1862 April 6th

April 6 1862 Sunday

Battle of Shiloh, TN

Dam No 1, VA

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Peninsula Campaign – Siege of Yorktown

Island No 10 Campaign

 Shiloh Campaign

Sibley’s Operations in New Mexico

California. Skirmish at Fort Anderson.

Florida. USS Pursuit, Acting Lieutenant Cate, captured the steamer Florida loading cotton at North Bay, at the head of Bear Creek.

Missouri. USS Carondelet had successfully passed the batteries at Island No 10. It now began a reconnaissance down the Mississippi River from New Madrid to Tiptonville, exchanging shots with shore batteries at Island No 10.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General Edmund Kirby Smith sent a reconnaissance expedition from Greenville to Laurel Valley, North Carolina.

Shiloh, Tennessee, also known as Pittsburg Landing. Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston had originally planned to attack the Union camps at Pittsburg Landing two days earlier but delays, poor staff work, and bad weather had postponed operations. Nevertheless, the presence of his Army of Mississippi was largely undetected and he was still able to achieve some degree of surprise.

The Union Army of West Tennessee under Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant and the approaching Army of the Ohio under Major-General Don Carlos Buell comprised together about 65,085 men. Of these, about 20,000 were with Buell. Buell had arrived in person overnight at Grant’s headquarters at Savannah with the first element of one of his four divisions. He and Grant planned how to bring Buell’s army to the west bank of the Tennessee to join forces with Grant’s troops. They decided to send Buell’s men upstream to Hamburg, which would give them a slightly shorter route to their objective of Corinth, Mississippi. The two armies would unite later when their roads converged about eight miles from Corinth. This would allow the advance to begin promptly and avoided Buell’s men having to funnel through Grant’s crowded encampments at Pittsburg Landing.

At 6 am, Johnston’s Confederate Army of Mississippi deployed across the Corinth Road south of Pittsburg Landing with a total of about 44,968 men. The army had spent the entire night undetected two miles away from the Union camps. Their approach and dawn assault achieved almost total strategic and tactical surprise. The Union army had few patrols in place to give an early warning. Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman, the informal camp commander at Pittsburg Landing during Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s temporary absence, did not expect the Confederates to be nearby and discounted the possibility of an attack from the south, expecting perhaps an eventual attack from the direction of Purdy to the west.

Johnston launched his main attack on the right flank in order to reach Pittsburg Landing and prevent the Union Army from escaping across the Tennessee River. This would also cut the Union supply line and avenue of retreat. He instructed General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard to stay to the rear and direct men and supplies as needed while he led the men personally on the battle line. The misguided alignment of the Confederate commands reduced the effectiveness of their attack. Confederate Major-General William Joseph Hardee and Major-General Braxton Bragg began the assault with their divisions in one line almost three miles wide, far beyond the ability of their commanders to see or direct them in the dense woodlands. As they advanced, they became intermingled and difficult to control. Each Corps commander attacked in line without reserves and their artillery could not be concentrated. At about 7.30 am Beauregard ordered the corps of Major-General Leonidas Polk and Brigadier-General John Cabell Breckinridge forward on the left and right of the line. Their attack proceeded again as a frontal assault in a wide linear formation. The assault, despite its shortcomings, was nevertheless ferocious.

Across the Corinth Road, Union Colonel Jesse Hildebrand’s brigade of Sherman’s division took the impact of the first Confederate assault. Sherman had two brigades in line west of Shiloh Chapel, a third was east of the chapel and a fourth was detached near the river beyond Prentiss’s camps on the far left. The 53rd Ohio Infantry broke almost immediately, and two other regiments followed it in flight. The regiment had lost seven men captured from the picket line on 4 April, and a scout company had been fired upon on the 5 April, but continuous reports of the enemy’s proximity had been ridiculed, even though other parts of the army had also captured Confederate prisoners and deserters. Sherman’s division bore the brunt of the initial attack and, despite the heavy fire on their position and their right flank crumbling, they fought on stubbornly. The Union troops slowly lost ground and fell back to a position among their camps behind Shiloh Church. They repelled four charges and then gave way to a new position after a fifth attack.

Sherman, who had been negligent in preparation for the battle, took a key role once he realised that the fight was now underway. As commander of the field until Grant’s arrival, he appeared everywhere, inspiring the raw recruits to resist despite staggering losses on both sides. He received two minor wounds and had three horses shot out from under him.

