1861 October 3rd

October 3 1861 Wednesday

Battle of Greenbrier River, VA (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Cheat Mountain Campaign, West Virginia

Go to October 4 1861

Louisiana. Governor Thomas O Moore of Louisiana banned the shipment of cotton from his state to Europe in order to place pressure on European nations to officially recognise the Confederacy as an independent nation. The hope was the shortage of cotton would create irresistible economic pressure to force the British government, in particular, to intervene on the Confederate side.

Texas. USS Santee reported the return of USS Sam Houston to Galveston with the schooner Reindeer, which had been captured off San Luis Pass. The schooner was assessed as worthless and sunk.

Utah Territory. John W Dawson became unconfirmed Governor of Utah Territory.

Virginia. Expedition to Pohick Church. Union Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum sent Colonel William H Christian and the 26th New York Infantry to occupy Pohick Church, twelve miles from Alexandria.

Virginia. Incident at Cheat Mountain.

Virginia. Skirmish at Springfield Station. The Union 31st New Infantry (Colonel Calvin E Pratt) entered Springfield Station where they met and engaged a Confederate cavalry force. The skirmish was inconclusive.

Greenbrier River, Virginia, also known as Camp Bartow. Union Brigadier-General Joseph Jones Reynolds had advanced with two brigades in severe weather from Cheat Mountain to reconnoitre the Confederate position at Camp Bartow on the Greenbrier River. Reynolds’ force comprised the 24th Ohio Infantry, 25th Ohio Infantry, 32nd Ohio Infantry, 7th Indiana Infantry, 9th Indiana Infantry, 13th Indiana Infantry, 14th Indiana Infantry, 15th Indiana Infantry, 17th Indiana Infantry, Battery G 4th US Artillery under Captain Howe, Loomis’ Michigan Battery, Battery A 1st West Virginia Light Artillery under Captain Philip Daum, parts of Robinson’s Ohio Cavalry, Greenfield’s Pennsylvania Cavalry and Brackens’ Indiana Rangers. The force amounted to 5,000 men.
At Camp Bartow, Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson’s force consisted of the 1st Georgia Infantry and 12th Georgia Infantry under the command of Colonel Edward Johnson; the 23rd Virginia Infantry, 44th Virginia Infantry, and a battalion of the 25th Virginia Infantry commanded by Colonel William Booth Taliaferro; the 3rd Arkansas Infantry, 31st Virginia Infantry, and Lieutenant-Colonel Hansbrough’s Battalion all under the command of Colonel Albert Rust. Anderson’s and Shumaker’s Batteries and part of the Churchville Cavalry under Captain Sterrett provided support. Colonel John B Baldwin was stationed with the 52nd Virginia Infantry about nine miles away. The army was under the command of Brigadier-General William Wing Loring.
Reynolds’ troops had been heartened by their recent successes and Reynolds believed that he might defeat Jackson and clear the mountain passes and open an invasion route eastwards. It rained incessantly for two days but at daylight, after an overnight march beginning at midnight, the head of the Union column reached the Confederate outposts on the north branch of the Greenbrier River about four miles from the Confederate camp.
At about 8 am Reynolds drove in the Confederate pickets and opened fire with his artillery. The Confederate soldiers guarding the camp left their posts and the Union soldiers entered the Confederate camp against little opposition. The Confederate troops had problems working their obsolete weapons and while they were trying to repair them they were forced to move out into the open by the Union fire. When Baldwin heard the gunshots he immediately left camp with all of the 52nd Virginia Infantry and marched nine miles to help the Confederates. When Baldwin’s men reached the battlefield they believed they must be too late but the battle continued for approximately five more hours. After sporadic fighting and an abortive attempt to turn his enemy’s right flank, Reynolds withdrew to Cheat Mountain and reached the defences there by sundown.
The Union reported 8 killed and 35 wounded while the Confederates reported 6 killed, 33 or 35 wounded and 13 missing. (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)


Union Department of West Virginia: Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans
1st Brigade (West Virginia): Brigadier-Joseph Jones Reynolds
2nd Brigade (West Virginia): Colonel Nathan Kimball

Confederate Army of the Northwest: Brigadier-General William Wing Loring
Jackson’s Brigade (Northwest): Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson
Johnson’s Brigade (Northwest): Colonel Edward Johnson
Rust’s Brigade (Northwest): Colonel Albert Rust
Taliaferro’s Brigade (Northwest): Colonel William Booth Taliaferro

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Simon Cameron
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Thomas Tingey Craven

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson

Department of the East: Vacant

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited

Department of the Ohio: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel

  • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner

  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Lloyd Beall
  • District of Southern California: George Wright awaited

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Western Department: John Charles Frémont

  • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
  • District of North Missouri: John Pope
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Western Army: John Charles Frémont

Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans awaited

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill

  • District of Aquia: vacant

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
  • District of Pamlico: Daniel Harvey Hill awaited

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

  • District of Galveston: John Creed Moore

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
  • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Army of Central Kentucky: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch

District of Arizona: John Robert Baylor

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden

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