822 Georgetown, Kentucky / Died New York, New York 24 June 1896
USMA 1 July 1842 856 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 January 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 18 December 1854 / Major-General PACS 19 September 1861 / Resigned as Major-General PACS 17 February 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard 1863 / Major-General Georgia Militia 1 June 1864-26 April 1865 / Paroled 26 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / CIA Macon 20 April 1865
2nd Division Army of the Potomac 25 September 1861-5 February 1862 / II Corps Potomac 25 September 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-23 March 1862 / Left Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862 -25 June 1862 / 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia 5 May 1862-May 1862 / District of Aquia 22 March 1862-6 September 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / Defences of Richmond 2 July 1862-30 August 1862 / Department of Richmond 30 August 1862-12 December 1862 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 19 September 1862-14 January 1863

CSA: John Calvin Brown promoted Brigadier-General PACS 15 September 1862 to rank from 30 August 1862.

Brown, John Calvin / Tennessee / Born 6 January 1827 Giles, Tennessee / Died Red Boling Springs, Tennessee 17 August 1869
Private Tennessee Militia 1 May 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General Provisional Army of Tennessee 9 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 3rd Tennessee Infantry 16 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 15 September 1862 to rank from 30 August 1862 / Major-General PACS 4 August 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 WIA Perryville 8 October 1862 WIA Chickamauga 20 September 1863 WIA Ezra Church 28 July 1864 WIA Franklin 30 November 1864
3rd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Central Kentucky 28 October 1861-16 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Army of Mississippi September 1862-8 October 1862 / Brown’s Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee December 1862 / Brown’s Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee 16 January 1863-22 January 1863 / Brown’s Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee2 February 1863-6 June 1863 / Brown’s Brigade Stewart’s Division Breckinridge’s Corps Army of Tennessee 6 June 1863-August 1863 / Brown’s Brigade Stewart’s Division Breckinridge’s Corps Army of Tennessee 1 October 1863-12 November 1863 / Stewart’s Division D H Hill’s Corps Army of Tennessee August 1863 / Brown’s Brigade Stewart’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee September 1863 / Brown’s Brigade Stevenson’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 12 November 1863-23 November 1863 / Stevenson’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 23 November 1863-24 November 1863 / Brown’s Brigade Stevenson’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 29 November 1863-20 February 1864 / Brown’s Brigade Stevenson’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 February 1864-27 June 1864 / Brown’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 27 June 1864-7 July 1864 / Hindman’s Division Hood’s Corps Army of Tennessee July 1864 / Stewart’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 7 July 1864-August 1864 / Bate’s Division Cheatham’s Corps Army of Tennessee August 1864-30 November 1864 / Stewart’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 30 November 1864-2 April 1865 / Brown’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 2 Aril 1865-9 April 1865 / Brown’s Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith interim John Porter McCown awaited
    • Army of Kentucky: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
      • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Left Wing Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Missouri: Sterling Price
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert awaited
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Mississippi: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • District of the Tennessee: Sterling Price
    • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • Right Wing Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • Left Wing Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of the West: Sterling Price

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Philip Kearny
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
William Nelson
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield*
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Jesse Lee Reno
Christopher Columbus Augur
Robert Cumming Schenck

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Joseph King Fenno Mansfield)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Saloman
James Streshly Jackson
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
Francis Preston Blair
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Edwin Starke
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown

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