Major-General John Alexander McClernand’s division had been behind Sherman’s and after it advanced to the sound of firing, it temporarily stabilised the position, filling the void between Sherman on his right and the division of Brigadier-General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss on the left. At dawn, Colonel Everett Peabody, commanding a brigade in Prentiss’s division, had sent forward part of the 25th Missouri Infantry on a reconnaissance, and they became engaged with Confederate skirmishers between 5 am and 5.15 am. The spirited fight provided some warning but the Union army was still not fully alert. Fighting a delaying action the scouts were reinforced by four companies of the 16th Wisconsin Infantry, five companies of the 21st Missouri Infantry, and eventually the rest of Peabody’s brigade. By 8 am they had been pressed back to the main line of Prentiss’s division.

Prentiss’s division was broken quickly by relentless attacks and survivors of both Sherman’s and Prentiss’s divisions mingled with others as they gave up almost two miles of ground to hold a new line. Johnston’s relentless head-on attacks made steady progress until noon, rolling up Union positions one by one. Many regiments fragmented entirely, leaving the remaining companies and individuals to attach themselves to other commands. The Union troops gave ground steadily under the pressure. However, the faulty Confederate command structure and deployment made it impossible for them to do more than charge straight ahead in ever more disorganised groups.

Starting at about 9 am, men of Prentiss’s and Brigadier-General William Hervey Lamm Wallace’s divisions established a new position nicknamed the Hornet’s Nest, in a field lined by a defensible “sunken road”. Prentiss had fallen back from his first line of defence and W H L Wallace moved his division up quickly from its camps near Pittsburg Landing to reinforce him. Grant ordered Prentiss to hold the Hornet’s Nest at all costs. Major-General Stephen Augustus Hurlbut’s division entered the action on Prentiss’s left and occupied a Peach Orchard. The Union flanks were being pushed back but were not broken decisively.

Grant was about ten miles downriver on a gunboat at Savannah when he heard the sound of artillery fire. He raced to the battlefield and arrived at about 8.30 am. He met Sherman at about 10 am and then visited McClernand and Prentiss in turn. Grant now took charge of the battle, made preparations to defend the vital river landing area at Pittsburg Landing, organised a cordon to enforce the return of stragglers and fugitives to the fight, and issued orders for the Union army to hold its lines.

Grant worked frantically to bring up reinforcements and ordered Brigadier-General William Nelson’s Division – the first to arrive from Buell’s Army of the Ohio – to march from Savannah on the eastern shore of the river to the eastern bank of the Tennessee opposite Pittsburg Landing.

Grant had already met Major-General Lewis Wallace at Pittsburg Landing and he ordered him to bring his division forward from Crump’s Landing to support Sherman on the right flank. Wallace took a route different from the one Grant intended and by the end of his march he found that Sherman had been forced back from where Wallace expected to find him. Moreover, the battle line had moved so far east that Wallace’s men were already behind the advancing Confederate troops. A messenger arrived with word that Grant was asking why Wallace had not arrived at Pittsburg Landing. Wallace was confused and felt sure he could launch an attack in the Confederates’ rear. Nevertheless, he decided to turn his troops around and marched back to Stoney Lonesome and then around to Pittsburg Landing, arriving at Grant’s position about 6.30 pm or 7 pm, long after the day’s hardest fighting was over.

The Confederate formation had resulted in a complete disruption of command and the corps commanders made an arbitrary division of the front to regain some control. Hardee and Polk took the left wing while Bragg and Breckinridge took the right wing, but their capacity to carry out the original battle plan was prevented by stubborn resistance at the Hornet’s Nest. Hardee and Polk finally forced Sherman and McClernand on the Union right to retreat in the direction of Pittsburg Landing, leaving the right flank of the Hornet’s Nest exposed. To the left of the Hornet’s Nest, Hurlbut’s Union division had occupied another strong position at a Peach Orchard and he held out determinedly against all attacks.

Johnston rode forward to lead another assault on the Peach Orchard by one of Breckinridge’s brigades but was wounded at about 2.30 pm while leading the attack. Deeming a leg wound to be insignificant, he had sent his personal surgeon away to care for some wounded soldiers. In the doctor’s absence, he bled to death. He was the first general in command of an army to be killed in the war. He was the highest-ranking field commander in Confederate service, second in seniority only to the staff officer General Samuel Cooper. He was also the oldest General Officer on either side to die as a direct result of wounds in battle.

Beauregard heard the news of Johnston’s death and assumed command but, from his position in the rear, he had only a vague idea of the disposition of forces at the front. He ordered Johnston’s body shrouded for secrecy to avoid damaging morale in the army and ordered the resumption of the attacks against the Hornet’s Nest. Beauregard insisted that there must be no let-up in the pressure.

