1861 January 1st

January 1 1861 Tuesday

USA. James Buchanan was President of the United States of America, elected March 4th 1857.

USA. John Cabell Breckinridge was Vice-President of the United States of America, elected March 4th 1857.

USA. Jeremiah Sullivan Black was Secretary of Secretary of State, appointed December 17th 1860.

USA. Joseph Holt was interim Secretary of War, deputising for John Buchanan Floyd, appointed on December 31st 1860.

USA. Isaac Toucey was Secretary of the Navy, appointed March 7th 1857.

USA. Edwin McMasters Stanton was Attorney-General, appointed December 20th 1860.

USA. Jacob Thompson was Secretary of the Interior, appointed March 10th 1857.

USA. Philip Francis Thomas was Secretary of the Treasury, appointed December 12th 1860.

USA. Horatio King took interim office as US Postmaster-General deputising for Joseph Holt.

USA. The Commanding General or General-in-Chief of the US Army was Major-General USA Winfield Scott

USA. The United States Regular Army was ill-prepared for a war on a continental scale and was organised primarily for operations on the western frontier. There were 198 companies formed into 10 Regiments of Infantry, 4 Regiments of Artillery and 5 Regiments of Cavalry. There were 1,098 Officers and 15,304 Enlisted Men of whom 727 Officers and 13,930 Enlisted Men were present for duty. The majority of field forces were deployed along the western frontier and in the new territories. Garrisons were also located in the primary east coast ports where a new generation of coastal fortifications was under construction. These forts were not fully garrisoned but were held ready for occupation by the State Militia in the event of war with a European power. Of the 198 available companies or batteries, 183 were stationed at 79 different posts west of the Mississippi. The other fifteen companies, mostly artillery, were allocated to coastal fortifications, 23 arsenals, and the Canadian border.

USA. The six military Departments after 15 January 1861 reported the following numbers available for duty: East 3,894, West 3,585, Utah 685, California 3,382, New Mexico 2,624 and Texas 2,258. The Department of the East manned the eastern coast fortifications with 18 artillery companies and one company of engineers but no infantry or cavalry. None were stationed in the vicinity of Washington, DC. The Department of Utah had three companies of dragoons, three companies of artillery and four companies of infantry. Thirteen companies of infantry and two companies of dragoons were in the Department of New Mexico and one regiment of infantry was in the Department of Texas. There were forces also in the Department of California and the Department of Oregon. Of 1,108 Regular Army officers serving as of 1 January 1861, 270 ultimately resigned to join the Confederacy. Only a few hundred out of 15,135 enlisted men left the ranks.

USA. Historically, for major campaigns such as the War with Mexico in 1846-1848, the United States had supplemented its Regular Army by recruiting a temporary army of volunteers, called up for service of limited duration. In the coming Civil War, these US Volunteers would, as before, form the backbone of the forces engaged. The US War Department considered making the recruitment of volunteers a Federal responsibility, but this proposal was deemed unnecessary for the short war initially envisioned. Responsibility for recruiting volunteer forces remained with the individual States. State governors encouraged local constituents to form new volunteer regiments. Local recruiting created regiments with strong bonds among the men, but it later hindered replacing the ranks of existing regiments with replacements. It also meant that when regiments took severe casualties, a serious impact was transmitted to the local communities where they were recruited. Both sides tried to recruit replacements into existing units from the same state or region to maintain their numbers, but the Union also tended to create many new regiments to make senior commands available to reward energetic recruiters and supporters. These newly formed regiments usually had few veterans to train the recruits, and all regiments tended to lose men more quickly than they could be replaced. Seasoned regiments were often reduced to very small numbers and had to be disbanded or consolidated, usually against the wishes of the men assigned. The terms of service also caused problems. In the first year of the war, many regiments enlisted for only three months’ service. This was soon extended to three years’ service for most regiments; or for the duration of hostilities. The expiry of large numbers of enlistments caused recurring difficulties, especially in the autumn and winter of 1861 (mustering out three months’ regiments) and the spring and summer of 1864 (mustering out three years’ regiments). Militia and other local forces were often enlisted for emergency service for only one month or for three months. Out of necessity, the Confederates moved much more quickly to enlistments without specifying a duration.

