1862 August 25th

August 25 1862 Monday

Second Bull Run Campaign

Smith’s Invasion of Kentucky

Kentucky. Skirmish at Madisonville.

Kentucky. Skirmish at Red Bird Creek.

Kentucky. Confederate Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith’s army left Barboursville after resting for one week. They headed northwards through the Kentucky Barrens, a land of scarce water and hard going for men and animals.

Kentucky. An unofficial Union “Army of Kentucky” had been formed under Brigadier-General Gordon Granger in 1861 after neutrality of the state had prevented the overt formation of Federal formations. The majority of the volunteers were recruited by Brigadier-General William Nelson and Brigadier-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau. On 25 August 1862 these troops were formally named as the Army of Kentucky, comprising two brigades under Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson and Brigadier-General Charles Cruft. They came under the control of the Department of the Ohio. The majority of these inexperienced soldiers would be captured at Richmond on 30 August 1862.

Kentucky. The Confederate Department of East Tennessee had reorganised its field forces for Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith’s invasion of Kentucky. The Army of Kentucky had three mobile divisions. One was commanded initially by Brigadier-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson and proceeded from the Cumberland Gap. Brigadier-General Henry Heth and Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill commanded the other two divisions from eastern Tennessee. Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne was attached temporarily from the Army of Tennessee with a fourth division. Two cavalry brigades were operating with the Army under Colonel John Hunt Morgan and Colonel J S Scott.

Minnesota. The citizens and Union garrison evacuated New Ulm after fearing an attack by Santee Sioux.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Bolivar.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Fort Donelson.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Murfreesboro.

Virginia. Incidents at Fauquier, White Sulphur Springs, Sulphur Springs, Rappahannock Station, Warrenton Springs, and Waterloo Bridge.

Virginia. Having been unable to strike a decisive blow at Clark’s Mountain and Rappahannock Bridge, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee adopted a bold and controversial offensive plan. The risk was considerable but a defensive posture was more certain to result in defeat than an audacious advance. Outnumbered by 75,000 men to 55,000, Lee’s plan depended partly on the hope of causing panic if he threatened the route to Washington, DC, and partly on the slow reactions of his opposite numbers, Major-General John Pope and Major-General George Brinton McClellan.

Lee split his forces, sending half on a wide strategic envelopment across the Union line of communications with the rest of the army following a day later by a sweeping march. Success depended on speed, deception, and on the skill and initiative of Lee’s two subordinate commanders, Major-General James Longstreet and Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson.

At dawn, Jackson‘s Left Wing of three divisions crossed the Rappahannock with 23,000 men, supplied with three days of rations and a minimal wagon train. They bivouacked near Salem on the Manassas Gap Railroad, after marching for 26 miles through Jeffersonton, Amissville, and Orlean. Longstreet’s Right Wing replaced Jackson at Waterloo Bridge and remained along the Rappahannock line, creating diversions with just 32,000 troops, including the bulk of Major-General James Ewell Brown Stuart’s cavalry.

Union Major-General John Pope detected Jackson’s movement away from the known position of the Army of Northern Virginia on the Rappahannock. He assumed that Jackson was heading towards the familiar grounds of the Shenandoah Valley and Front Royal. Declining to move any of his army into the Valley, Pope did not order a pursuit and Jackson conducted his outflanking march to the west and apparently away from the Union army almost unmolested.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General John Alexander Logan assumed command of the Sub-District of Jackson, succeeding Major-General John Alexander McClernand.