Breckinridge attacked from reserve into the extreme left of the Union line, driving off the small brigade of Colonel David Stuart (detached from Sherman’s division). Hurlbut was finally driven from the Peach Orchard.  Breckinridge had opened a route into the Union rear area and to the Tennessee River. However, the attackers paused to regroup and recover from their exhaustion and disorganisation. They then chose to follow the sound of the guns toward the Hornet’s Nest, and the brief opportunity was lost.

Twelve separate attacks had failed to carry the Hornet’s Nest but success on the flanks and the massing of 62 guns enabled Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles’ Confederate division to make a successful thirteenth attack. They surrounded and captured over 2,200 defenders in the Hornet’s Nest at about 5.30 pm. Union Divisional commander W H L Wallace was mortally wounded leading survivors away through the so-called Hell’s Hollow. Sherman and McClernand had saved much of their divisions by giving ground but the sacrifice of his division at the Hornet’s Nest sacrifice bought vital time for Grant to establish a final defensive line nearer to Pittsburg Landing. Their costly resistance probably saved the army.

With the two main obstacles at the Hornet’s Nest and the Peach Orchard removed, determined but disorganised Confederates pushed onwards up to meet a solid three-mile Union front that had coalesced around Pittsburg Landing. This line extended west from the Tennessee and then north up the River Road, where it kept the route open for the belated arrival of Lewis Wallace’s division. Sherman now commanded the right of the line, McClernand the centre, and on the left, remnants of W H L Wallace’s, Hurlbut’s, and Stuart’s troops were mingled among thousands of stragglers who were crowding the bluffs by the landing. Grant had run out of reserves and thousands of men were absent from the firing line. He urged Nelson to cross the river immediately and to bring his men into action, declaring that his arrival would save the day. The first brigade of Buell’s Army of the Ohio (Colonel Jacob Ammen’s brigade of Nelson’s division), arrived by nightfall and was ferried across to join the far left end of the line by the riverside.

Grant’s chief of artillery placed a battery of siege guns near the landing. These were strengthened by the heavy guns of two gunboats on the river (USS Tyler and USS Lexington), and the heavy guns opened a tremendous cannonade of shot and shell from the river bank. A new Confederate attack by two brigades led by Brigadier-Jones Mitchell Withers followed a road that led towards the landing from Snake Creek Bridge. After crossing a ravine knee-deep in water, they found the left flank of the Union line at the top of a slope. They advanced but were shattered by concentrated artillery fire, including heavy calibre shots from the Union gunboats and siege guns. They were driven back with heavy losses.

At about 6 pm, a further and final Confederate effort to seize the landing was suspended by Beauregard. Rather than make a disjointed attack with his exhausted troops at dusk, he decided to postpone the final blow until morning when it could be delivered with more impact. Nevertheless, Beauregard sent a premature telegram to President Davis announcing, “a complete victory” Many of his men were jubilant, having overrun the Union camps and taken thousands of prisoners and large quantities of supplies.

The night was dispiriting for all. A thunderstorm passed through the area and rhythmic shelling, one shot every fifteen minutes, from the Union gunboats made the night a miserable experience for both sides.

However, Grant had reasons to be optimistic because Lewis Wallace’s division and the first 15,000 men of Buell’s army began to arrive in the late evening. Buell’s first troops had already crossed during the evening (Ammen’s brigade of Nelson’s division) and the rest of the division crossed during the night. By early morning they had been followed by parts of the divisions of Brigadier-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden and Brigadier-General Alexander McDowell McCook.

Confederate Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest observed Buell’s forces crossing the river and reported it, advising that if the army stayed in place, it would be defeated by superior numbers. His warnings were either ignored or disregarded and the exhausted Confederate troops were allowed to rest in place. Beauregard did not hear from Forrest directly but he was convinced that Buell would not be reinforcing Grant because a telegram from Colonel Benjamin Hardin Helm in northern Alabama reported that Buell was marching towards Decatur and away from Pittsburg Landing. This report was based on sound information at the time – this had been Buell’s and Grant’s intention – but the battle had forced Buell to abandon that plan and to march to the sounds of the guns by the Tennessee River.


