1861 July 25th

July 25 1861 Thursday

Crittenden Resolution

Fort Fillmore, NMT

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

USA. The US Congress passed the Crittenden Resolution, declaring the object of the war to be the preservation of the Union rather than the end of slavery.

CSA. Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter was appointed provisionally as CS Secretary of State. He succeeded Robert Augustus Toombs who joined the Confederate Army.

District of Columbia. The Union steamer USS Resolute brought two captured schooners and a sloop as prizes into Washington.

District of Columbia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan arrived in Washington to take command of military operations around the capital. He established the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac comprising the Department of Washington and the Department of Northeastern Virginia. In reality, the command was not of a stature to justify the title of a Military Division, which term did not come into official usage until late in 1863 and is described here as the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac. It can be seen as the first stage in the formation of the Department of the Potomac from these two constituent commands.

Missouri. The Committee appointed by the Missouri Convention on 23rd July presented its report to the Missouri Convention. It alluded to the unparalleled condition of disorder in the state, the reckless actions of secessionist members of the Missouri Government, and the flight of the governor and other state officers from the capital. The Committee declared the Missouri offices of Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Secretary of State to be vacant, and provided that their vacancies would be filled by the Missouri Convention, the officers so appointed to hold their positions until August 1862, at which time a special election would be held by the people of Missouri.

Missouri. Expedition to Forsyth and Springfield ended. Incidents at Dug Springs and Harrisonville.

Missouri. Union Major-General John Charles Frémont gave orders for the fortification of St Louis, Cape Girardeau near Cairo, the railheads at Ironton and Rolla and the state capital at Jefferson City. He also began plans for the building of two gunboats and 38 mortar boats to move downriver to secure Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Ohio River and Mississippi River.

New Mexico Territory. Operation at San Augustine Springs. Incident at Mesilla.

Fort Fillmore, New Mexico Territory. The Confederate 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles battalion under Lieutenant-Colonel John R Baylor crossed the Rio Grande into Mesilla to the cheers of the local population. A company of Arizona Confederates joined Baylor and were convinced to muster into the Confederate Army. Leaving a small guard, the Union garrison of 700 men of the 7th US Infantry under Major Isaac Lynde came out from Fort Fillmore to confront Baylor’s force of 380 men. The Union force was supported by detachments from Companies B and F of the US Mounted Rifles. Lynde approached the town with his command and demanded Baylor’s surrender. When Baylor refused, Lynde deployed his men into a skirmish line and opened fire with his mountain howitzers. The infantry was ordered to advance but heavy sand and cornfields disrupted the attack. Lynde then ordered his cavalry, two companies of the US Mounted Rifles, to charge Baylor’s men. The Confederates managed to kill four and wound seven of the Union soldiers immediately and disorganized the attack. The assault was repulsed and both sides began skirmishing at long range. Lynde reformed his command but decided to retreat back to the fort with the Confederates troops and armed Arizona citizens in pursuit. Lynde lost between three and thirteen men killed and six wounded, while Baylor lost perhaps two killed dead and seven seriously wounded. Afraid of being cut off, Lynde gave orders for his ill-disciplined command to abandon the fort overnight and they headed for Fort Stanton 150 miles beyond the Organ Mountains.

Virginia. John La Mountain began balloon ascensions from Fort Monroe for the observation of Confederate movements and positions.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox led a brigade up the Kanawha River and occupied Charleston. The Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise fell back to Gauley Bridge and then to White Sulphur Springs, in order to avoid being cut off.

Union Organisation

USA: The Military Division (Department) of the Potomac was established, comprising the Department of Washington and the Department of Northeastern Virginia.

USA: Major-General George Brinton McClellan was appointed to command the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac, arriving on 27th July 1861.

