1861 February 28th

February 28 1861 Thursday

Colorado Territory Organised

USA. The US House of Representatives adopted the amendments offered by the select Committee of Thirty-Three forbidding interference by Congress with slavery in any state. This amendment was adopted by the Senate on 2nd March 1861 but it was never enacted because of its failure to be adopted by a sufficient number of states.

CSA. The creation of the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America was confirmed in an Act of Congress. President Jefferson Finis Davis was directed to call for as many volunteers as were required for up to 12 months’ service of the Confederate States of America. The President was also authorised to appoint General officers as required for service. The various State militias were transferred to the direction of Army.

CSA. Stephen Russell Mallory took provisional office as Secretary of the Navy.

Colorado Territory. The Colorado Territory was organised. The Colorado Territory was originally drawn in 1860 from the Utah Territory, Nebraska Territory, Kansas Territory, and New Mexico Territory. The organization of the territory helped solidify Union control over a mineral-rich area of the Rocky Mountains. Statehood was regarded as fairly imminent, but territorial ambitions for statehood were thwarted at the end of 1865 by a veto by President Andrew Johnson. East of the divide, the new territory included the western portion of the Kansas Territory, as well as some of the south-western Nebraska Territory, and a small parcel of the north-eastern New Mexico Territory. On the western side of the divide, the territory included much of the eastern Utah Territory, all of which was strongly controlled by the Ute and Shoshoni. The Eastern Plains were held much more loosely by the intermixed Cheyenne and Arapaho, as well as by the Pawnee, Comanche and Kiowa. Ten days before the establishment of the territory, the Arapaho and Cheyenne agreed with the US authorities to give up most their areas of the plains to white settlement but were allowed to live in their larger traditional areas, so long as they could tolerate homesteaders near their camps. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, the Native American presence had been largely eliminated from the High Plains.

Missouri. The Missouri state convention met, after a motion to go into secret session was defeated. A resolution requiring members to take an oath to support the Constitution of the United States and the State of Missouri was defeated.

North Carolina. North Carolina elected delegates to a state convention. The majority of voters in the state, however, voted against holding a Convention. Pro-Union voters successfully deferred the move towards secession.

Texas. Fort Chadbourne surrendered to Texas state authorities.

Virginia. Former President John Tyler (1841-1845) and James A Seddon, commissioners to the Washington Peace Congress, presented their report to the Virginia state legislature, and denounced the recommendations of that body as a delusion and a sham, and as an insult and an offence to the Southern states.

Union Organisation

USA: Colorado Territory was incorporated into the Department of the West.

Commander in Chief: President James Buchanan

Vice-President: John Cabell Breckinridge

Secretary of War: Joseph Holt

Secretary of the Navy: Isaac Toucey

  • African Squadron USN: Captain William Inman USN
  • Brazil Squadron USN: Captain Joshua R Sands USN.
  • East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron USN: Captain Cornelius K Stribling USN
  • European Squadron USN: vacant
  • Home Squadron USN: Captain Garrett J Prendergast USN
  • Mediterranean Squadron USN: Captain Charles H Bell USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy interim, William Wing Loring awaited
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite temporary
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • “Department of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
David Emanuel Twiggs
William Selby Harney

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

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