1862 April 8th

April 8 1862 Tuesday

Fort Jackson and Fort St Phillip, LA
Surrender of Island No 10, MO (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)
Fallen Timbers, TN

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina
Peninsula Campaign – Siege of Yorktown
Island No 10 Campaign
Shiloh Campaign
Operations at New Orleans
Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

Go to April 9 1862

Arkansas. Confederate Colonel Henry Little’s division of Major-General Earl Van Dorn’s Army of the West embarked at Des Arc and proceeded to Memphis in order to cross to the eastern bank of the Mississippi River. These were the first troops to be sent across the river out of the Trans-Mississippi region to strengthen the Confederate forces in Tennessee.

California. Skirmish near Arcata.

Georgia. Operations at Fort Pulaski ended.

Fort Jackson and Fort St Phillip, Louisiana. The Union strategic plan called for the division of the Confederacy by seizing control of the Mississippi River. One of the first steps was to enter the mouth of the Mississippi River and then ascend to capture New Orleans. By capturing the city, the Union would close the river to Confederate ships and cut off commerce with the Confederate interior.
The Confederates defended New Orleans with a small force of militia and Major-General Mansfield Lovell dispersed these among several small forts on the water approaches. About ninety miles downriver were two permanent masonry forts. Fort Jackson was the larger on the west bank of the Mississippi and mounted 74 guns; Fort St Philip was 800 yards further to the north on the eastern bank and had 52 guns. The river was barricaded by a chain floated across on barges and hulks that extended east from Fort Jackson. High water had partially destroyed this in late February but it was repaired. The garrison of the two forts numbered about 1,100 men with a combined armament of 126 guns, effectively sealing the river against naval incursion. They were soon reinforced by CSS Louisiana which was towed downriver and moored to the east bank above Fort St Philip.
The Confederates collected a small fleet built around the ironclad ram CSS Manassas, the heavy armoured CSS Louisiana (which lacked motive power but was designed to hold sixteen guns), and an unfinished gunboat the CSS Mississippi. The CSS Mississippi was a monster ship, 270 feet long and 4,000 tons in weight, designed to carry 2o guns behind three-inch armour and an iron ram. It was to have three engines, providing 14 knots of speed and the capacity to sail out to sea. However, the Confederacy was not equipped with the machinery needed to make the propulsion shaft. The Tredegar Iron Works at Richmond felt it might produce one given a few months to work on it. The vessel was only armoured below the gun-deck. The colossal demand for iron was delaying progress. In addition, fourteen paddle-wheel steamers were each armed with a gun and protected by some railroad iron; they were named the River Defence Fleet, commanded by Captain J E Montgomery CSN. Eight of these steamboats were soon sent upriver to defend Fort Pillow and Memphis but six remained at New Orleans. Commander John K Mitchell CSN commanded the mosquito fleet that had recently caused a scare at Head of Passes.
Captain David Glasgow Farragut USN led the Union operations from Ship Island, where Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler was marshalling his 15,000 soldiers as they arrived by sea from New England. Farragut assembled 24 wooden warships and Commodore David Dixon Porter’s 19 mortar schooners armed with one 13-inch mortar near the Head of the Passes. Farragut’s flagship was the USS Hartford, a wooden-screw steam vessel of 2,790 tons launched at Boston in 1858. Its armament included 22 9-inch smoothbore guns in broadside and two 20-pounder Parrott rifles. The entire fleet including transports numbered about 200 vessels.

Mississippi. Skirmish near Corinth.

Missouri. Reconnaissances to Indian Creek, Neosho, Newtonia, Gadfly, and Granby.

Missouri. Skirmishes at Warsaw and Warrensburg.

Missouri. Skirmish at Medicine Creek.

Island No 10, Missouri. Confederate Brigadier-General William Whann Mackall formally surrendered the garrison of Island No 10 after being isolated by Union Major-General John Pope’s crossing of the Mississippi to occupy Tiptonville.
The acting commander of the Confederate troops left to man the fortifications on Island No 10, Captain Andrew Jackson, tried to block the river by sinking eight steamers in the channel. By late afternoon, many of the heavy artillery companies, together with some of the remaining infantry began crossing Reelfoot Lake by any means available. Perhaps 500 of them escaped. The entire island was formally surrendered to Foote at 3.45am. After the surrender of Island No 10, the USS Mound City seized the Con­federate ship Red Rover, which had been damaged by mortar fire.
From the fall of New Madrid to the surrender at Tiptonville, Tennessee, the Union army and navy had lost only 7 men killed, 4 missing, and 14 wounded. During the entire campaign losses in the Union Army of the Mississippi were reported as 8 killed, 21 wounded, and 3 missing. The Confederates lost heavily. Pope reported 7,076 men taken prisoner. Over a hundred pieces of heavy and field artillery fell into Union hands. The Mississippi was now open to Union ships as far south as Fort Pillow, Tennessee. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