Logan, John Alexander / Illinois / Born 9 February 1826 Jackson, Illinois / Died Washington, District of Columbia 26 December 1886
2nd Lieutenant USV 1st Illinois Infantry 10 May 1847 / Mustered Out 18 October 1848 / Private USV Michigan Infantry July 1861 / Colonel USV 31st Illinois Infantry 18 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Major-General USV 13 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 17 August 1865 / WIA Fort Donelson 15 February 1862 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Vicksburg June 1863 WIA Georgia 20 May 1864 WIA Dallas 30 May 1864
1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 19 April 1862-2 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 2 May 1862-4 May 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 4 May 1862-24 June 1862 / 1st Division Reserve Army of the Tennessee 21 June 1862-5 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division District of Jackson 5 July 1862-25 August 1862 / Sub-District of Jackson 25 August 1862-24 September 1862 / 3rd Division XIII Corps District of Jackson 1 November 1862-22 December 1862 / 3rd Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee 22 December 1862-22 July 1863 / 3rd Division XVII Corps Army of the Tennessee September 1863-17 November 1863 / XV Corps Army of the Tennessee 11 December 1863-22 July 1864 / Department of the Tennessee 22 July 1864-27 July 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 22 July 1864-27 July 1864 / XV Corps Tennessee 27 July 1864-23 September 1864 / XV Corps Tennessee 8 January 1865-23 May 1865 / Army of the Tennessee 19 May 1865-1 August 1865

USA: The Army of Kentucky was established in the Department of the Ohio.

USA: Brigadier-General William Nelson assumed command of the Army of Kentucky.

Nelson, William / Kentucky / Born 27 September 1824 Maysville, Kentucky / Died Maysville, Kentucky 29 September 1862
Midshipman USN 28 January 1840 / Passed Midshipman USN 11 July 1846 / Master USN 19 September 1854 / Lieutenant USN 18 April 1855 / Attached Kentucky Home Guard 1 July 1861 / Attached USA 16 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 16 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Commander USN 16 July 1862 / Major-General USV 17 July 1862 / WIA Richmond 30 August 1862
Nelson’s Brigade Department of the Cumberland November 1861-2 December 1861 / 4th Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-28 April 1862 / 4th Division Centre Army of the Ohio 28 April 1862-16 August 1862 / Army of Kentucky 25 August 1862-30 August 1862

USA: John Potts Slough promoted Brigadier-General USV 25 August 1862.

Slough, John Potts / Ohio / Born 1 February 1829 Cincinnati, Ohio / Died Santa Fe, New Mexico Territory 17 December 1867
Captain USV 1st Colorado Infantry 24 June 1861 / Colonel USV 26 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 25 August 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 June 1862-26 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-1 July 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Virginia 1 July 1862-7 July 1862 / District of Alexandria 2 February 1863-21 November 1864 / District of Alexandria 1 January 1865-26 April 1865 / District of Alexandria 7 June 1865-20 July 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Charles Henry Davis
Potomac Flotilla: Samuel Magaw

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck

Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander Logan
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Willard Preble Hall

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Pensacola: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

  • Army of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster

Department of the Ohio: Horatio Gouverneur Wright

  • District of Louisville: Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Army of Kentucky: William Nelson

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
    • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin

Department of the South: David Hunter

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

  • IV Corps Virginia: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • VII Corps Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • IX Corps Virginia: Ambrose Everett Burnside

District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell

Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Army of Virginia: John Pope

  • I Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
  • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith interim John Porter McCown awaited

  • Army of Kentucky: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill

  • District of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Sub-District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Longstreet’s Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Jackson’s Left Wing Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Johnson Hagood
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • District of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of West Louisiana: Richard Taylor
  • District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert awaited
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Braxton Bragg

  • District of the Mississippi: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
    • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
    • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
  • District of the Tennessee: Sterling Price
  • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
  • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
    • Right Wing Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • Left Wing Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps Mississippi: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Army of the West: Sterling Price

Forces in Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Philip Kearny
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
William Nelson
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield*
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Jesse Lee Reno
Christopher Columbus Augur

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Joseph King Fenno Mansfield)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Saloman
James Streshly Jackson
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley
John Buford
Francis Preston Blair
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Richard Taylor
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Johnson Hagood
William Dorsey Pender
Micah Jenkins
Martin Edwin Green
Fitzhugh Lee
Harry Thompson Hays
Albert Gallatin Jenkins
William Edwin Starke
William Barksdale
Edward Dorr Tracy
Matthew Duncan Ector

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