July 25 1861 Thursday
Fort Fillmore, NMT
Confederate Invasion of New Mexico
Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations
Venezuela. CSS Sumter, Commander Raphael Semmes, captured the schooner Abby Bradford. Semmes was denied the right to enter Venezuela with prizes, and dispatched the vessel to enter a Confederate port instead.
USA. The US Congress passed the Crittenden Resolution, declaring the object of the war to be the preservation of the Union rather than the end of slavery.
CSA. Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter was appointed provisionally as Confederate Secretary of State. He succeeded Robert Augustus Toombs who left office to serve in the Confederate Army as a Brigadier-General.
District of Columbia. The Union steamer USS Resolute brought two captured schooners and a sloop as prizes into Washington.
District of Columbia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan arrived in Washington to take command of military operations around the capital. He established the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac comprising the Department of Washington and the Department of Northeastern Virginia. In reality, the command was not of a stature to justify the title of a Military Division, which term did not come into official usage until late in 1863 but is described in this resource as the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac. It can be seen as the first stage in the formation of the Department of the Potomac from these two constituent commands.
McClellan’s elevation resulted from his series of small but strategically important victories which had brought most of western Virginia rapidly under Union control and protected the most exposed section of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. While McClellan’s achievements may appear small in comparison to later campaigns, at the time they represented the Union’s only substantial and strategically important land victories of the war.
To improve the command structure, the Department of Washington was subordinated to McClellan’s Military Division (Department) of the Potomac and the former Inspector-General, Brigadier-General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield was appointed to command. Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell, despite his defeat at First Bull Run, retained command for the time being of the Department of Northeastern Virginia. Both were to be subordinated to McClellan.
The command of the restructured Department of Pennsylvania and the Department of the Shenandoah, taken over respectively by Major-General John Adams Dix and Nathaniel Prentiss Banks.
In addition to the General-in-Chief, Major-General Winfield Scott in Washington, DC, operational command of this critical theatre of operations was thus to be entrusted to the Generals ranking 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th and 10th in the Union Army hierarchy.
Florida. The Confederate privateer Dixie captured the American schooner Mary Alice off the eastern coast.
Missouri. The Committee appointed by the Missouri Convention on 23 July presented its report to the Missouri Convention. It alluded to the unparalleled condition of disorder in the state, the reckless actions of secessionist members of the Missouri Government, and the flight of the governor and other state officers from the capital. The Committee declared the Missouri offices of Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Secretary of State to be vacant, and provided that their vacancies would be filled by the Missouri Convention, the officers so appointed to hold their positions until August 1862, at which time a special election would be held by the people of Missouri. The resolution effectively deposed the pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson who had retreated with the pro-Confederate forces to the southwestern corner of the state.
Missouri. Expedition to Forsyth and Springfield ended. Incidents at Dug Springs and Harrisonville.
Missouri. Union Major-General John Charles Frémont gave orders for the fortification of St Louis, Cape Girardeau near Cairo, the railheads at Ironton and Rolla. and the state capital at Jefferson City. He also made plans to build two protected gunboats and 38 mortar boats to move downriver to secure Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Ohio River and Mississippi River.
New Mexico Territory. Operation at San Augustine Springs. Incident at Mesilla.
Fort Fillmore, New Mexico Territory. The Confederate 2nd Battalion Texas Mounted Rifles under Lieutenant-Colonel John R Baylor crossed the Rio Grande into Mesilla to the cheers of the local population. A company of Arizona Confederates joined Baylor and were convinced to muster into the Confederate Army. Leaving a small guard, the Union garrison of 700 men of the 7th US Infantry under Major Isaac Lynde came out from Fort Fillmore to confront Baylor’s force of 380 men. The Union force was supported by detachments from Companies B and F of the US Mounted Rifles. Lynde approached the town with his command and demanded Baylor’s surrender. When Baylor refused, Lynde deployed his men into a skirmish line and opened fire with his mountain howitzers. The infantry was ordered to advance but heavy sand and cornfields disrupted the attack. Lynde then ordered his cavalry, the two companies of the US Mounted Rifles, to charge Baylor’s men. The Confederates managed to kill four and wound seven of the Union soldiers immediately and disorganised the attack. The Union assault was repulsed and both sides began skirmishing at long range.