New Mexico Territory. Union Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby arrived from Fort Craig at Albuquerque where Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Hopkins Sibley waited with half of his depleted forces. After an exchange of artillery fire, Canby withdrew in the direction of the Sandia Mountains, sending for the garrison of Fort Union to join him. For his part, Sibley called for his detachment at Santa Fe, and the survivors who had fought at Apache Canyon and Glorieta Pass, to rejoin him on the Rio Grande. Each side prepared for a decisive battle for control of the Southwestern territories, and remained in position only one day’s march apart.

North Carolina. Expedition to Elizabeth City ended.

Tennessee. Martial law was declared in East Tennessee.

Tennessee. Skirmish on Corinth Road. Reconnaissance to Shiloh.

Fallen Timbers, Tennessee. After the defeat at the battle of Shiloh, Confederate Brigadier-General John Cabell Breckinridge had held his position as a rearguard overnight but he departed in the early morning, joining the rear of the long and exhausted column in retreat towards Corinth.
Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s Army of West Tennessee lacked the large organised cavalry units needed for reconnaissance and vigorous pursuit of a retreating enemy. Grant sent Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman along the Corinth Road on a reconnaissance in force, to ascertain whether the Confederates had retreated, or were regrouping to resume their attacks. Sherman marched with two infantry brigades from his own division, along with two battalions of cavalry, and they united with Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood’s division of Buell’s army. Six miles southwest of Pittsburg Landing Sherman came upon a clear field holding an extensive camp, including a Confederate field hospital protected by 300 to 350 Confederate cavalrymen commanded by Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest. The road approaching the field was covered by fallen trees for over 200 yards, a boggy swale where a pre-war logging project had been abandoned. As skirmishers from the 77th Ohio Infantry approached with difficulty the clearing obstructed by fallen timber, Forrest ordered a charge by his cavalry, firing shotguns and revolvers and brandishing sabres, and nearly captured Sherman.
When Union Colonel Jesse Hildebrand’s brigade began forming in line of battle beyond the skirmishers, the Confederate troopers had to retreat and Forrest, who was well in advance of his men, came within a few yards of the Union soldiers before realising he was alone. A Union soldier shoved his musket into Forrest’s side and fired, hitting him above the hip, penetrating to the spine. Although seriously wounded, Forrest stayed on horseback and escaped.
After capturing the Confederate field hospital and abandoned camps, Sherman encountered the rear of Breckinridge’s rearguard. Determining that the enemy was showing no signs of renewing its attack, Sherman withdrew back to camp. The Confederates continued their retreat to Corinth, Mississippi, without further disruption. The Union lost about 100 men, 43 of them captured during Forrest’s charge.

Union Organisation

USA: Robert Byington Mitchell promoted Brigadier-General USV 14 April 1862 to rank from 8 April 1862.

USA: James Gilpatrick Blunt promoted Brigadier-General USV 14 April 1862 to rank from 8 April 1862.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
    • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • District of Kansas: James William Denver

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Middle Department: John Adams Dix

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood

Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont

  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
  • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell

  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited

Department of the South: David Hunter

  • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
  • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
  • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan was appointed to command the Department of Middle and Eastern Florida, arriving on 18 April 1862, to succeed Colonel William Scott Dilworth.

CSA: Missouri State Brigadier-General Mosby Munroe Parsons assumed command of the Missouri State Guard, succeeding Missouri State Major-General Sterling Price.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Samuel Jones

  • Army of Mobile: William L Powell

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: William Scott Dilworth interim Joseph Finegan awaited

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
  • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Centre Wing Northern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Maxcy Gregg
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Daniel Smith Donelson
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
  • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
  • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • I Corps (Mississippi): Leonidas Polk
    • II Corps (Mississippi): Braxton Bragg
    • III Corps (Mississippi): William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps (Mississippi): John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis

John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
William Hervey Lamm Wallace
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Henry Little

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