1861 July 13th

July 13 1861 Saturday

Carrick’s Ford, VA

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operation

Georgia. While fortifications were being built or repaired to defend the coastline, the state authorities of Georgia were formed a rudimentary navy by converting a few tugs and other harbour craft into gunboats. Although they could never oppose the ships of the US Navy on the open seas, their shallow draft enabled them to move freely about in the inland waters along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. They were commanded by Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall. When the Georgia navy was transferred to the Confederate States Navy, Tattnall found himself in charge of the coastal defenses of both South Carolina and Georgia. He had four gunboats in the vicinity of Port Royal Sound; one was a converted coaster, and three were former tugs. Each mounted only two guns.

Missouri. Union Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon’s army encamped at Springfield. He commanded approximately 6,000 men in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 5th Missouri, the 1st Iowa, the 1st Kansas and 2nd Kansas, several companies of US Regular Army infantry and cavalry, and three batteries of artillery. Pro-Confederate State Major-General Sterling Price had gathered between 7,000 and 8,000 men in the Missouri State Guard but they were not well organised, equipped, supplied, or trained.

South Carolina. The US Navy had the new responsibility of blockading the Southern coastline but found this task difficult when it was forced to rely on distant fuelling and re-supply ports in Northern poets for its coal-fired steamships. The problems of the blockade were considered by a commission appointed by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles and its Chairman was Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont. The commission reported its views of the South Carolina coast in its second report. In order to improve the blockade of Charleston, they considered seizing a nearby port and paid particular attention to three options: Bull’s Bay to the north of Charleston or St Helena Sound or Port Royal Sound to the south. The latter two would also be useful bases for the blockade of Savannah. They considered Port Royal to have the best harbour, but believed that it would be strongly defended and therefore were reluctant to recommend that it be taken. However, Confederate Brigadier General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard did not believe that Port Royal Sound could be adequately defended, as forts on opposite sides of the sound would be too far apart for mutual support. Overruled by South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens, he drew up plans for two forts to be built at the entrance. Soon called away to serve the Confederate Army in Virginia, he turned the task of implementing his plans over to Major Francis D Lee of the South Carolina Army Engineers. Before the war, Lee had been an architect in Charleston. Work on the two forts began in July 1861 but progress was slow because labour for the construction was obtained by requisitions of slave labor from local plantations, which the owners were reluctant to provide. Construction was not complete when the Union attack finally came. Beauregard’s plan had to be altered because the heavy guns he stipulated to be installed were not available. To compensate for the reduced weight of fire by increasing volume, the number of guns in the water battery of Fort Walker was increased from seven 10-inch Columbiads plus 12 guns of smaller caliber, and a single 10-inch gun. Fitting the increased number into the available space required the customary traverses to be eliminated. The battery was therefore vulnerable to enfilade fire. In addition to the 13 guns of the water battery, Fort Walker had another seven guns mounted to repel land attacks from the rear and three more on the right wing. Two other guns were in the fort, but were not mounted. Fort Beauregard was almost as strong; it also had 13 guns that bore on the channel, plus six others for protection against land attacks. The garrisons were increased in size; 687 men were training in and near Fort Walker by mid-August 1861.

Virginia. Expedition to Romney ended. Incident at Red House.