USA. Army administration was handled by a system of bureaux whose senior officers were mostly in the twilight of long careers in their technical fields. Six of the 10 bureau chiefs were over 70 years old. These bureaux answered directly to the War Department and were not subject to the direct orders of the General-in-Chief. The staff departments covered the following areas of responsibility: Quartermaster, Medical, Ordnance, Adjutant-General, Subsistence, Paymaster, Engineers, Inspector-General, Topographical Engineers (discontinued in 1863), and Judge Advocate-General.

The Adjutant-General’s Department was responsible for military orders, correspondence, regulations, personnel records, manuals, printed forms, recruitment for the Regular Army, mustering Volunteer units in and out of service, and pension claims. The Inspector-General monitored military organisations and their activities to ensure that they were conducted according to regulations. At the outbreak of war, there were two Colonels in the department. They were joined by five Inspector-Generals with the grade of Major in August 1861. The Quartermaster Department was responsible for providing quarters and transportation for supplies, uniforms, equipment, horses, fuel, forage, and all other machinery and stationery except food. The Subsistence Department was headed by the Commissary General of Subsistence and supplied by all the food and rations to the armies. The Pay Department was led by the Paymaster General and handled not just soldiers’ pay but also accounted for army funds and made payments. The Ordnance Department was in charge of all arsenals, artillery depots, and armouries, and provided ordnance and artillery supplies to the army.

USA. In 1861 the US Navy had 90 vessels listed on its Register of Ships, of which only 42 were capable of active service, and most of those were dispersed on stations from Brazil to China. Soon after his inauguration, President Abraham Lincoln asked the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, what naval force was available in case of war. Welles named only 12 warships that could be put immediately into service. This was not a Navy capable of commanding the Southern coastline by blockade, pursuing commerce raiders, attacking enemy fortifications and ports or fighting on the Western rivers, the mission that emerged during the coming war.

The outbreak of war coincided with technological innovations that had a dramatic impact on naval warfare. Among these innovations were the powerful screw propeller, increasingly efficient steam engines, rifled and banded naval guns with greater range and accuracy, and reliable exploding ordnance. In response to the emergence of these new technologies, the US Navy built 24 major new vessels in the decade before the outbreak of war. This was the country’s largest peacetime naval expansion since the Naval Act of 1816. Even though the Navy of 1861 was small, it contained a high proportion of modern warships. The first ships of this dramatic expansion were the five River-class screw-driven frigates, named USS Merrimack, USS Wabash, USS Minnesota, USS Roanoke, and USS Colorado. At the same time a sixth frigate, the USS Niagara, was launched to a novel design, long with sharper lines and mounting fewer guns. They looked superficially like the sailing frigates of earlier years. However, they were steam-powered and propeller-driven and boasted an impressive armament of advanced guns. When the USS Merrimack visited English ports in 1856-1857, her powerful battery persuaded the British to launch a new class of steam warships.

The Southern states had complained that the new steam frigates were too large to operate in shallow Southern ports. In 1856, Secretary of the Navy James C Dobbin therefore urged the construction of another new class of warships: smaller, shallower-draft steam sloops. These were the first US Navy warships to be driven by twin screws. These City-class warships were named the USS Hartford, USS Richmond, USS Brooklyn, USS Pensacola, and USS Lancaster. Launched in 1858, the USS Hartford drew only 18 feet of water, allowing her and her sister ships to enter most Southern ports where the bigger steam frigates could not pass. During the conflict, vessels like the USS Hartford, USS Richmond and USS Brooklyn, were able later to steam up the Mississippi as far as Vicksburg and into Mobile Bay. This was an unanticipated outcome of Southern demands for this kind of vessel.  In 1858 a third type of new steam warships was authorised by Congress. The first of these Indian-class screw steamers was the USS Mohican, launched in 1859. The others were the USS Pawnee, USS Wyoming, USS Iroquois, USS Dacotah, USS Seminole, and USS Narragansett. These small ships carried sailing masts and spars, but their sail pattern was much reduced. These were the first American warships to be classified as steam warships rather than sailing vessels with auxiliary steam power. Between 1854 and 1859, the US Congress authorised funds for three new classes of steam-powered, propeller-driven warships, as well as other ships, numbering 24 vessels in all. These appropriations enlarged and modernised the fleet in a way that made the US Navy more prepared for war in 1861 than for any previous war.

