1861 June 23rd

June 23 1861 Sunday

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Chesapeake Bay Blockade

Louisiana. USS Massachusetts, Commander Melancton Smith, captured the Mexican schooner Brilliant, with a cargo of flour, and the Confederate schooners Trois Freres, Olive Branch, Fanny, and Basile in the Gulf of Mexico.

Missouri. Expedition to Little River ended.

Missouri. Thirty-five Confederates were captured at Liberty by US Regular Army soldiers on patrol from Kansas City.

Missouri. Union Colonel Franz Sigel moved his force overland from the railroad at Rolla and arrived in Springfield. He prepared to march onwards to Carthage, hoping to catch up with the retreating Missouri State Guard.

Virginia. Skirmish at Righter.

Virginia. The Confederate Navy began the reconstruction of USS Merrimack into the revolutionary ironclad warship CSS Virginia at Norfolk.

Virginia. Professor Thaddeus Lowe made experimental ascents with his observation balloon at Falls Church.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan set up his headquarters at Grafton. He had collected around 20,000 men, of whom about 5,000 were scattered in detachments along 200 miles of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. His Army of Occupation counted 16 Ohio regiments, 9 from Indiana, and two recruited in western Virginia. They were supported by four batteries of artillery, two troops of cavalry and a company of riflemen. Ohio State Brigadier-General Thomas Armstrong Morris led the militia stationed along the railroad while the mobile forces were organised into three brigades under Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans, Ohio State Brigadier-General Newton Schleich, and Colonel Robert Latimer McCook.

Virginia. Confederate raiders destroyed 48 locomotives and other rolling stock of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Martinsburg.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (19th US Infantry) arrived to assume full command of the Department of New Mexico.

Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg / Kentucky-Indiana / Born 9 November 1817 Piatt’s Landing, Kentucky / KIA Siskiyou, California 11 April 1873
USMA 1 July 1839 30/31 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1839 / Regt Adjutant 24 March 1846-3 March 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / Major USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Colonel USA 19th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 11 April 1862 to rank from 31 March 1862 / Major-General USV 7 May 1864 / Brigadier-General USA 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Brevet Captain Assistant Adjutant-General 3 March 1847 / Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA White River 8 November 1864
Department of New Mexico 14 May 1861-3 July 1861 / District of New Mexico 3 July 1861 / Department of New Mexico 9 November 1861-26 August 1862 / Military Division of West Mississippi 7 May 1864-16 November 1864 / Assistant Adjutant-General (Secretary of War) 9 November 1863-7 May 1864 / Military Division of West Mississippi 25 November 1864-17 May 1865 / Army of West Mississippi 18 February 1865-3 June 1865 / Department of the Gulf 17 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 3 June 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of Louisiana 27 June 1865-28 May 1866 / Department of Texas 27 June 1865-28 May 1866 / Department of Washington 13 August 1866-31 August 1867 / Second Military District 27 August 1867-28 July 1868 / Department of Washington 14 August 1868-12 November 1868 / Fifth Military District 4 November 1868-5 March 1869

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of Liberation was established unofficially, comprising the forces collected at New Madrid, Missouri.

CSA: Major-General of Tennessee Militia Gideon Johnson Pillow assumed command of the Army of Liberation.

Pillow, Gideon Johnson / Tennessee / Born 8 June 1806 Williamson, Tennessee / Died Helena, Arkansas 8 October 1878
Brigadier-General Tennessee Militia 1833-1836 / Brigadier-General USV 1 July 1846 / Major-General USA 13 April 1847 / Discharged USA 20 July 1848 / Major-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861 / Resigned PACS 21 October 1862 Cancelled 2 February 1862 / Resigned 10 October 1862 Rescinded 10 December 1862 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 10 February 1865 / Bureau of Prison Camps 14 February 1865 / Paroled Montgomery, Alabama 5 May 1865 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 12 September 1847 CIA Union Springs, Alabama 20 April 1865
Army of Liberation 23 June 1861-1 September 1861 / 1st Division Western Department 1 September 1861-October 1861 / 1st Division Western District 24 October 1861-9 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Central Kentucky 9 February 1862-15 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 2 January 1863-16 January 1863 / Cavalry District of Northern Alabama 1 January 1864-10 February 1865 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 10 February 1865-30 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Robert Selden Garnett

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
Robert Selden Garnett
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder

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