Union Department of the Mississippi: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck
Army of the Ohio: Major-General Don Carlos Buell
2nd Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General Alexander McDowell McCook
4th Brigade, 2nd Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General Lovell Harrison Rousseau
5th Brigade, 2nd Division (Ohio): Colonel Edward Needles Kirk
6th Brigade, 2nd Division (Ohio): Colonel W H Gibson
4th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General William Nelson
10th Brigade, 4th Division (Ohio): Colonel Jacob Ammen
19th Brigade, 4th Division (Ohio) Colonel William Babcock Hazen
22nd Brigade, 4th Division (Ohio): Colonel S D Bruce
5th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
11th Brigade, 5th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
14th Brigade, 5th Division (Ohio): Colonel W S Smith
6th Division (Ohio), Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood
20th Brigade, 6th Division (Ohio): Brigadier-General James Abram Garfield
21st Brigade, 6th Division (Ohio): Colonel George Day Wagner
District of West Tennessee: Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
Army of the Tennessee (Army of West Tennessee): Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
1st Division (Tennessee): Major-General John Alexander McClernand
1st Brigade, 1st Division (Tennessee): Colonel A M Hare
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (Tennessee): Colonel C C Marsh
3rd Brigade, 1st Division (Tennessee): Colonel Julius Raith
2nd Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Hervey Lamm Wallace
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (Tennessee): Colonel James Madison Tuttle
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John McArthur
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division (Tennessee): Colonel Thomas William Sweeny
3rd Division (Tennessee): Major-General Lewis Wallace
1st Brigade, 3rd Division (Tennessee): Colonel Morgan L Smith
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Tennessee): Colonel John Milton Thayer
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division (Tennessee): Colonel Charles Whittlesey
4th Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
1st Brigade, 4th Division (Tennessee): Colonel N G Williams
2nd Brigade, 4th Division (Tennessee): Colonel James Clifford Veatch
3rd Brigade, 4th Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Jacob Gartner Lauman
5th Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman
1st Brigade, 5th Division (Tennessee): Colonel J A McDowell
2nd Brigade, 5th Division (Tennessee): Colonel David Stuart
3rd Brigade, 5th Division (Tennessee): Colonel Jesse Hildebrand
4th Brigade, 5th Division (Tennessee): Colonel Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
6th Division (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
1st Brigade, 6th Division (Tennessee): Colonel Everett Peabody
2nd Brigade, 6th Division (Tennessee): Colonel Madison Miller

Confederate Western Department: General Albert Sidney Johnston, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Army of Mississippi: General Albert Sidney Johnston, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
I (Polk’s) Corps (Mississippi): Major-General Leonidas Polk
1st Clark’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Charles Clark
1st Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Robert M Russell
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Alexander Peter Stewart
2nd Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Bushrod Rust Johnson
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Colonel William H Stephens
II (Bragg’s) Corps (Mississippi): Major-General Braxton Bragg
1st Ruggles’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Randall Lee Gibson
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Patton Anderson
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Preston Pond
2nd Withers’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Jones Mitchell Withers
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Adley Hogan Gladden
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John King Jackson
III (Hardee’s) Corps (Mississippi): Major-General William Joseph Hardee
1st Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman
2nd Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
3rd Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
Reserve (Breckinridge’s) Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Cabell Breckinridge
1st Brigade, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Robert P Trabue
2nd Brigade, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Stevens Bowen
3rd Brigade, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Winfield Scott Statham

Texas. Incident at San Luis Pass.

Dam No 1, Virginia. The Union 6th Maine Infantry and 5th Wisconsin Infantry under Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock performed a reconnaissance around Dam No 1, where the Confederates had widened the Warwick River to create a water obstacle. They drove off the Confederate pickets and took some prisoners. Hancock considered this area a weak spot in the line but orders from McClellan prevented any exploitation.

Union Brigadier-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes, deceived by the Confederates’ theatrical troop movements, believed that the Warwick Line fortifications could not be carried and advised McClellan against an immediate assault. Despite their great preponderance in numbers, most of the Union commanders were convinced that the works could not be carried without lengthy preparations. McClellan reluctantly abandoned the idea of an immediate assault and ordered the construction of siege works to break the apparently invincible fortifications. Some of the more firebrand and aggressive of his brigade and division commanders protested at the delay but could not prevail in their appeals for an opportunity to take the defences by assault.

To the surprise of the Confederates and the dismay of President Abraham Lincoln, McClellan ordered his army to entrench in works opposite Magruder’s and established a siege of Yorktown and the Warwick River line. Although McClellan doubted his numerical superiority over the enemy, he had no doubts about the superiority of his artillery and believed that a siege was certain of success.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss was captured at Shiloh.