District of Columbia. Following discussions between US President James Buchanan and General-in-Chief Major-General Winfield Scott on 31 December 1860, preparations were instigated for the defence of the Capital district. Colonel Charles Pomeroy Stone was commissioned Inspector-General of the District of Columbia. He identified and enumerated the local militia and volunteer forces available, since no Regular Army troops were stationed nearby.  There was a small detachment of US Marines at the Washington Navy Yard. Stone found a loyal company of the Potomac Light infantry at Georgetown, and a growing company of the National Rifles with two mountain howitzers but he felt these had strongly Southern sympathies. There was also the Washington Light Infantry with 160 men and a small National Guard battalion, both of which were loyal to the Federal government. Stone began to raise new volunteer companies and within six weeks he had equipped thirty-three companies of infantry and riflemen and two troops of cavalry for the defence of the city. In due course, Stone broke up the formation of pro-Southern “National Volunteers” units and the National Rifles were restored to a more reliable allegiance.

South Carolina. South Carolina was deemed by the US government to be in a state of rebellion after passing an ordinance of secession on 20 December 1860.

US Army General-in-Chief

Scott, Winfield / Virginia / Born 13 June 1786 Laurel Branch, Virginia / Died West Point, New York 29 May 1866
Captain USA Light Artillery 3 May 1808 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Artillery 6 July 1812 / Colonel USA 12 March 1813 / Adjutant-General 18 March 1813-18 July 1813 / 18 March 1813 / Brigadier-General USA 9 March 1814 / Major-General USA General-in-Chief of the US Army 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 / Major-General USA Retired 1 November 1863 to rank from 25 June 1841 / Retired USA 1 November 1861 / CIA Queenston Heights, Canada 13 October 1812 Exchanged January 1813 WIA Fort George, Canada 27 May 1814 WIA Lundy’s Lane, Canada 25 July 1814 WIA Contreras 19 August 1847 / Brevet Major-General USA 25 July 1814 Brevet Lieutenant-General USA 29 March 1847
General-in-Chief 25 July 1841-1 November 1861

US Army Field Commands

1st Regiment US Infantry: Colonel Carlos Adolphus Waite; HQ Fort Chadbourne, Texas
2nd Regiment US Infantry: Colonel Dixon Stansbury Miles, HQ Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
3rd Regiment US Infantry: Colonel Benjamin Bonneville; HQ Fort Clark, Texas
4th Regiment US Infantry: Colonel George Wright; HQ Fort Vancouver, California
5th Regiment US Infantry: Colonel Gustavus Loomis; HQ Fort Union, New Mexico Territory
6th Regiment US Infantry: Lieutenant-Colonel George Andrews (vice Colonel Washington Seawell); HQ Bernicia Barracks, California
7th Regiment US Infantry: Colonel John Joseph Abercrombie, HQ Santa Fe, New Mexico Territory
8th Regiment US Infantry: Colonel John Garland; HQ San Antonio, Texas
9th Regiment US Infantry: Lieutenant-Colonel Silas Casey (vice Colonel George Wright); Fort Vancouver, California
10th Regiment US Infantry: Colonel Edmund Brooke Alexander, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith; Major William Henry Talbot Walker; Major Edward Richard Sprigg Canby; HQ Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory
1st Regiment US Dragoons: Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy, Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin Lloyd Beall; HQ Fort Tejon, California; (renamed 1st US Cavalry 3 August 1861)
2nd Regiment US Dragoons: Colonel Philip St George Cooke; HQ Waterloo, Iowa (renamed 2nd US Cavalry 3 August 1861)
1st Regiment US Mounted Riflemen: Colonel William Wing Loring, Lieutenant-Colonel George Bibb Crittenden; HQ Fort Union, New Mexico Territory (renamed 3rd US Cavalry 3 August 1861)
4th Regiment US Cavalry: Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, Lieutenant-Colonel William Hemsley Emory, Major John Sedgwick; HQ Fort Riley, Kansas
5th Regiment US Cavalry:
1st Regiment US Artillery:
2nd Regiment US Artillery:
3rd Regiment US Artillery:
4th Regiment US Artillery:

