1861 May 27th

May 27 1861 Monday

Chesapeake Bay Blockade

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Alabama.  The Union naval blockade of Mobile was established by USS Powhatan, commanded by Lieutenant David Dixon Porter USN.

California. At the outbreak of the war, the secession of Southern California seemed a distinct possibility. The population was largely in favour of separation from the Union and various militia bands with secessionist sympathies were formed. Bear Flags, the banner of the Bear Flag Revolt, had been flown for several months by secessionists in Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties. After word of the outbreak of war reached California, there were public demonstrations by secessionists. The only Union garrison in southern California was a small outpost at San Diego. When three companies of US cavalry were moved from Fort Mojave and Fort Tejon into Camp Fitzgerald in Los Angeles during May and June 1861, any chance of secession was extinguished. The former commander of the Department of the Pacific, Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, evaded arrest and joined a secessionist militia company, the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles as a private. Leaving Warner’s Ranch on May 27 he travelled across the southwestern deserts to Texas, crossing the Colorado River to enter the pro-Confederate Arizona Territory on July 4 1861. Johnston’s military record was highly regarded and he was soon commissioned as a senior Confederate General.

Louisiana. The Union blockade was established off the Outer Pass of the Mississippi Delta by the arrival of the USS Brooklyn.

South Carolina. Confederate Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard left Charleston to take command in Virginia. Command of the state volunteer forces was transferred to Colonel Richard Heron Anderson.

Virginia. Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler sent a force eight miles south from Fortress Monroe to occupy the lightly defended town of Newport News, an excellent anchorage for the Union Navy. Butler’s force established and significantly fortified the new Camp Butler and placed a battery at Newport News Point that could cover the entrance to the James River ship canal and the mouth of the Nansemond River.

(West) Virginia. Union Colonel Benjamin Franklin Kelley moved his regiment forward from Wheeling to protect the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of Northeastern Virginia was established, comprising the part of Virginia east of the Allegheny Mountains and north of the James River, and west of the existing Department of Virginia (within sixty miles of Fort Monroe). Its area was detached from the Department of the East.

USA: Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell was appointed to command the Department of Northeastern Virginia, arriving on 28th May 1861.

McDowell, Irvin | Ohio | Born 15 October 1818 Columbus, Ohio | USMA 1838 23/45 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 7 October 1842 Staff 13 May 1847 Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861 Major-General USV March 16 1862 to rank from March 14 1862 Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 Major-General USA 25 November 1872 Retired USA 15 October 1882 | Died 4 May 1885 | 27 May 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia, 8 July 1861 – 24 July 1861 Army of Northeastern Virginia, 25 July 1861 – 19 August 1861 Army of the Potomac, 3 March 1862 – 3 April 1862 I Corps Potomac, 4 April 1862 – 25 June 1862 Department of the Rappahannock, 26 June 1862 – 4 September 1862 III Corps Virginia, 21 May 1864 – 27 June 1865 Department of the Pacific, 27 June 1865 Department of California

USA: Samuel Peter Heintzelman promoted Brigadier-General USV 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861

Heintzelman, Samuel Peter | Pennsylvania | Born 30 September 1805 Manheim, Pennsylvania | USMA 1826 17/41 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 3 March 1833 Captain USA Staff 7 July 1838 2nd US Infantry 4 November 1838 Major USA 1st US Infantry 3 March 1855 Colonel USA 17th US Infantry 14 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV May 27 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 Major-General USV May 5 1862 Mustered out USV 24 August 1865 Major-General USA | Retired) 22 February 1869 | WIA First Bull Run 1861 | Died 1 May 1880 | 3 March 1862 – 29 October 1862 III Corps Potomac, 27 October 1862 – 1 February 1863 Military District of Washington, 2 February 1863 – 13 October 1863 Department of Washington, 2 February 1862 – 13 October 1863 XXII Corps Washington, 12 January 1864 – 30 September 1864 Northern Department

USA: John Wolcott Phelps promoted Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861.

Phelps, John Wolcott | Vermont | Born 13 November 1813 Guilford, Vermont | USMA 1836 24/49 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 28 July 1836 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 7 July 1838 Captain USA 4th US Artillery 31 March 1850 Resigned USA 2 November 1859 Colonel USV 1st Vermont 9 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 9 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Resigned USV August 21 1862 | Died 2 February 1885

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell awaited
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The District of Louisiana was discontinued and incorporated into Department No 1.

CSA: Department No 1 was established, comprising the state of Louisiana except along the Mississippi River north of the 31st parallel; and also southern Mississippi and southern Alabama including Mobile. Headquarters were at New Orleans, Louisiana. It incorporated the discontinued District of Louisiana.