Lynde reformed his command but decided to retreat back to the fort with the Confederates troops and armed Arizona citizens in pursuit. Lynde lost between three and thirteen men killed and six wounded, while Baylor lost perhaps two killed dead and seven wounded. Afraid of being cut off from his line of retreat, Lynde gave orders for his ill-disciplined command to abandon the fort overnight and they headed for Fort Stanton 150 miles beyond the Organ Mountains.
North Carolina. The Confederate privateer Mariner, Captain W B Berry, captured the American schooner Nathaniel Chase off Ocracoke Inlet.
North Carolina. The Confederate privateer Gordon captured the American brig William McGilvery off Cape Hatteras with a cargo of molasses.
Virginia. The aeronaut John La Mountain began to make ascensions by balloon from Fort Monroe for the observation of Confederate movements and positions.
Virginia. Union Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox led a brigade up the Kanawha River and occupied Charleston. The Confederate brigade of Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise fell back to Gauley Bridge and then to White Sulphur Springs, in order to avoid being cut off.
USA: The Military Division (Department) of the Potomac was established, comprising the Department of Washington and the Department of Northeastern Virginia.
USA: Major-General George Brinton McClellan was appointed to command the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac, arriving on 27 July 1861.
McClellan, George Brinton / Pennsylvania / Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Orange, New Jersey 29 October 1885
USMA 1 July 1846 2/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 April 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 16 January 1857 / Major-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861 / Major-General USA 14 May 1861 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 Relieved 22 July 1862 / Resigned USA 8 November 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1 Lt USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Contreras 19 August 1847
Department of the Ohio 3 May 1861-23 July 1861 / Department of Virginia 1 June 1861 Declined / Army of Occupation 14 June 1861-23 July 1861 / Military Division (Department) of the Potomac 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Department of the Potomac 17 August 1861-5 November 1862 / Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-9 November 1862 / General-in-Chief 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Army of Virginia 2 September 1862-11 September 1862
USA: Prince George’s County, Montgomery County, and Frederick County of Maryland were transferred from the Department of Pennsylvania to the Department of Washington.
USA: Washington and Allegheny counties of Maryland were transferred from the Department of Pennsylvania to the Department of the Shenandoah.
USA: The Department of Northeastern Virginia was subordinated to the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac.
USA: Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell retained command of the Department of Northeastern Virginia.
USA: The Army of Northeastern Virginia was discontinued and renamed the Army of the Potomac.
USA: The Army of the Potomac was established in the Department of Northeastern Virginia.
USA: Major-General Irvin McDowell assumed command of the Army of the Potomac.
McDowell, Irvin / Ohio / Born 15 October 1818 Columbus, Ohio / Died 4 May 1885
USMA 1 July 1838 23/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 October 1842 / Assistant Adjutant-General 13 May 1847 / Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1862 to rank from 14 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 25 November 1872 / Retired USA 15 October 1882 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1838 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Major USA 31 March 1856 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Department of Northeastern Virginia 27 May 1861-17 August 1861 / Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-15 August 1861 / Army of the Potomac 15 August 1861-19 August 1861 / McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / I Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / III Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / Department of the Pacific 21 May 1864-27 June 1865 / Department of California 27 June 1865-31 March 1868 / Fourth Military District 4 June 1868-4 July 1868 / Department of the West 16 July 1868-16 December 1872
USA: The Department of Washington was subordinated to the Military Division (Department) of the Potomac.
USA: Brigadier-General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield retained command of the Department of Washington.
Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno / Connecticut / Born 22 December 1803 New Haven, Connecticut / DOW Sharpsburg, Maryland 18 September 1862
USMA 1 July 1822 2/40 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5 March 1832 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 28 May 1853 / Brigadier-General USA 17 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / Major-General USV 11 March 1863 to rank from 18 July 1862 posthumously / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1822 Brevet Major 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Colonel USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 6 May 1861 / WIA Monterey 7 July 1846 MWIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Inspector-General USA 28 May 1853-27 April 1861 / Department of Washington 27 April 1861-17 August 1861 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Department of Virginia 3 March 1862-22 June 1862 / Suffolk Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 22 July 1862-8 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 15 September 1862-17 September 1862
USA: The Department of Maryland was discontinued and merged into the Department of Pennsylvania.
USA: All the parts of Pennsylvania in the Department of the Ohio were transferred to the Department of Pennsylvania.