US Army Territorial Commands

Department of the East: Brigadier-General John Ellis Wool
Department of Texas: Brigadier-General David Emanuel Twiggs
Department of the West: Brigadier-General William Selby Harney
Department of New Mexico: Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
Department of Oregon: Colonel George Wright
Department of Utah: Colonel Philip St George Cooke
Department of California Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin Lloyd Beall

USA: The Department of New Mexico comprised the Territory of New Mexico east of 110 degrees of longitude and a part of southwest Colorado Territory. Headquarters were at Santa Fe.

USA: The Department of New Mexico was commanded by Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy.

Fauntleroy, Thomas Turner / Virginia / Born 8 October 1795 Richmond, Virginia / Died Leesburg, Virginia 12 September 1883
Lieutenant Virginia Militia 1812 / Major USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 30 June 1846 / Colonel USA 1st US Dragoons 25 July 1850 / Resigned USA 13 May 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 15 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 18 May 1861-8 October 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861 Declined 17 August 1861 Unconfirmed / Resigned PACS 30 August 1861
Department of New Mexico 5 September 1859-22 January 1861

USA: The Department of Oregon comprised the area of the later states of Washington, Idaho and all but the south-western corner of Oregon. Headquarters were at Vancouver.

USA: The Department of Oregon was commanded by Colonel George Wright.

Wright, George / Vermont / Born 21 October 1803 Norwich, Vermont / Died Crescent City, California 30 July 1865
USMA 1 July 1822 24/40 Infantry / Cadet USMA 4 September 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1827 / Regt Adjutant 1 February 1831-30 October 1836 / Captain USA 30 October 1836 / 8th US Infantry 7 July 1838 / Major USA 4th US Infantry 1 January 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 February 1855 / Colonel USA 9th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 / Brevet Major USA 15 March 1842 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 19 December 1864 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
Department of Oregon 8 June 1860-15 January 1861 / District of Oregon 15 January 1861-13 September 1861 / District of Southern California 14 September 1861-14 October 1861 / Department of the Pacific 20 October 1861-21 May 1864 / District of California 1 July 1864-27 July 1865 / Department of the Columbia 27 June 1865-20 July 1865

USA: The Department of Texas comprised the state of Texas. Headquarters were at San Antonio.

USA: The Department of Texas was commanded by Brigadier-General USA David Emanuel Twiggs

Twiggs, David Emanuel / Georgia / Born 14 February 1790 Richmond, Georgia / Died Augusta, Georgia 15 July 1862
Captain USA 8th US Infantry 12 March 1812 / Major USA 28th US Infantry 21 September 1814 / Discharged USA 15 June 1815 / Captain USA 7th US Infantry 2 December 1815 / 1st US Infantry 14 December 1821 / Major USA 14 May 1825 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 15 July 1831 / Colonel USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 / Brigadier-General USA 30 June 1846 / Defected to Confederacy 19 February 1861 / Dismissed USA 1 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 22 May 1861 / Retired PACS 11 October 1861 / Brevet Major USA21 September 1814 Brevet Major-General USA 23 September 1846
Department of Texas 7 November 1860-18 February 1861

USA: The Department of the East included all of the United States east of the Mississippi River. Headquarters were at New York.