Prentiss, Benjamin Mayberry / Virginia / Born 23 November 1819 Belleville, Virginia / Died Bethany, Missouri 8 February 1901
1st Lieutenant Illinois Militia 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USV 1st Illinois Infantry 18 June 1846 / Captain USV 14 September 1846 / Mustered Out USV 17 June 1847 / Brigadier-General Illinois Militia 1861 / Captain USV 10th Illinois Infantry 29 April 1861 / Colonel USV 29 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 13 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 28 October 1863 / CIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
District of Ironton 15 August 1861-1 September 1861 / District of North Missouri 26 November 1861-26 December 1861 / 6th Division Army of the Tennessee 26 March 1862-6 April 1862 / District of Eastern Arkansas 14 February 1863-3 August 1863

USA: Brigadier-General William Hervey Lamm Wallace was mortally wounded at Shiloh.

Wallace, William Hervey Lamm (Harvey Lamb) / Ohio / Born 8 July 1821 Urbana, Ohio / DOW Savannah, Tennessee 10 April 1862
Private USV 1st Illinois Infantry 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USV 22 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 17 June 1847 / Colonel USV 11th Illinois Infantry 1 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 30 June 1861 / Colonel USV 11th Illinois Infantry 30 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 22 March 182 to rank from 21 March 1862 / MWIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
3rd Brigade District of Southeast Missouri September 1861-14 October 1861 / 3rd Brigade District of Cairo 14 October 1861-1 February 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division District of Cairo 1 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 11 March 1862-29 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee 2 April 1862-6 April 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Department of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • District of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
    • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
  • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
  • District of Kansas: James William Denver

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Middle Department: John Adams Dix

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood

Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont

  • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • District of the Cumberland: Robert Cumming Schenck
  • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
  • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
  • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell

  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited

Department of the South: David Hunter

  • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
  • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
  • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Albert Sidney Johnston was killed at Shiloh.

Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

CSA: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard assumed command of the Western Department, succeeding General Albert Sidney Johnston.

CSA: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard assumed command of the Army of Mississippi, succeeding General Albert Sidney Johnston.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant / Louisiana / Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 20 February 1893
USMA 1 July 1838 2/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 June 1839 / Chief Engineer US Army in Mexico 1847 / Captain USA Engineers 3 March 1853 / Superintendent USMA 23 January 1861-28 January 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Department of South Carolina 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Forces in Charleston (Defences of Charleston) 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Department of the Potomac 31 May 1861-2 June 1861 / Alexandria Line 2 June 1861-20 June 1861 / Army of the Potomac 20 June 1861-19 July 1861 / I Corps Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / District of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Western Department 6 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-6 May 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 7 October 1862-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 18 April 1864-14 May 1864 / Defences of Drewry’s Bluff 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-27 September 1864/ Defences of Petersburg 27 September 1864-1 October 1864 / Military Division of the West 3 October 1864-16 December 1864  / Army of Tennessee 14 January 1865-22 January 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of Tennessee 27 February 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General John Cabell Breckinridge assumed full command of Reserve Corps (Mississippi).

Breckinridge, John Cabell / Kentucky / Born 16 January 1821 Lexington, Kentucky / Died Lexington, Kentucky 17 May 1875
Major USV 3rd Kentucky Infantry 6 September 1847 / Mustered out USV 21 July 1848 / Brigadier-General PACS 2 November 1861 / Major-General PACS 16 April 1862 to rank from 14 April 1862 / No Record of Parole / WIA Shiloh 7 April 1862
1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of Central Kentucky 15 November 1861-23 February 1862 / 4th Division Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 31 March 1862-30 June 1862 / District of Mississippi 30 June 1862-18 August 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 3 July 1862-4 August 1862 / Breckinridge’s Command Army of the West 5 August 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 18 August 1862-28 October 1862 / Army of Middle Tennessee 28 October 1862-7 November 1862 / Breckinridge’s Division Polk’s Corps Army of Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-12 December 1862 / Breckinridge’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 12 December 1862-January 1863 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee January 1863-31 May 1863 / Breckinridge’s Division Military Division of the West 31 May 1863-June 1863 / Breckinridge’s Division Army of Tennessee June 1863 / Breckinridge’s Division D H Hill’s Corps Army of Tennessee 25 August 1863-8 November 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 15 October 1863-15 December 1863 / Breckinridge’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 15 December 1863-15 February 1864 / Trans-Allegheny Department 25 February 1864-25 May 1864 / Breckinridge’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 25 May 1864-7 June 1864 / II Corps Valley 27 June 1864-27 September 1864 / 1st Division and 2nd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 7 July 1864-August 1864 / Breckinridge’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 17 September 1864 / Trans-Allegheny Department 17 September 1864-27 September 1864 / Reserve Forces of Tennessee 1 September 1864-4 May 1865 / Trans-Allegheny Department 17 September 1864-27 September 1864 / Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia 27 September 1864-6 February 1865

CSA: Braxton Bragg promoted General PACS 12 April 1862 to rank from 6 April 1862.

