1861 September 25th

September 25 1861 Tuesday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Cheat Mountain Campaign, West Virginia

Brazil. CSS Sumter captured the American ship Joseph Park off the northeast coast of South America. The ship was burned three days later at sea.

USA. The US Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles instructed Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont, commanding South Atlantic Blockading Squadron regarding the employment of black men as sailors and workers:

“The Department finds it necessary to adopt a regulation with respect to the large and increasing number of persons of colour, commonly known as ‘contrabands.’ now subsisted at the navy yards and on board ships-of-war. These can neither be expelled from the service, to which they have resorted, nor can they be maintained unemployed, and it is not proper that they should be compelled to render necessary and regular services without compensation. You are therefore authorized, when their services can be made useful, to enlist them for the naval service, under the same forms and regulations as apply to other enlistments. They will be allowed, however, no higher rating than ‘boys,’ at a com­pensation of ten dollars per month and one ration per day.”

California. Expedition to Temecula Ranch began. Expedition to Oak Grove began.

Kentucky. A party of seventeen Confederate recruits, including James Brown Clay, the son of the renowned Senator Henry Clay, was captured at Danville while travelling to join Brigadier-General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer’s forces.

New Mexico Territory. Skirmish at Canada Alamosa.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith led 3,000 men to reconnoitre and forage between the Chain Bridge over the Potomac and Lewinsville. The Union 54th Ohio Infantry engaged a Confederate force at Chapmansville, reporting 29 Confederates killed for the loss of 4 men killed and 8 wounded.

Freestone Point, Virginia. The Confederates had constructed three batteries at Evansport to disrupt traffic on the Potomac River. Two batteries were on the river bank, with another 400 yards inland. Another field battery was located at the mouth of Chopawamsic Creek where it empties to the Potomac, at Shipping Point. More guns were placed at Freestone Point (a four-gun battery on the shore of the Potomac River) and at Cockpit Point (six guns, one heavy in four batteries, a powder magazine, and rear rifle pits, on top of a high cliff known as Possum Nose. These positions restricted Union shipping on the Potomac River and into the Chesapeake Bay. The Freestone Point batteries were commanded by Colonel Louis Trezevant Wigfall (1st Texas Infantry) were exchanged gunfire with the USS Jacob Bell and USS Seminole.

Virginia. To resolve once and for all the situation of disputed command authority in western Virginia, Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise was ordered to Richmond. Wise and his men subsequently moved on to Norfolk and thence in January 1862 to North Carolina to defend Roanoke Island. The remaining Confederate troops in western Virginia established Camp Bartow in the Cheat Mountain area. The Army of the Kanawha was discontinued after its commander, Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd was ordered to Bowling Green, Kentucky, with the 20th Mississippi Infantry, 36th Virginia Infantry, and 50th Virginia Infantry. They became part of the 3rd Division of the Army of Central Kentucky. The 45th Virginia Infantry (Colonel Henry Heth) and 22nd Virginia Infantry (Colonel John Q Tompkins) were left at Lewisburg to join Brigadier-General William Wing Loring’s Army of the Northwest. All other Confederates left in western Virginia were under the command of Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson. They had the advantage of knowing the land but their numbers were reduced by sickness to as few as one-third of their original strength.

Virginia. Union forces in Cheat Mountain and Tygart’s Valley were commanded by Brigadier-General Joseph Jones Reynolds. Union spirits had been heartened due to their success in repelling Confederate Brigadier-General William Wing Loring’s recent attack. Reynolds believed that he would be able to defeat Jackson and clear the mountain for a quick route to Virginia. For two days it rained non-stop and the cold weather lost men on both sides to exposure.

Virginia. Skirmish at Kanawha gap near Chapmansville.

Virginia. The Confederate Army of the Potomac around Manassas Junction was reorganised to form two unofficial “Corps” or groups of divisions. The newest group (unofficially II Corps) was assigned to Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith. Smith’s command mainly comprised the forces of the former Army of the Shenandoah. The unofficial I Corps was also formed under General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard and was mainly made up of Beauregard’s original Manassas brigades.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel USA Sylvester Churchill, Inspector-General of the US Army, retired.

Churchill, Sylvester / Vermont / Born 2 August 1783 Woodstock, Vermont / Died Washington, District of Columbia 7 December 1862
1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 12 March 1812 / Captain USA 15 August 1813 / Major USA Assistant Inspector-General 29 August 1813-15 June 1815 / US Artillery 12 May 1814 / Captain USA Artillery 17 May 1815 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / Major USA 3rd US Artillery 6 Aril 1835 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 15 June 1841 / Inspector-General US Army 8 January 1849 / Retired USA 25 September 1861 / Brevet Major USA 15 August 1823 Brevet Brigadier-General 13 February 1847
Inspector-General 8 January 1849-25 September 1861

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of the Ohio: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Lloyd Beall
    • District of Southern California: George Wright awaited
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • Western Army: John Charles Frémont
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans awaited

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of the Kanawha was discontinued.