USA: The Department of the East was commanded by Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool

Wool, John Ellis / New York / Born 29 February 1784 Newburgh, New York / Died Troy, New York 10 November 1869
Captain USA 13th US Infantry 14 April 1812 / Major USA 29th US Infantry 13 April 1813 / 6th US Infantry 17 May 1815 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 29 April 1816-25 June 1841 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 6th US Infantry 20 May 1820 Vacated 1 June 1821 / Brigadier-General USA 25 June 1841 / Major-General USA 1 August 1863 to rank from 16 May 1862 / Retired USA 1 August 1863 / Major-General USA Retired to rank from 16 May 1862 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1814 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 29 April 1826 Brevet Major-General USA 23 February 1847 / WIA Queenston Heights, Canada 13 October 1812
Department of the East 23 March 1857-26 October 1861 / Department of Virginia 9 August 1861-2 June 1862 / Middle Department 1 June 1862-17 December 1862 / VIII Corps Middle 12 July 1862-22 December 1862 / Department of the East 3 January 1863-18 July 1863

USA: The Department of the West comprised the country west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, except for Texas, Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory. It included Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas Territory, Nebraska Territory, Indian Territory and Louisiana west of the Mississippi River. Headquarters were at St Louis.

USA: The Department of the West was commanded by Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney

Harney, William Selby / Tennessee / Born 27 August 1800 Haysboro, Tennessee / Died Orlando, Florida 9 May 1889
2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 13 February 1818 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 January 1819 / 1st US Artillery 16 November 1821 / 1st US Infantry 21 December 1822 / Captain USA 1st US Infantry 14 May 1825 / Major USA Paymaster 1 May 1833 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Dragoons 15 August 1836 / Colonel USA 30 June 1846 / Colonel USA 1848 / Brigadier-General USA 14 June 1858 / Retired USA 1 August 1863 / Brevet Colonel USV 7 December 1840 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Harper’s Ferry 24 April 1861 Released 29 April 1861
Department of the West 30 November 1860-23 April 1861 / Department of the West 11 May 1861-31 May 1861

USA: The Department of Utah comprised Utah Territory east of 177 degrees west longitude. Headquarters were at Fort Crittenden.

USA: The Department of Utah was commanded by Colonel Philip St George Cooke.

Cooke, Philip St George / Virginia / Born 13 June 1809 Leesburg, Virginia / Died Detroit, Michigan 20 March 1895
USMA 1 July 1827 23/38 Infantry-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1823 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1827 / Regt Adjutant 7 September 1832-1 April 1833 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 4 March 1833 / Captain USA 31 May 1835 / Major USA 2nd US Dragoons 16 February 1847 / Lieutenant-Colonel 15 July 1853 / Colonel USA 14 June 1858 / 2nd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 21 November 1861 to rank from 12 November 1861 Expired Unconfirmed 28 November 1861 / Mustered Out USV 28 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USA 21 November 1861 to rank from 12 November 1861 / Adjutant-General’s Office 2 March 1864 / Retired USA 29 October 1873 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1827 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 February 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Department of Utah 20 August 1860-27 July 1861 / Cavalry Res Casey’s Division Army of the Potomac 28 November 1861-13 March 1862 / Cavalry Reserve Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-5 July 1862 / District of Baton Rouge 8 October 1863-2 May 1864 / Department of the Platte 5 March 1866-9 January 1867

US Army Staff Departments:

Commissary General of Subsistence: Colonel George Gibson, since 18 April 1818

Gibson, George / Pennsylvania / Born 1 September 1775 Westover, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 29 September 1861
Captain USA 5th US Infantry 3 May 1808 / Major USA 7th US Infantry 9 November 1811 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 5th US Infantry 15 August 1813 / Discharged USA 15 June 1815 / Commissary-General of Subsistence 18 April 1818 / Colonel USA Quartermaster-General 29 April 1816-29 September 1861 / Colonel USA Commissary-General of Subsistence 18 April 1818 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 29 April 1826 Brevet Major-General USA 30 May 1848 / CIA Queenston Heights, Canada 13 October 1812 Exchanged January 1813
Commissary-General of Subsistence 18 April 1818-29 September 1861

Surgeon-General: Colonel Thomas Lawson, since 30 November 1836.