Bragg, Braxton / North Carolina / Born 22 March 1817 Warrenton, North Carolina / Died Galveston, Texas 27 September 1876
USMA 1 July 1837 5/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / Regt Adjutant 19 November 1837-8 March 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 3 January 1856 / Colonel Louisiana Militia / ADC (T O Moore) / Major-General Louisiana Militia 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 7 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 12 September 1861 / General ACSA 12 April 1862 to rank from 6 April 1862 / Paroled Monticello, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 February 1847
Department of Louisiana 22 February 1861-21 March 1861 / Forces in New Orleans 22 February 1861-16 April 1861 / Department of West Florida 7 March 1861-14 October 1861 / Forces in Pensacola 7 March 1861-3 October 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 7 October 1861-28 February 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 4 March 1862-2 April 1862 / Army of Pensacola 22 October 1861-26 January 1862 / II Corps (Second Grand Division) Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-28 March 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 May 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Mississippi 30 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 May 1862-5 July 1862 / Western Department 17 June 1862-24 October 1862 / Army of Mississippi 15 August 1862-28 September 1862 / Western Department 3 November 1862-25 July 1863 / Army of Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-2 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 25 July 1863-21 December 1863 / Military Adviser to the President 24 February 1864-31 January 1865 / Defences of Wilmington 24 October 1864-11 November 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 11 November 1864-6 March 1865 /Defences of Augusta 22 November 1864-2 December 1864 / Defences of Savannah 2 December 1864 / Defences of Charleston December 1864 / Defences of Wilmington January 1865 / II Corps Tennessee 22 February 1865-8 April 1865

CSA: Jones Mitchell Withers promoted Major-General PACS 16 August 1862 to rank from 6 April 1862.

Withers, Jones Mitchell / Alabama / Born 12 January 1814 Madison, Alabama / Died Mobile, Alabama 13 March 1890
USMA 1 July 1835 44/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1831 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1835 / Resigned USA 5 December 1835 / Alabama Militia 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Infantry 3 March 1847 / 13th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / Resigned USA 23 May 1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Alabama Infantry 28 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 6 April 1862 / Resigned PACS 13 July 1863 / Reappointed Major-General PACS 21 July 1863 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835
Department of Norfolk 23 May 1861-26 May 1861 / District of Alabama 12 September 1861-27 January 1862 / Army of Mobile 27 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-30 June 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 30 June 1862-20 November 1862 / Withers’ Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 18 August 1862-20 November 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-13 August 1863 / District of Northern Alabama 6 February 1864-27 July 1864 / Reserve Forces of Alabama 30 April 1864-4 May 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Adley Hogan Gladden was mortally wounded at Shiloh.

Gladden, Adley Hogan / South Carolina / Born 28 October 1810 Fairfield, South Carolina / DOW Corinth, Mississippi 12 April 1862
USV Florida 1837 / Major USV Palmetto South Carolina Infantry 24 December 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV Palmetto South Carolina 20 August 1847 / Discharged USV 1847 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st South Carolina Infantry 25 January 1861 / Resigned 26 January 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Louisiana Regular Infantry 1 February 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 30 September 1861 / WIA Belen Gate 13 September 1847 MWIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
3rd Brigade Army of Pensacola 4 April 1861-12 October 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of Pensacola 12 October 1861-22 December 1861 / Army of Pensacola 22 December 1861-27 January 1862 / Gladden’s Brigade Army of Mobile 27 January 1862-9 March 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 9 March 1862-29 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

Department of Alabama and West Florida: Samuel Jones

  • Army of Mobile: William L Powell

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: William Scott Dilworth temporary

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
  • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Centre Wing Northern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Maxcy Gregg
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Daniel Smith Donelson
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
  • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
  • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee awaited
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
  • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • I Corps (Mississippi): Leonidas Polk
    • II Corps (Mississippi): Braxton Bragg
    • III Corps (Mississippi): William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps (Mississippi): John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn

District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

  • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis

John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
William Hervey Lamm Wallace
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston KIA
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Henry Little


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