CSA: Major-General David Emanuel Twiggs was appointed to command Department No 1, arriving on 31st May 1861.

Twiggs, David Emanuel | Georgia | Born 14 February 1790 | Captain USA 8th US Infantry 12 March 1812 Major USA 12th US Infantry 1814 1st US Infantry 1825 Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 1831 Colonel USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 Brigadier-General USA 30 June 1846 Dismissed 1 March 1861 Major-General Confederate States Army March 22 1861 | Died 15 July 1862 | 1 January 1861 – 17 February 1861 Department of Texas 22 March 1861 – 15 April 1861 Department of Louisiana, 17 April 1861 – 27 May 1861 District of Louisiana, 27 May 1861 – 17 October 1861 Department No 1

CSA: The Forces in New Orleans was subordinated to Department No 1.

CSA: General Braxton Bragg retained command of the Forces in New Orleans.

Bragg, Braxton | North Carolina | Born 22 March 1817 Warrenton, North Carolina | USMA 1837 5/50 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 7 July 1838 Captain USA 3rd US Artillery 18 June 1846 Resigned USA 3 January 1856 Brigadier-General ACSA 7 March 1861 Major-General PACS 12 September 1861 General PACS 12 April 1862 to rank from April 6 1862 Surrendered 9 May 1865 Paroled May 10 1865 | Died 27 September 1876 | 22 February 1861 – 21 March 1861 Department of Louisiana, 22 February 1861 – 13 August 1861 Forces in New Orleans, 7 March 1861 – 6 October 1861 Department of West Florida, 7 March 1861 – 6 October 1861 Forces in Pensacola, 7 October 1861 – 1 April 1862 Department of Alabama and West Florida, 22 October 1861 – 26 January 1862 Army of Pensacola, 5 March 1862 – 28 March 1862 Second Grand Division Mississippi, 29 March 1862 – 5 May 1862 II Corps Mississippi, 6 May 1862 – 5 July 1862 Army of Mississippi, 20 June 1862 – 23 October 1862 Western Department, 15 August 1862 – 27 September 1862 Army of Mississippi, 3 November 1862 – 25 July 1863 Western Department, 7 November 1862 – 20 November 1862 Army of Mississippi, 20 November 1862 – 1 December 1863 Army of Tennessee, 25 July 1863 – 21 December 1863 Department of Tennessee, 24 February 1864 – 31 January 1865 Military Adviser to the President, 11 November 1864 – 5 March 1865 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 22 February – 8 April 1865 II Corps Tennessee

CSA: The Forces in Charleston was discontinued and its forces subordinated to the Department of South Carolina.

CSA: Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill assumed command of the Department of South Carolina, succeeding Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

Hill, Daniel Harvey | South Carolina | Born 12 July 1821 York, South Carolina | USMA 1842 28/56 Artillery – Infantry | 1st US Artillery 1 July 1842 3rd US Artillery 20 October 1843 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 13 October 1845 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 3 March 1847 Resigned USA 28 February 1849 Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina May 1861 Brigadier-General PACS July 10 1861 Major-General PACS March 25 1862 to rank from March 26 1862 Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) July 11 1863 Expired October 11 1863 reverted to Major-General PACS Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 1 May 1865 | Died 24 September 1889 | 27 May 1861 – 20 August 1861 Department of South Carolina, 31 May 1861 – 16 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula, 31 May 1861 – 16 June 1861 Army of the Peninsula, 17 July 1861 – 22 October 1861 Department of Fredericksburg, 29 September 1861 – 15 November 1861 District of Pamlico, 14 March 1862 – 4 May 1862 Centre Wing Northern Virginia, 17 July 1862 – 19 September 1862 Department of North Carolina, 6 September 1862 – 28 December 1862 Valley District, 14 January 1863 – 16 February 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 23 February 1863 – 26 February 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 28 May 1863 – 30 June 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 1 July 1863 – 12 July 1863 Department of Richmond, 24 July 1863 – 14 October 1863 II Corps Tennessee, 21 January 1865 – 10 April 1865 District of Georgia, 22 February 1865 – 26 February 1865 Army of Tennessee, 16 March 1865 – 8 April 1865 I Corps Tennessee

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs awaited
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Alexandria: Milledge Luke Bonham
    • Army of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia awaited
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 Department of Annapolis
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861 Department of Virginia
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby 14 May 1861 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania

 Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1 awaited
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston May 15 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 14 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861 Department of Alexandria & Army of the Potomac
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Colonel John Bankhead Magruder 16 May 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill May 1861 Department of South Carolina
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • State Brigadier-General Benjamin Huger Department of Norfolk
  • Colonel Christopher Quarles Tompkins Forces in the Kanawha Valley
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond

 

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