Lawson, Thomas / Virginia / Born 29 August 1789 Princess Anne, Virginia / Died Norfolk, Virginia 15 May 1861
Surgeon’s Mate USN 1 March 1809 / Resigned USN 12 January 1811 / Surgeon’s Mate USA 28 January 1811 / Surgeon USA 6th US Infantry 21 May 1813 / 7th US Infantry 17 May 1815 / Medical Department 1 June 1821 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Surgeon-General 30 November 1836 / Colonel USA Surgeon-General 30 November 1836 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 30 May 1848
Surgeon-General 30 November 1836-14 May 1861

Chief of Engineers: Colonel Joseph Gilbert Totten, since 7 December 1838.

Totten, Joseph Gilbert / Connecticut / Born 17 April 1788 New Haven, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 22 April 1864
USMA 1 July 1805 3/3 Engineers / Cadet USMA 4 November 1801 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1805 / Resigned USA 31 March 1806 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 23 February 1808 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 July 1810 / Captain USA 31 July 1812 / Major USA 12 November 1818 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 24 May 1828 / Colonel USA Chief of Engineers 7 December 1838 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 3 March 1863 / Brevet Major USA 6 June 1813 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11 September 1814 Brevet Colonel USA 11 September 1824 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 29 March 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 21 April 1864 / CIA Queenston Heights, Canada 13 October 1812 Exchanged January 1813
Chief of Engineers 7 December 1838-22 April 1864 / Member of the War Board 17 March 1862-23 July 1862

Chief of Topographical Engineers: Colonel John James Abert, since 1838.

Abert, John James / Virginia / Born 17 September 1788 Shepherdstown, (West) Virginia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 27 January 1863
USMA 1811 / Resigned USA 1811/ Private USV District of Columbia Militia 1814 / Captain USA Topographic Engineers October 1814 / Major USA Chief of Topographic Engineers March 1829 / Colonel USA Chief of Topographic Engineers July 1838 / Retired USA September 1861 / Brevet Major USA 24 August 1814
Chief of Topographical Engineers 1829-September 1861

Inspector-General: Colonel Sylvester Churchill, since 25 June 1841.

Churchill, Sylvester / Vermont / Born 2 August 1783 Woodstock, Vermont / Died Washington, District of Columbia 7 December 1862
1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 12 March 1812 / Captain USA 15 August 1813 / Major USA Assistant Inspector-General 29 August 1813-15 June 1815 / US Artillery 12 May 1814 / Captain USA Artillery 17 May 1815 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / Major USA 3rd US Artillery 6 Aril 1835 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 15 June 1841 / Inspector-General US Army 8 January 1849-25 September 1861 / Retired USA 25 September 1861 / Brevet Major USA 15 August 1823 Brevet Brigadier-General 13 February 1847
Inspector-General 8 January 1849-25 September 1861

Judge Advocate-General: Captain John Fitzgerald Lee, since 2 March 1849.

Lee, John Fitzgerald / Virginia / Born 5 March 1813 Sully, Virginia / Died St Louis, Missouri 17 June 1884
USMA 1 July 1834 9/36 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1830 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 29 July 1835 / Captain USA 1 December 1836 Creek Mounted Volunteers / Mustered Out USV 31 July 1837 / Ordnance 3 October 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Ordnance 9 July 1838 / Captain USA Ordnance 3 March 1847 / Judge Advocate 2 March 1849 / Resigned USA 4 September 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1834 Brevet Captain USA 29 January 1837 Brevet Major USA 2 March 1849
Judge Advocate 2 March 1849-4 September 1862

Chief of Ordnance: Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Knox Craig, since 10 July 1851.

