1861 September 18th

September 18 1861 Tuesday

Kentucky Declares Loyalty to the Union

Battle of Lexington, MO

Siege of Lexington

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

Cheat Mountain Campaign, West Virginia

USA. During the summer of 1861 a four-person board chaired by Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont USN was formed to study the implementation of the blockade and make recommendations to improve its efficiency. In the Board’s report of 16 July 1861, it was recommended that the Atlantic region should be divided into northern and southern sectors. On 18 September 1861, the Navy Department reached the decision to implement this division with the dividing line being the border between North Carolina and South Carolina, although the implementation of this was delayed for a time. Captain Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough was nominated to command the Atlantic Blockading Squadron, succeeding Silas Horton Stringham who had resigned after feeling that his efforts were not properly recognised.

Kentucky. Federal officers arrested employees of a Louisville newspaper, on accusations of writing pro-Confederate newspaper articles

Kentucky. The state of Kentucky declared its support for the Union and authorised the creation of a military force to expel the Confederates from its territory. US President Abraham Lincoln was eager to support Southern Unionists and urged an immediate advance towards the Cumberland Gap and eastern Tennessee. Like the western parts of Virginia, few slaves were owned in the mountainous areas of eastern Tennessee, and its population generally opposed secession. Union sympathisers in Kentucky had already been recruiting and training volunteers at Camp Andrew Johnson in Barbourville for this purpose throughout the summer of 1861.

Within days of the pro-secession referendum, a convention of East Tennesseans had met at Greeneville to discuss ways of resisting secession and firmly declared their loyalty to the Union and the Constitution. The Confederate authorities saw the Greenville declaration as an act of insurrection. A rival Confederate legislature held court at Russellville but it had little influence beyond the Kentuckians who were volunteering to serve in the Confederate army.

Confederate Brigadier-General Felix Zollicoffer led a force into eastern Kentucky to secure it for the Confederacy. Zollicoffer was prominent in Whig Party politics and had originally opposed secession. He seemed an ideal choice to suppress or even to win over the people of East Tennessee. He also aimed to relieve pressure on General Albert Sidney Johnston and his troops in western and central Kentucky by conducting raids and posing a threat to Union forces and sympathisers in the area. Zollicoffer occupied Cumberland Gap with some 5,400 men and took up a position at the Cumberland Ford (near present-day Pineville) to counter the Unionist activity in the area. Zollicoffer detached a force of about 800 men under the command of Colonel Joel A Battle to disrupt the Union training activities at Camp Andrew Johnson.

Kentucky. Brigadier-General Simon Bolivar Buckner’s 4,000 men advanced from Nashville, Tennessee, to occupy Bowling Green.

Kentucky. General Albert Sidney Johnston was in command of all the Confederate forces from Arkansas to the Cumberland Gap. His troops were spread thinly over an immense defensive line. His left flank was fixed by Major-General Leonidas Polk at Columbus with 11,000 men. Johnston refused to abandon his designs on conquering all of Kentucky and held his westernmost force in place while he prepared to pivot his right flank forward in East Tennessee under Brigadier-General Felix Zollicoffer.

Maryland. Skirmish near Berlin.

Lexington, Missouri. Confederate Missouri State Major-General Sterling Price had besieged the Union garrison in Lexington since 13 September 1861. Price determined to order a new assault on Lexington.

The Missouri State Guard advanced under heavy Union artillery fire, pushing the enemy back into their inner works. Price’s guns responded to Union Colonel James A Mulligan’s artillery with nine hours of bombardment, using heated shot in an endeavour to set afire the Masonic College and other Union positions. Mulligan stationed a youth in the attic of the college’s main building, and the boy extinguished all incoming rounds before they could set the building ablaze.

Confederate State Brigadier-General Thomas Harris ordered soldiers from his 2nd Division Missouri State Guard to capture the large and important Anderson house. It was being used as a hospital and, shocked at what he considered a violation of the Laws of War, Union Colonel James A Mulligan ordered the structure to be retaken. Company B 23rd Illinois Infantry, Company B 13th Missouri Infantry and volunteers from the 1st Illinois Cavalry charged out from the Union lines and recaptured the house, suffering heavy casualties in the process. Harris’s troops recaptured the hospital later in the day day and it remained in State Guard hands thereafter.

The most controversial incident of the battle at Lexington occurred during the Union assault on the Anderson house when Union troops summarily executed three State Guard soldiers at the base of the grand staircase in the main hall. The Confederates claimed that the men had already surrendered and should have been treated as prisoners of war. The Union troops, who had sustained numerous casualties in retaking the residence, considered the prisoners to have been in violation of the Laws of War for having attacked a hospital in the first place and were summarily executed

Virginia. USS Rescue, Master Edward L Haines, captured the Confederate schooner Hartford with a cargo of wheat and tobacco on the Potomac River.

Union Organisation

USA: Command of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron of the US Navy became vacant after the resignation of Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN. Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont USN was nominated for the command of the southern sector and Captain Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN for the northern sector.