CSA: “I Corps” (Potomac) was established unofficially in the Army of the Potomac.

CSA: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard assumed command of I Corps (Potomac).

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant / Louisiana / Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 20 February 1893
USMA 1 July 1838 2/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 June 1839 / Chief Engineer US Army in Mexico 1847 / Captain USA Engineers 3 March 1853 / Superintendent USMA 23 January 1861-28 January 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Department of South Carolina 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Forces in Charleston (Defences of Charleston) 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Department of the Potomac 31 May 1861-2 June 1861 / Alexandria Line 2 June 1861-20 June 1861 / Army of the Potomac 20 June 1862-19 July 1861 / I Corps Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / District of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Western Department 6 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-6 May 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 7 October 1862-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 18 April 1864-14 May 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-27 September 1864 / Defences of Drewry’s Bluff 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Defences of Petersburg 27 September 1864-1 October 1864 / Military Division of the West 3 October 1864-April 1865 / 16 December 1864 / Chief of Staff Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of Tennessee 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 14 January 1865-22 January 1865

CSA: “II Corps” (Potomac) was established unofficially in the Army of the Potomac.

CSA: Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith was appointed to command II Corps (Potomac), arriving on 4 October 1861.

Smith, Gustavus Woodson / Kentucky / Born 1 January 1822 Georgetown, Kentucky / Died New York, New York 24 June 1896
USMA 1 July 1842 856 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 January 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 18 December 1854 / Major-General PACS 19 September 1861 / Resigned as Major-General PACS 17 February 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard 1863 / Major-General Georgia Militia 1 June 1864-26 April 1865 / Paroled 26 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / CIA Macon 20 April 1865
2nd Division Army of the Potomac 25 September 1861-5 February 1862 / II Corps Potomac 25 September 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-23 March 1862 / Left Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862 -25 June 1862 / 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia 5 May 1862-May 1862 / District of Aquia 22 March 1862-6 September 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / Defences of Richmond 2 July 1862-30 August 1862 / Department of Richmond 30 August 1862-12 December 1862 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 19 September 1862-14 January 1863

CSA: Lafayette McLaws promoted Brigadier-General PACS 25 September 1861.

McLaws, Lafayette / Georgia / Born 15 January 1821 Augusta, Georgia / Died Savannah, Georgia 24 July 1897
USMA 1 July 1842 48/56 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 6th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 16 March 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 24 August 1851 / Resigned USA 23 May 1861 / Major ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster 18 April 1861-June 1861 / Colonel PACS 10th Georgia Infantry 17 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 25 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 23 May 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 / WIA Texas 1845
1st Brigade Army of the Peninsula 3 October 1861-10 November 1861 / 2nd Division Army of the Peninsula 10 November 1861-10 April 1862 / McLaws’ Division Magruder’s Command Army of Northern Virginia 12 April 1862-May 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing I Corps Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-July 1862 / McLaws’ Division defences of Richmond July 1862-26 August 1862 / McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 August 1862-20 September 1863 / I Corps Northern Virginia 20 September 1863-17 December 1863 / Defences of Savannah 18 May 1864-17 December 1864 / Third Sub-District of South Carolina 1 August 1864-17 October 1864 / Fifth Sub-District of South Carolina 17 October 1864-22 January 1865 / McLaws’ Division Army of Tennessee January 1865-26 May 1865 / Fifth Sub-District of South Carolina 10 April 1865-10 May 1865

CSA: Thomas Fenwick Drayton promoted Brigadier-General PACS 25 September 1861.

Drayton, Thomas Fenwick / South Carolina / Born 24 August 1808 Charleston, South Carolina / Died Florence, South Carolina 18 February 1891
USMA 1 July 1828 28/33 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1823 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1828 / Resigned USA 15 August 1836 / Captain South Carolina Militia / Brigadier-General PACS 25 September 1861 / No Record of Parole
Fifth Sub-District of South Carolina 10 December 1861-18 March 1862 / Sixth Sub-District of South Carolina 19 March 1862-28 May 1862 / Fourth Sub-District of South Carolina 28 May 1862-19 July 1862 / Drayton’s Brigade D R Jones’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862-September 1862 / Drayton’s Brigade McLaws’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia September 1862-26 November 1862 / Drayton’s Brigade Price’s Brigade District of Arkansas 26 August 1863-11 January 1864 / Price’s Division District of Arkansas 11 January 1864-March 1864 / Drayton’s Brigade Price’s Brigade District of Arkansas March 1864-16 March 1864 / Price’s Division District of Arkansas 16 March 1864-April 1864 / Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 26 June 1864-25 October 1864 / 3rd Texas Cavalry Division III Corps Army of Trans-Mississippi September 1864-8 March 1865 / Central Sub-District of Texas 25 October 1864-8 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: vacant
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • Defences of North Carolina: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
    • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton

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