McClellan, George Brinton | Pennsylvania | Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania | USMA 1846 2/59 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 24 April 1847 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1853 Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 15 January 1857 Major-General Ohio Volunteers 23 April 1861 Major-General USA May 14 1861 Commanding General of the US Army November 1 1861 Relieved temporarily as Commanding General 17 March 1862 permanently 22 July 1862 Resigned USA November 8 1864 | Died 29 October 1885 | 3 May 1861 – 22 July 1861 Department of the Ohio, 14 June 1861 – 22 July 1861 Army of Occupation, 25 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Military Division (Department) of the Potomac, 17 August 1861 – 6 November 1862 Department of the Potomac, 17 August 1861 – 6 November 1862 Army of the Potomac, 1 November 1861 – 10 July 1862 General-in-Chief, 2 September 1862 – 11 September 1862 Army of Virginia

USA: Prince George’s, Montgomery and Frederick counties of Maryland were transferred from the Department of Pennsylvania to the Department of Washington.

USA: Washington and Allegheny counties of Maryland were transferred from the Department of Pennsylvania to the Department of the Shenandoah.

USA: The Department of Northeastern Virginia was subordinated to the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac.

USA: Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell retained command of the Department of Northeastern Virginia.

USA: The Army of Northeastern Virginia was discontinued and renamed the Army of the Potomac.

USA: The Army of the Potomac was established in the Department of Northeastern Virginia.

USA: Major-General Irvin McDowell assumed command of the Army of the Potomac.

McDowell, Irvin | Ohio | Born 15 October 1818 Columbus, Ohio | USMA 1838 23/45 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 7 October 1842 Staff 13 May 1847 Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861 Major-General USV March 16 1862 to rank from March 14 1862 Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 Major-General USA 25 November 1872 Retired USA 15 October 1882 | Died 4 May 1885 | 27 May 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia, 8 July 1861 – 24 July 1861 Army of Northeastern Virginia, 25 July 1861 – 19 August 1861 Army of the Potomac, 3 March 1862 – 3 April 1862 I Corps Potomac, 4 April 1862 – 25 June 1862 Department of the Rappahannock, 26 June 1862 – 4 September 1862 III Corps Virginia, 21 May 1864 – 27 June 1865 Department of the Pacific, 27 June 1865 Department of California

USA: The Department of Washington was subordinated to the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac.

USA: Brigadier-General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield retained command of the Department of Washington.

Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno | Connecticut | Born 22 December 1803 New Haven, Connecticut | USMA 1822 2/40 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1822 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 5 March 1832 Captain USA Engineers 7 July 1838 Colonel USA Inspector General 28 May 1853 Brigadier-General USA May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Major-General USV March 11 1863 to rank posthumously from July 18 1862 | MWIA Antietam 17 September 1862 | DOW September 18 1862 | 27 April 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Washington, 15 September 1862 – 16 September 1862 XII Corps Potomac

USA: The Department of Maryland was discontinued and merged into the Department of Pennsylvania.

USA: All the parts of Pennsylvania in the Department of the Ohio were transferred to the Department of Pennsylvania.

USA: All the parts of Pennsylvania in the Department of Maryland were transferred to the Department of Pennsylvania.

USA: Major-General John Adams Dix assumed command of the Department of Pennsylvania, succeeding State Major-General Robert Patterson.

Dix, John Adams / New Hampshire-New York / Born 24 July 1798 Boscawen, New Hampshire / Ensign USA 1813 / 2nd Lieutenant March 1814 / Captain USA Resigned USA 1828 / Major-General USV May 16 1861 Resigned USV November 30 1865 / Died 21 April 1879 / 16 May 1861 – 31 May 1861 Department of Annapolis, 19 July 1861 – 24 July 1861 Department of Maryland, 25 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Pennsylvania, 22 March 1862 – 7 June 1862 Middle Department, 2 June 1862 – 5 April 1863 Department of Virginia, 22 July 1862 – 14 July 1863 VII Corps Virginia, 18 July 1863 – 9 April 1865 Department of the East, 19 April 1865 – 14 July 1865 Department of the East

USA: Major-General John Charles Frémont arrived to command the Western Department, succeeding Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon.