Carrick’s Ford, Virginia, also known as Cheat River or Corrick’s Ford. Confederate Brigadier-General Richard Selden Garnett retreated to the Cheat River but he was slowed down by rain and the need to save his supply trains. Around noon the rain slackened and the Confederates continued up Shaver’s Fork of the Cheat River. Almost immediately scouts began reporting Union skirmishers at the rear of the Confederate forces. Carrick’s Ford consisted of two separate fords on the same property. Upper Carrick’s Ford is on Shaver’s Fork at the plant while the lower ford is about 700 yards downstream. Garnett assigned Colonel William Booth Taliaferro the duty of escorting the wagon train through from the nearby mountains with his Virginia State Militia. The 1st Georgia and 23rd Virginia with a section of artillery became a rear-guard. When the first crossing had been completed by the rest of the army and Garnett had pushed the wagon train across the river, Taliaferro was to withdraw downstream to the next crossing and watch for Union troops. With Taliaferro’s men covering the upstream crossing from a nearby hill, Garnett struggled to get his train across Shaver’s Fork. Taliaferro’s Confederates saw enemy skirmishers approaching but they mistook it for 1st Georgia of the rear-guard; the Georgians had already been cut off at Kaler’s Ford by Union Captain Henry Washington Benham. Benham pushed his men forward and unlimbered his artillery but the inexperienced troops were in a state of confusion. When Union Colonel Ebenezer Dumont arrived with the 7th Indiana forward to assist Benham, they regained control of the men. The Confederates opened fire with three guns and held their ground for over an hour. The Union slowly gained the advantage over both Garnett at the river and Taliaferro in the hills, and the Confederates were forced to withdraw downstream to Carrick’s Ford. Garnett left orders for his skirmish line to fall back fighting and rode downstream to the lower ford where he supervised the crossing. Fifteen minutes later his skirmish line had abandoned that position and moved to protect the wagon train then crossing the lower ford. His men were running out of ammunition and the line was weakening. Trying to rally his men, Garnett was shot dead and fell onto the muddy road near a stone wall. The Confederates managed to continue their retreat aided by torrential rain which slowed the pursuit. Garnett was the first general of either side to be killed in action during the Civil War. Union forces reported a loss of 53 men and estimated Confederate casualties as 20 killed, 10 wounded and 50 prisoners. The Union also captured a rifled gun and forty wagons.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson assumed command of the Army of the Northwest succeeding Brigadier-General Robert Selden Garnett.

Jackson, Henry Rootes | Georgia | Born 24 June 1820 Athens, Georgia | Colonel USV 1st Georgia 20 June 1846 Mustered out May 1847 Brigadier-General PACS 4 June 1861 Resigned PACS 2 December 1861 Major-General Georgia State Militia 3 December 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 21 September 1863 Paroled 8 July 1865 | CIA Nashville 1864 | Died 23 May 1898 | 14 July 1861 – 19 July 1861 Army of the Northwest, 11 November 1863 – 27 September 1864 District of Georgia

CSA: Brigadier-General Robert Selden Garnett was killed at Carrick’s Ford.

Garnett, Robert Selden | Virginia | Born 16 December 1819 Essex, Virginia | USMA 1841 27/52 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 January 1842 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 18 August 1846 7th US Infantry 31 August 1848 Captain USA 7th US Infantry 9 March 1851 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 Major USA 9th US Infantry 27 March 1855 Resigned USA 30 April 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 6 June 1861 | KIA Carrick’s Ford 13 July 1861 | 8 June 1861 – 13 July 1861 Army of the Northwest

Confederate Generals

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Henry Rootes Jackson

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio & Army of Occupation
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia & Army of Northeastern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861Department of Virginia
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Department of Annapolis
  • Major-General USV John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department awaited
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Department of the West interim & Army of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • Colonel Benjamin Gratz Brown 22 April 1861 District of Ironton
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania Army of the Shenandoah

Confederate Seniority

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861 Military Adviser to the President
  • General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 District of Harper’s Ferry & Army of the Shenandoah
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of the Potomac & Army of the Potomac
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory & Forces in Missouri
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Rootes Jackson 4 June 1861 Army of the Northwest
  • Brigadier-General PACS Earl Van Dorn 5 June 1861 Department of Texas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Theophilus Hunter Holmes 5 June 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina & Department of Fredericksburg
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Alexander Wise 5 June 1861 Army of the Kanawha
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Selden Garnett 6 June 1861 KIA 13 July 1861 Carrick’s Ford, VA
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Joseph Hardee 17 June 1861 District of Upper Arkansas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Huger 17 June 1861 Department of Norfolk
  • Brigadier-General PACS Thomas Jonathan Jackson 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Stoddert Ewell 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Hopkins Sibley 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Edmund Kirby Smith 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Barnard Elliott Bee 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Clifford Pemberton 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Bankhead Magruder 17 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Brigadier-General PACS James Longstreet 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS David Rumph Jones 17 June 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Henry Winder 21 June 1861 Provost Marshal General
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Caswell Gatlin 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Gideon Johnson Pillow 9 July 1861 Army of Liberation
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Read Anderson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Franklin Cheatham 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Smith Donelson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Felix Kirk Zollicoffer 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jones Mitchell Withers 10 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Harvey Hill 10 July 1861 Department of South Carolina
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel John Creed Moore Defences of Galveston

 

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