1861 October 1st

October 1 1861 Monday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Cheat Mountain Campaign, West Virginia

California. Expedition to Temecula Ranch ended.

Massachusetts. The Department of New England was established with its headquarters in Boston. Its territory comprised Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Its primary aims were to raise troops and to prepare expeditionary forces for operations along the Confederate coastlines, and especially for an attack on New Orleans, Louisiana. A secondary aim was to be alert to any risk of confrontation with Great Britain in Canada.

Missouri. Incident at Butler.

North Carolina. Confederate naval forces including CSS Curlew, CSS Raleigh, and CSS Junaluska, under Captain William Francis Lynch, captured the Union transport steamer Fanny in Pamlico Sound, along with 31 Union troops aboard.

Virginia. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis visited the army at Fairfax Court House and held a military conference or Council of War with General Joseph Eggleston Johnston, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, and Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith.

Beauregard proposed an offensive strategy to divide the Union by marching through Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh and onwards to Lake Erie, but insufficient forces were available to attempt the extravagant plan. Union naval expeditions to Hatteras Inlet and Ship Island were already drawing forces away to defend the vital ports and coastlines of North Carolina and Louisiana. Even the troops gathering at Pensacola, Florida, were now being called to more urgent posts elsewhere.

The conference reached no resolution to the dilemma of inadequate resources and excessive demands. Davis agreed that the army in Virginia was compelled to maintain the strategic defensive and that any plans for offensive operations would have to be deferred until resources could be found.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of New England was established, comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut detached from the Department of the East. Headquarters was in Boston, Massachusetts.

USA: Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler was appointed to command the Department of New England, arriving on 6 October 1861.

Butler, Benjamin Franklin / New Hampshire / Born 5 November 1818 Deerfield, New Hampshire / Died Washington, District of Columbia 11 January 1893
3rd Lieutenant Massachusetts Militia 1839 / Brigadier-General Massachusetts Militia 1855 / Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Military Governor of Louisiana 1 May 1862-2 June 1862 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 /
Colonel 8th Massachusetts Militia 17 April 1861 / Department of Annapolis 27 April 1861-15 May 1861 / Department of Virginia 22 May 1861-17 August 1861 / Department of New England 1 October 1861-20 February 1862 / Army of the Gulf 23 February 1862-14 December 1862 / Department of the Gulf 20 March 1862-17 December 1862 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 12 November 1863-27 August 1864 / XVIII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 18 November 1863-1 May 1864 / XVIII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 21 April 1864-2 May 1864 / Army of the James 2 May 1864-27 August 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 7 September 1864-14 December 1864 / Army of the James 18 October 1864-2 November 1864 / Army of the James 18 November 1864-8 January 1865 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 24 December 1864-8 January 1865

USA: Lovell Harrison Rousseau promoted Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1861.

Rousseau, Lovell Harrison / Kentucky / Born 4 August 1818 Stanford, Kentucky / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 7 January 1869
Captain USV 2nd Indiana Infantry 22 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 23 June 1847 / Colonel USV 3rd Kentucky Infantry 9 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1861 / Major-General USV 22 October 1862 to rank from 8 October 1862 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 / Brigadier-General USA 28 March 1867 / Brevet Major-General USA 28 March 1867
1st Brigade Department of the Cumberland 5 October 1861- 9 November 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1862-11 July 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Ohio 11 July 1862-28 September 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 1st Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-17 January 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 29 March 1863-26 July 1863 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 21 September 1863-10 November 1863 / District of Nashville 10 November 1863-30 May 1864 / m3rd Division XII Corps Department of the Cumberland 2 January 1864-14 April 1864 / 4th Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-28 February 1865 / District of Tennessee 30 May 1864-28 February 1865 / District of Middle Tennessee 28 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of the Columbia 29 April 1867-4 April 1868 / Department of Louisiana 28 July 1868-7 January 1869

USA: James Scott Negley promoted Brigadier-General USV 6 February 1862 to rank from 1 October 1861.

Negley, James Scott / Pennsylvania / Born 22 December 1826 East Liberty, Pennsylvania / Died Plainfield, New Jersey 7 August 1901
Private USV 1st Pennsylvania Infantry 16 December 1846 / Sergeant USV 1847 / Mustered Out USV 25 July 1848 / Brigadier-General Pennsylvania Militia 19 April 1861 Expired 20 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 February 1862 to rank from 1 October 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 19 January 1865
5th Brigade 2nd Division Department of Pennsylvania 10 June 1861-20 July 1861 / 4th Brigade Department of the Cumberland 5 October 1861-9 November 1861 / 7th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 7th Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-15 March 1862 / 7th Brigade Army of the Ohio 15 March 1862-14 September 1862 / 8th Division Army of the Ohio 14 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 8th Division Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-9 November 1862 / 2nd Division Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 2nd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-10 October 1863

USA: Melancthon Smith Wade promoted Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1861 but the commission was rejected.

Wade, Melancthon Smith / Ohio / Born 2 December 1802 Cincinnati, Ohio / Died Cincinnati, Ohio 11 August 1868
Sergeant Ohio Militia / Captain Ohio Militia / Brigadier-General Ohio Militia 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 1 October 1861 Rejected 18 March 1862/ Resigned USV 18 March 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
  • Department of the Ohio: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Lloyd Beall
    • District of Southern California: George Wright awaited
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • Western Army: John Charles Frémont
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans awaited

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Defences of North Carolina was discontinued and its territory transferred to the new District of Cape Fear.

CSA: The District of Cape Fear was established in the Department of North Carolina, comprising the territory formerly in the Defences of North Carolina.

CSA: Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson assumed command of the District of Cape Fear.

Anderson, Joseph Reid / Virginia / Born 16 February 1813 Fincastle, Virginia / Died Isle of Shoals, New Hampshire 7 September 1892
USMA 1 July 1836 4/49 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1836 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 November 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 31 December 1836 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1837 to rank from 1 July 1836 / Resigned USA 30 September 1837 /
Major 6th Battalion Virginia Local Defence Troops May 1861 / Major ACS Artillery 27 August 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 3 September 1861 / Resigned PACS 19 July 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 November 1836 to rank from 1 July 1836 Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1837 to rank from 1 July 1836 / WIA Frayser’s Farm 30 June 1862
Defences of North Carolina 3 September 1861-1 October 1861 / District of Cape Fear 1 October 1861-15 March 1862 / Department of North Carolina 15 March 1862-24 March 1862/ 3rd Brigade Department of North Carolina 19 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 30 June 1862 / Anderson’s Division Longstreet’s Corps Army of Northern Virginia 13 July 1862-19 July 1862

CSA: The District of Arizona was established, comprising Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas, and the Indian Territory, reporting directly to the War Department.

CSA: Colonel John Robert Baylor assumed command of the District of Arizona.

Baylor, John Robert / Texas / Born 27 July 1822 Paris, Kentucky / Died Montell, Texas 8 February 1894
Captain Texas Militia 1860 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles 3 May 1861 / Military Governor of Arizona Territory 20 March 1862-October 1862 / Colonel PACS 29 May 1861 Revoked 1862 / Dismissed PACS October 1862 / Private PACS Texas Cavalry / Colonel PACS Infantry 25 March 1865
District of Arizona 1 October 1861-12 December 1861

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: vacant
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Daniel Harvey Hill awaited
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of Arizona: John Robert Baylor
    • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden

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