Craig, Henry Knox / Pennsylvania / Born 7 March 1791 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania / Died 7 December 1869
1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 17 March 1812 / Captain USA 23 December 1813 / Corps of Artillery 12 March 1814 / Light Artillery 17 May 1815 / 3rd US Artillery 1 June 1821 / Major USA Ordnance 30 May 1832 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 25 March 1848 / Colonel USA Chief of Ordnance 10 July 1851 / Relieved as Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USA 3 August 1861 / Retired USA 1 June 1863 / Brevet Major USA 23 December 1823 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865
Chief of Ordnance 10 July 1851-23 April 1861

Adjutant-General: Colonel Samuel Cooper, since 15 July 1852.

Cooper, Samuel / New York / Born June 12 1798 New Hackensack, New York / Died Alexandria, Virginia 3 December 1876
USMA 11 December 1815 36/40 Artillery / Cadet USMA 26 May 1813 / Light Artillery 11 December 1815 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 November 1817 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 July 1821 / 2nd US Artillery 16 August 1821 / 4th US Artillery 31 December 1824 / Captain USA 11 June 1836-15 July 1852 / Chief Clerk War Department 13 March 1837-9 July 1838 / Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1838 / Colonel USA Adjutant-General 15 July 1852 / Resigned USA 7 March 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 16 March 1861 / Adjutant-General and Inspector-General ACSA 16 March 1861-19 April 1865 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 / Paroled Charlotte, North Carolina 3 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 11 December 1815 Brevet Captain USA 6 July 1831 Brevet Major USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 March 1847 Brevet Colonel 30 May 1838

Paymaster-General: Colonel Benjamin Franklin Larned, since 20 July 1854.

Larned, Benjamin Franklin / Massachusetts / Born 6 September 1794 Pittsfield, Massachusetts / Died 6 September 1862
Ensign USA 21st US Infantry 1 October 1813 / 3rd Lieutenant USA 7 March 1814 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 March 1814 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 4 August 1814 / Major USA Paymaster 1 June 1821 to rank from 24 November 1815 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Deputy Paymaster-General 3 March 1847 / Colonel USA Paymaster-General 20 July 1854-6 September 1862 / Relieved of Duty 15 July 1861
Paymaster-General 20 July 1854-6 September 1862

Quartermaster-General: Brigadier-General USA Joseph Eggleston Johnston, since 28 June 1860.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston / Virginia / Born 3 February 1807 Farmville, Virginia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 21 March 1891
USMA 1 July 1829 13/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 July 1836 / Resigned USA 31 May 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 21 September 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles 9 April 1847 / Reverted Captain USA Topographical Engineers 28 August 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Major-General Virginia Militia 23 April 186127 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 27 April 1861 Declined / Major-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 4 May 1861-14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 / Surrendered 26 April 1865 / Paroled 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Captain USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Major 12 Apr 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 17 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Jupiter Inlet 1838 WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Fair Oak 31 May 1862
Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860-21 April 1861

USA: The African Squadron of the US Navy was commanded by Captain William Inman USN.

Inman, William / Born 1797 Utica, New York / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 23 October 1874
Midshipman USN 1 January 1812 / Lieutenant USN 1 April 1818 / Commander USN 24 May 1836 / Captain USN 2 June 1850 / Reserved 13 September 1855 / Retired USN 1 December 1861 / Commodore USN Retired 4 April 1867
African Squadron 1859-1861 / USS Constellation July 1861-April 1862

USA: The Brazil Squadron of the US Navy was commanded by Captain Joshua Ratoon Sands USN.

Sands, Joshua Ratoon / Born 13 May 1795 Brooklyn, New York/ Died Baltimore, Maryland 2 October 1883
Midshipman USN 18 June 1812 / Lieutenant USN 1 April 1818 / Commander USN 23 February 1840 / Captain USN 25 February 1854 / Retired USN 21 December 1861 / Commodore USN Retired 16 July 1862 / Rear Admiral USN retired 25 July 1866
Brazil Squadron 1860-1861 / USS Pulaski May 1861 / USS Congress June 1861

USA: The East Indian (or Asiatic) Squadron of the US Navy was commanded by Captain Cornelius Kinchilo Stribling USN.

