1861 March 31st

March 31 1861 Sunday

Go to April 1 1861

Florida. Reconnaissance at Santa Rosa Island ended.

Louisiana: After 52 years of service in the United States Navy, Lieutenant Lawrence Rousseau was the highest-ranking US Navy officer to resign and offer his services to the South. His resignation was accepted by the US Navy Department and became effective on 11 February 1861. His backdated commission as a Captain in the Confederate States Navy made him the highest-ranking officer of the Confederate States Navy until 1862 when his junior, Franklin Buchanan, was promoted to the rank of Admiral. Rousseau assumed command of the Mississippi River Naval Squadron. where he helped to fit out commerce raiders while attempting to organise the naval defence of New Orleans and the Mississippi River.

Virginia. US Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles ordered 250 men to be transferred from New York to strengthen the garrison of the Norfolk Navy Yard.

Texas. Fort Bliss was abandoned and surrendered to pro-Confederate forces.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Simon Cameron
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

African Squadron: William Inman
Brazil Squadron: Joshua Ratoon Sands
East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
European Squadron: vacant
Home Squadron: Garrett J Prendergast
Mediterranean Squadron: Charles H Bell
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring

Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim, Edwin Vose Sumner awaited

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Lieutenant Lawrence Rousseau CSN assumed command of the Mississippi River Naval Squadron.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

“Department of Louisiana”: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Confederate Generals

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

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