USA: All the parts of Pennsylvania in the Department of Maryland were transferred to the Department of Pennsylvania.
USA: Major-General John Adams Dix assumed command of the Department of Pennsylvania, succeeding State Major-General Robert Patterson.
Dix, John Adams / New Hampshire-New York / Born 24 July 1798 Boscawen, New Hampshire / Died New York, New York 21 April 1879
Ensign USA 14th US Infantry 10 May 1813 / 3rd Lieutenant USA 21st US Infantry 7 March 1814 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 March 1814 / Corps of Artillery 9 August 1814 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 March 1818 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 3rd US Artillery 16 August 1821 / Captain USA 30 August 1825 / Resigned USA 31 December 1828 / Adjutant-General New York Militia 1830 / Major-General New York Militia 6 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 / WIA Niagara 25 July 1814
Department of Annapolis 16 May 1861-31 May 1861 / Department of Maryland 17 July 1861-245July 1861 / Department of Pennsylvania 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Dix’s Command Department of the Potomac 24 August 1861-22 March 1862 / Middle Department 22 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Department of Virginia 2 June 1862-6 April 1863 / VII Corps Virginia 22 July 1862-16 July 1863 / Department of Virginia 14 April 1863-15 July 1863 / Department of the East 18 July 1863-10 April 1865 / Department of the East 19 April 1865-15 July 1865
USA: Major-General John Charles Frémont arrived to command the Western Department, succeeding Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon.
Frémont, John Charles / Georgia / Born 21 January 1813 Savannah, Georgia / Died New York, New York 13 July 1890
Instructor US Navy 1833-1835 / Professor US Navy 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA Topographical Engineers 29 January 1845 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Major USV California Volunteers 23 July 1846 / Resigned USA 27 October 1846 / Dismissed USA 31 January 1847 Revoked / Resigned USV 15 March 1848 / Major-General USA 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / Relieved 28 June 1862 / Resigned USA 4 June 1864 / Major-General USA Retired 28 April 1890 / Brevet Captain USA 31 July 1844
Western Department 3 July 1861-2 November 1861 /Western Army 24 September 1861-23 October 1861 / Mountain Department 29 March 1862-26 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-28 June 1862
USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks arrived to command the Department of the Shenandoah.
Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss / Massachusetts / Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts / Died Waltham, Massachusetts 1 September 1894
Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
Banks’ Division Department of Annapolis May `1861-11 June 1861 / Department of Annapolis 11 June 1861-19 July 1861 / Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-3 March 1862 / V Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / II Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-23 September 1862 / Military District of Washington (Defences of Washington) 7 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Department of the Gulf 8 November 1862-23 September 1864 / Army of the Gulf 15 December 1862-22 September 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 16 December 1862-19 August 1863 / Department of the Gulf 18 March 1865-3 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 22 April 1865-2 June 1865
USA: The Cheat River District was established in the Department of the Ohio, comprising the areas of Tygart’s Valley and the Cheat River in Virginia.
USA: Colonel Charles John Biddle (42nd Pennsylvania Infantry) assumed command of the Cheat River District.
Biddle, Charles John / Pennsylvania / Born30 April 1819 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died 28 September 1873 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Captain USA Infantry 16 February 1847 / US Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 / Discharged USA 29 August 1848 / Colonel USV 13th Pennsylvania Reserves (42nd Pennsylvania Infantry) 21 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 Declined / Resigned USV 11 December 1861 / Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Cheat River District 25 July 1861-20 August 1861
Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Simon Cameron
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles
Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Silas Horton Stringham
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William Mervine
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
West Indies Squadron: Garrett J Pendergrast
Western Gunboat Flotilla: John Rodgers
Potomac Flotilla: Thomas Tingey Craven
General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott
Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan awaited
- Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
- Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
- Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
- Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
- Cheat River District: Charles John Biddle
- Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
- District of Oregon: George Wright
Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix
- Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Department of Texas: Vacant
Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
Western Department: John Charles Frémont
- District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
- Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon
Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory
Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee
Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
- “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
- District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
- Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
- Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
- Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
- Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
- Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
- “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
Western Department: Leonidas Polk
- District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
- Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring
Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
William Starke Rosecrans
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Brigadier-General USA (Staff)
Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
David Emanuel Twiggs
Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
William Wing Loring
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
John Bankhead Magruder
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early