1861 May 27th

May 27 1861 Monday

Chesapeake Bay Blockade

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Alabama.  The Union naval blockade of Mobile was established by USS Powhatan, commanded by Lieutenant David Dixon Porter USN.

California. At the outbreak of the war, the secession of Southern California seemed a distinct possibility. The population was largely in favour of separation from the Union and various militia bands with secessionist sympathies were formed. Bear Flags, the banner of the Bear Flag Revolt, had been flown for several months by secessionists in Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties. After word of the outbreak of war reached California, there were public demonstrations by secessionists. The only Union garrison in southern California was a small outpost at San Diego. When three companies of US cavalry were moved from Fort Mojave and Fort Tejon into Camp Fitzgerald in Los Angeles during May and June 1861, any chance of secession was extinguished. The former commander of the Department of the Pacific, Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, evaded arrest and joined a secessionist militia company, the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles as a private. Leaving Warner’s Ranch on 27 May he travelled across the southwestern deserts to Texas, crossing the Colorado River to enter the pro-Confederate Arizona Territory on 4 July 1861. Johnston’s military record was highly regarded and he was soon commissioned as the highest-ranking Confederate General with a “Line” commission.

Louisiana. The Union blockade was established off the Outer Pass of the Mississippi Delta by the arrival of the USS Brooklyn.

South Carolina. Confederate Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard left Charleston to take command of forces in Virginia. Command of the forces in South Carolina was transferred to Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill.

Newport News, Virginia. Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler sent a force eight miles south from Fortress Monroe to occupy the lightly defended town of Newport News, an excellent anchorage for the Union Navy. Butler’s force established and significantly fortified the new Camp Butler and placed a battery at Newport News Point that could cover the entrance to the James River ship canal and the mouth of the Nansemond River.

Virginia. Union Colonel Benjamin Franklin Kelley moved his regiment forward from Wheeling towards Grafton to protect the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of Northeastern Virginia was established, comprising the part of Virginia east of the Allegheny Mountains and north of the James River, and west of the existing Department of Virginia (within sixty miles of Fort Monroe). Its area was detached from the Department of the East.

USA: Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell was appointed to command the Department of Northeastern Virginia, arriving on 28 May 1861.

McDowell, Irvin / Ohio / Born 15 October 1818 Columbus, Ohio / Died 4 May 1885
USMA 1 July 1838 23/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 October 1842 / Assistant Adjutant-General 13 May 1847 / Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1862 to rank from 14 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 25 November 1872 / Retired USA 15 October 1882 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1838 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Major USA 31 March 1856 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Department of Northeastern Virginia 27 May 1861-17 August 1861 / Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-15 August 1861 / Army of the Potomac 15 August 1861-19 August 1861 / McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / I Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / III Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / Department of the Pacific 21 May 1864-27 June 1865 / Department of California 27 June 1865-31 March 1868 / Fourth Military District 4 June 1868-4 July 1868 / Department of the West 16 July 1868-16 December 1872

USA: Samuel Peter Heintzelman confirmed as Brigadier-General USV 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861

Heintzelman, Samuel Peter / Pennsylvania / Born 30 September 1805 Manheim, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 1 May 1880
USMA 1 July 1826 17/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 March 1833 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 7 July 1838-18 June 1846 / Captain USA 2nd US Infantry 4 November 1838 / Major USA 1st US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Colonel USA 17th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 5 May 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Major-General USA Retired 22 February 1869 / Retired USA 22 February 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Major USA 9 October 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 19 December 1851 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Alexandria 24 May 1861 Exchanged WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 WIA Glendale 30 June 1862
Assistant Inspector-General Department of Washington May 1861 / Heintzelman’s Brigade Department of Northeastern Virginia 28 May 1861-8 July 1861 / 3rd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-14 August 1861 / Heintzelman’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 14 August 1861-3 October 1861 / Heintzelman’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / III Corps Potomac 3 March 1862-30 October 1862 / Defences South of the Potomac 9 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Military District of Washington 27 October 1862-2 February 1863 / Department of Washington 2 February 1863-14 October 1863 / XXII Corps Washington 2 February 1862-14 October 1863 / Northern Department 12 January 1864-1 October 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell awaited
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The District of Louisiana was discontinued and replaced by the extended and renamed Department No 1.

CSA: Department No 1 was established, comprising the state of Louisiana except along the Mississippi River north of the 31st parallel; and also southern Mississippi and southern Alabama including Mobile. Headquarters were at New Orleans, Louisiana. It incorporated the discontinued District of Louisiana.

