1861 March 31st

March 31 1861 Sunday

Florida. Reconnaissance at Santa Rosa Island ended.

Louisiana: After 52 years of service in the United States Navy, Confederate Lieutenant Lawrence Rousseau CSN was the highest-ranking US Navy officer to resign and offer his services to the South. His resignation was accepted by the US Navy Department and became effective on 11 February 1861. His backdated commission as a Captain in the Confederate States Navy made him the highest-ranking officer of the Confederate States Navy until 1862 when his junior, Franklin Buchanan, was promoted to the rank of Admiral CSN. Rousseau assumed command of the Mississippi River Naval Squadron. where he helped to fit out commerce raiders while attempting to organise the naval defence of New Orleans and the Mississippi River.

Virginia. US Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles ordered 250 men to be transferred from New York to strengthen the garrison of the Norfolk Navy Yard.

Texas. Fort Bliss was abandoned and surrendered to pro-Confederate forces.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • African Squadron USN: Captain William Inman USN
  • Brazil Squadron USN: Captain Joshua R Sands USN.
  • East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron USN: Captain Cornelius K Stribling USN
  • European Squadron USN: vacant
  • Home Squadron USN: Captain Garrett J Prendergast USN
  • Mediterranean Squadron USN: Captain Charles H Bell USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim, Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Lieutenant Lawrence Rousseau CSN assumed command of the Mississippi River Naval Squadron.

Rousseau, Lawrence (Laurent) / Born 15 July 1790 New Orleans, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 4 September 1866
Midshipman USN 16 January 1809 / Lieutenant USN 24 July 1813 / Commander USN 24 April 1828 / USS Dolphin / USS Erie / USS Falmouth / USS Saint-Louis / Captain USN 9 January 1837 / Commodore USN 1846 / Resigned USN 11 February 1861 / Captain CSN 23 October 1862 to rank from 26 March 1861 / Flag Officer CSN 26 March 1861-21 August 1862 / Flag Officer CSN 5 August-10 February 1865 / Paroled Mobile, Alabama 10 May 1865
Brazil Squadron 1845-1847 / Flag Officer CSN 26 March 1861-21 August 1862 / New Orleans Navy Yard March 1861-August 1861/ Bureau of Orders and Details 1 August 1863-23 August 1863 / Flag Officer CSN 5 August 1864-10 February 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • “Department of Louisiana”: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Confederate Generals

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

 

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