1861 January 11th

January 11 1861 Friday

Florida Seceded

USA. US Secretary of the Treasury Philip F Thomas from Maryland resigned, completing the withdrawal of Southern sympathisers from President James Buchanan’s cabinet. Thomas resigned because of differences with the President and a majority of the Cabinet, “in the measures which have been adopted in reference to the recent condition of things in South Carolina,” especially “touching the authority, under existing laws, to enforce the collection of the customs at the port of Charleston”.

USA. John Adams Dix of New York was appointed to replace Philip F Thomas as US Secretary of the Treasury.

Alabama. The state of Alabama passed the Ordinance of Secession in secret session in Montgomery by a vote of 61 to 39. A proposition to submit the ordinance to the people lost and Alabama seceded directly from the Union. Alabama was the fourth state after South Carolina, Mississippi, ad Florida to secede.

Louisiana. Fort Jackson and Fort St Phillip at the mouth of the Mississippi River, and the US Marine Hospital near New Orleans. were seized by Louisiana state troops under the order of Governor Thomas O Moore.

Mississippi. The Mississippi River was blocked at Vicksburg by the deployment of a Mississippi State artillery battery.

South Carolina. Governor Francis W Pickens demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter but this demand was refused by the fort’s commander, US Army Major Robert Anderson.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President James Buchanan

Vice-President: John Cabell Breckinridge

Secretary of War: Joseph Holt

Secretary of the Navy: Isaac Toucey

  • African Squadron USN: Captain William Inman USN
  • Brazil Squadron USN: Captain Joshua R Sands USN.
  • East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron USN: Captain Cornelius K Stribling USN
  • European Squadron USN: vacant
  • Home Squadron USN: Captain Garrett J Prendergast USN
  • Mediterranean Squadron USN: Captain Charles H Bell USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of California: Benjamin Lloyd Beall temporary
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Department of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: David Emanuel Twiggs
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
David Emanuel Twiggs
William Selby Harney

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

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