CSA: Major-General David Emanuel Twiggs was appointed to command Department No 1, arriving on 31 May 1861.

Twiggs, David Emanuel / Georgia / Born 14 February 1790 Richmond, Georgia / Died Augusta, Georgia 15 July 1862
Captain USA 8th US Infantry 12 March 1812 / Major USA 28th US Infantry 21 September 1814 / Discharged USA 15 June 1815 / Captain USA 7th Infantry 2 December 1815 / 1st US Infantry 14 December 1821 / Major USA 14 May 1825 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 15 July 1831 / Colonel USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 / Brigadier-General USA 30 June 1846 / Defected to Confederacy 19 February 1861 / Dismissed USA 1 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 22 May 1861 / Retired PACS 11 October 1861 / Brevet Major USA 2 December 1815 to rank from 21 September 1814 Brevet Major-General USA 23 September 1846
Department of Texas 7 November 1860-18 February 1861 / Department of Louisiana 22 March 1861-15 April 1861 / District of Louisiana 17 April 1861-27 May 1861 / Department No 1 27 May 1861-7 October 1861

CSA: The Forces in New Orleans was subordinated to Department No 1.

CSA: Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg retained command of the Forces in New Orleans.

Bragg, Braxton / North Carolina / Born 22 March 1817 Warrenton, North Carolina / Died Galveston, Texas 27 September 1876
USMA 1 July 1837 5/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / Regt Adjutant 19 November 1837-8 March 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 3 January 1856 / Colonel Louisiana Militia / ADC (T O Moore) / Major-General Louisiana Militia 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 7 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 12 September 1861 / General ACSA 12 April 1862 to rank from 6 April 1862 / Paroled Monticello, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 February 1847
Department of Louisiana 22 February 1861-21 March 1861 / Forces in New Orleans 22 February 1861-16 April 1861 / Department of West Florida 7 March 1861-14 October 1861 / Forces in Pensacola 7 March 1861-3 October 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 7 October 1861-28 February 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 4 March 1862-2 April 1862 / Army of Pensacola 22 October 1861-26 January 1862 / II Corps (Second Grand Division) Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-28 March 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 May 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Mississippi 30 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 May 1862-5 July 1862 / Western Department 17 June 1862-24 October 1862 / Army of Mississippi 15 August 1862-28 September 1862 / Western Department 3 November 1862-25 July 1863 / Army of Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-2 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 25 July 1863-21 December 1863 / Military Adviser to the President 24 February 1864-31 January 1865 / Defences of Wilmington 24 October 1864-11 November 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 11 November 1864-6 March 1865 /Defences of Augusta 22 November 1864-2 December 1864 / Defences of Savannah 2 December 1864 / Defences of Charleston December 1864 / Defences of Wilmington January 1865 / II Corps Tennessee 22 February 1865-8 April 1865

CSA: The Forces in Charleston was discontinued and its forces subordinated to the Department of South Carolina.

CSA: Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill assumed command of the Department of South Carolina, succeeding Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

Hill, Daniel Harvey / South Carolina / Born 12 July 1821 York, South Carolina / Died Charlotte, North Carolina 24 September 1889
USMA 1 July 1842 28 /56 Artillery-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1842 / 3rd US Artillery 20 October 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 13 October 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Resigned USA 28 February 1849 / Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 10 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 25 March 1862 to rank from 26 March 1862 / Resigned PACS 1 January 1863 Refused / Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 11 July 1863 Unconfirmed Expired 11 October 1863 / Reverted Major-General PACS 15 October 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 5 May 1864-17 May 1864 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 21 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General 10 July 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Big Bethel 10 June 1861
Department of South Carolina 27 May 1861-20 August 1861 / Department of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Army of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Department of Fredericksburg 17 July 1861-22 October 1861 / District of Pamlico 29 September 1861-16 November 1861 / Hill’s Division Army of the Peninsula November 1861 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northern Virginia 16 November 1861-January 1862 / Hill’s Division District of the Potomac January 1862-March 1862 / 4th Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Centre Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Hill’s Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-10 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 17 July 1862-19 September 1862 / Valley District 6 September 1862-29 December 1862 / Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 January 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 January 1863-16 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 23 February 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 28 May 1863-1 July 1863 / Department of Richmond 1 July 1863-13 July 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 24 July 1863-14 October 1863 / Hill’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 10 July 1864 / District of Georgia 21 January 1865-10 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 22 February 1865-16 March 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 16 March 1865-8 April 1865 / Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs awaited
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Alexandria: Milledge Luke Bonham
    • Army of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

 Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker

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