Stribling, Cornelius Kinchiloe / Born 22 September 1796 Pendleton, South Carolina / Died Martinsburg, West Virginia 17 January 1880
Midshipman USN 18 June 1812 / Lieutenant USN 1 April 1818 / Commander USN 28 January 1840 / Superintendent US Naval Academy 1 July 1850-1 November 1853 / Captain USN 1 August 1853 / Retired USN 21 December 1861 / Commodore USN Retired 16 July 1862 / Rear Admiral USN retired 25 July 1866
East Indies Squadron October 1859-1861 / Philadelphia Navy Yard November 1862 / East Gulf Blockading Squadron 12 October 1864-12 June 1865 / USS San Jacinto December 1864-1 January 1865 / USS Powhatan March 1865

USA: Command of the European Squadron of the US Navy was vacant.

USA: The Home Squadron of the US Navy was commanded by Captain Garrett J Pendergrast USN.

Pendergrast, Garrett J / Born 26 December 1809 Kentucky / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 7 November 1862
Midshipman USN 1 January 1812 / Lieutenant USN 3 March 1821 / Commander USN 8 September 1841 / Captain USN 24 May 1855 / Retired USN 21 December 1861 / Commodore USN Retired 16 July 1862
USS Powhatan 186o / USS Cumberland 1861 / Home Squadron 19 April 1861-8 June 1861 / West Indies Squadron 8 June 1861-24 August 1861 / USS Roanoke August 1861 / Philadelphia Navy Yard October 1861-1862

USA: The Mediterranean Squadron of the US Navy was commanded by Captain Charles H Bell USN.

USA: The Pacific Squadron of the US Navy was commanded by Captain John B Montgomery USN.

Montgomery, John Berrien / Born 17 November 1794 Allentown, New Jersey / Died Carlisle, Pennsylvania 25 March 1873
Midshipman USN 4 June 1812 / Lieutenant USN 1 April 1818 / Commander USN 9 February 1839 / Captain USN 6 January 1853 / Retired USN 21 December 1861 / Commodore USN Retired 16 July 1862 / Rear Admiral USN Retired 25 July 1866
Pacific Squadron August 1859-2 January 1862 / USS Lancaster July 1861-March 1862 / Boston Navy Yard 3 June 1862-1863 / Washington Navy Yard 31 December 1863-1865

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of California was established. It comprised the country west of the Rocky Mountains south of the Oregon Territory and including the Utah Territory west of the 117 degree of longitude and the New Mexico Territory west of 100 degrees longitude. Headquarters were at San Francisco.

USA: The Department of California was commanded temporarily by Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin Lloyd Beall.

Beall, Benjamin Lloyd / Rhode Island / Born 1801 Fort Adams, Rhode Island / Died Maryland 16 August 1863
USMA Discharged 16 October 1816 / Cadet USMA 25 March 1814 / Captain USV Washington City Volunteers 1 June 1836 / Captain USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 / Major USA 1st US Dragoons 16 February 1847 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 March 1855 / Colonel USA 3 May 1861 / 1st US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Retired USA 1 February 1862 / Brevet Major USA 1837 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1848
Department of California17 October 1860-14 January 1861 / District of Oregon 13 September 1861-23 October 1861

Commander in Chief: President James Buchanan

Vice-President: John Cabell Breckinridge

Secretary of War: Joseph Holt

Secretary of the Navy: Isaac Toucey

  • African Squadron USN: Captain William Inman USN
  • Brazil Squadron USN: Captain Joshua R Sands USN.
  • East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron USN: Captain Cornelius K Stribling USN
  • European Squadron USN: vacant
  • Home Squadron USN: Captain Garrett J Prendergast USN
  • Mediterranean Squadron USN: Captain Charles H Bell USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of California established: Benjamin Lloyd Beall temporary
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Department of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: David Emanuel Twiggs
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
David Emanuel Twiggs
William Selby Harney

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

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