USA: William Thomas Ward promoted Brigadier-General USV 18 September 1861.

Ward, William Thomas / Kentucky / Born 9 August 1808 Amelia, Virginia / Died Louisville, Kentucky 12 October 1878
Major USV 4th Kentucky Infantry 4 October 1847 / Mustered Out USV 25 July 1848 / Brigadier-General USV 18 September 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 24 February 1865 / WIA Resaca 15 May 1864
16th Brigade Army of the Ohio November 1861-March 1862 / Ward’s Brigade 6th Division Army of the Ohio March 1862-September 1862 / Ward’s Brigade 12th Division Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-5 November 1862 / Ward’s Brigade 3rd Division Gallatin Reserve Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 November 1862-14 May 1863 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Reserve Corps Army of the Cumberland 8 June 1863-9 October 1863 / Ward’s Brigade 1st Division Nashville Army of the Cumberland 9 October 1863-2 January 1864 / 1st Division XI Corps Army of the Cumberland 2 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XX Corps Army of the Potomac 14 May 1864-15 May 1864 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division XX Corps Army of the Potomac 15 May 1864-29 June 1864 / 3rd Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 29 June 1864-23 September 1864 / 3rd Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 October 1864-9 November 1864 / 3rd Division XX Corps Army of Georgia 9 November 1864-14 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: vacant
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson awaited
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Lloyd Beall
    • District of Southern California: George Wright awaited
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of Central Kentucky (or, Central Army of Kentucky) was established in the Western Department, comprising the forces formerly known as the “Central Division of Kentucky” or the “Army Corps of Central Kentucky”. Its headquarters were at Bowling Green, Kentucky.

CSA: Brigadier-General Simon Bolivar Buckner assumed command of the Army of Central Kentucky in the Western Department.

Buckner, Simon Bolivar / Kentucky / Born 1 April 1823 Munfordville, Kentucky / Died Munfordville, Kentucky 8 January 1914
USMA 1 July 1844 11/25 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1840 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1844 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 9 May 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 8 August 1847-17 December 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 December 1851 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 3 November 1852 / Resigned USA 26 March 1855 / Major Illinois Militia / Colonel Adjutant-General Illinois Militia 3 April 1857 / Captain Kentucky Militia 1858 / Inspector-General Kentucky State Guard 1860 / Major-General Adjutant-General Kentucky Militia 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 September 1861 / Major-General PACS 16 August 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS 17 January 1865 to rank from 20 September 1864 / Paroled Shreveport, Louisiana 9 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1844 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Army of Central Kentucky 18 September 1861-28 October 1861 / 2nd Division Army of central Kentucky 28 October 1861-16 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Mississippi September 1862-20 November 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-14 December 1862 / Gulf District 14 December 1862-27 April 1863 / Department of East Tennessee 27 April 1863-26 June 1863 / III Corps Tennessee 23 July 1863-31 October 1863 / District of East Tennessee 25 July 1863-2 September 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee November 1863-December 1863 / Buckner’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Department of East Tennessee 25 February 1864-8 March 1864 / District of East Tennessee 8 March 1864-18 March 1864 /Field’s Division Department of East Tennessee 31 March 1864-12 April 1864 District of East Tennessee 7 April 1864-2 May 1864 / I Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / District of West Louisiana 4 August 1864-19 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Department 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / Trans-Mississippi Army 19 April 1865-22 April 1865 / District of Arkansas and West Louisiana 19 April 1865-26 May 1865 / Chief of Staff Trans-Mississippi Department 9 May 1865-9 June 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Paul Octave Hébert arrived to assume command of the Department of Texas, succeeding temporary commander Colonel Henry Eustace McCullough.

Hébert, Paul Octave / Louisiana / Born 12 December 1818 Bayou Goula, Louisiana / Died 29 August 1880
USMA 1 July 1840 1 /42 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 September 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1840 / Resigned USA 31 March 1845 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Infantry 3 March 1847 / 14th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Discharged USA 25 July 1848 / Brigadier-General Louisiana Militia 26 January 1861 / Colonel 1st Louisiana Artillery 19 February 1861 / Brigadier-General Louisiana Militia 1 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 18 August 1861 to rank from 17 August 1861 / Paroled Houston, Texas 23 June 1865 / Brevet Colonel USA 8 September 1847
Chief of Engineers Western Department 19 February 1861 / Department of Louisiana 16 April 1861-17 April 1861 / Department of Texas 14 August 1861-26 May 1862 / Eastern District of Texas 10 February 1862-28 May 1862 / Trans-Mississippi Department 26 May 1862-20 June 1862 / District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana 28 May 1862-20 August 1862 / Eastern Sub-District of Texas 28 May 1862-January 1863 / District of Texas 20 August 1862-19 October 1862 / First Sub-District of Texas 15 October 1862-29 November 1862 / 6th Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Trans-Mississippi Army September 1864 / Hébert’s Brigade X Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona January 1865-26 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: vacant
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes interim Joseph Reid Anderson awaited
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
    • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker

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