Frémont, John Charles | Georgia | Born 21 January 1813 Savannah, Georgia | 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 1838 Captain USA Topographical Engineers 29 January 1845 Major USV California Volunteers 1846 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Mounted Rifles 1846 Resigned USA 15 March 1848 Major-General USV July 3 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Relieved of duty 28 June 1862 Resigned USV June 4 1864 Major-General USA Retired 1890 | Died 13 July 1890 | 3 July 1861 – 1 November 1861 Western Department, 24 September 1861 – 23 October 1861 Western Army, 11 March 1862 – 25 March 1862 Mountain Department, 26 June 1862 – 27 June 1862 I Corps Virginia

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks arrived to command the Department of the Shenandoah.

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss | Massachusetts | Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts | Major-General USV May 16 1861 Mustered out 24 August 1865 | Died 1 September 1894 | 1 June 1861 – 18 July 1861 Department of Annapolis, 19 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of the Shenandoah, 3 March 1862 – 3 April 1862 V Corps Potomac, 4 April 1862 – 25 June 1862 Department of the Shenandoah, 26 June 1862 – 3 September 1862 II Corps Virginia, 7 September 1862 – 26 October 1862 Military District of Washington, 8 November 1862 – 22 September 1864 Department of the Gulf, 15 December 1862 – 22 September 1864 Army of the Gulf, 16 December 1862 – 19 August 1863 XIX Corps Gulf, 18 March 1865 – 2 June 1865 Department of the Gulf, 22 April 1865 – 2 June 1865 Army of the Gulf

USA: The Cheat River District was established in the Department of the Ohio, comprising the areas of Tygart’s Valley and the Cheat River in Virginia.

USA: Colonel Charles John Biddle assumed command of the Cheat River District.

Biddle, Charles John | Pennsylvania | Born 1819 | Colonel USV 13th Pennsylvania Reserves (42nd Pennsylvania) June 21 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 31 1861 declined Resigned December 11 1861 | Died 28 September 1873 | 25 July 1861 – 19 August 1861 Cheat River District

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan awaited
    • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
      • Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
    • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Charles John Biddle
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Military Division (Department) of the Potomac awaited
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department awaited
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia & Army of the Potomac
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Department of the Ohio & Army of Occupation
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 & Department of Pennsylvania
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861Department of Virginia Department of the Shenandoah awaited
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department awaited
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Army of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 Cheat Mountain District
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Brewerton Ricketts April 30 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Michael Corcoran August 15 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Orlando Bolivar Willcox August 19 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • Colonel Benjamin Gratz Brown 22 April 1861 District of Ironton
  • Colonel Charles John Biddle 21 June 1861 Cheat River District
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Army of the Shenandoah

Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861 Military Adviser to the President
  • General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Department of the Potomac & Army of the Potomac
  • General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory & Forces in Missouri
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia & Army of the Northwest
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Rootes Jackson 4 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Earl Van Dorn 5 June 1861 Department of Texas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Theophilus Hunter Holmes 5 June 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Alexander Wise 5 June 1861 Army of the Kanawha
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Selden Garnett 6 June 1861 KIA 13 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Joseph Hardee 17 June 1861 District of Upper Arkansas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Huger 17 June 1861 Department of Norfolk
  • Brigadier-General PACS Thomas Jonathan Jackson 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Stoddert Ewell 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Hopkins Sibley 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Edmund Kirby Smith 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Barnard Elliott Bee 17 June 1861 KIA 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Clifford Pemberton 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Bankhead Magruder 17 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Brigadier-General PACS James Longstreet 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS David Rumph Jones 17 June 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Henry Winder 21 June 1861 Provost Marshal General
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Caswell Gatlin 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Gideon Johnson Pillow 9 July 1861 Army of Liberation
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Read Anderson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Franklin Cheatham 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Smith Donelson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Felix Kirk Zollicoffer 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jones Mitchell Withers 10 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Harvey Hill 10 July 1861 Department of South Carolina & Department of Fredericksburg
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Heron Anderson 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Augustus Toombs 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Arnold Elzey 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Jones 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jubal Anderson Early July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Chase Whiting 28 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Francis Stebbins Bartow 21 July 1861
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel Daniel Ruggles May 1861 District of Aquia
  • Colonel John Creed Moore Defences of Galveston

 

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