1861 December 18th

December 18 1861 Tuesday

Milford, MO

East Kentucky Operations

Kentucky. Union Brigadier-General Albin Francisco Schoepf made a reconnaissance in force from Somerset towards Mill Springs near Cumberland Gap. Schoepf was supported by a brigade from Brigadier-General George Henry Thomas’s division (Colonel Samuel Powhatan Carter’s 22nd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Ohio). Thomas was refused permission by Brigadier-General Don Carlos Buell to support Schoepf with his entire division because 7,000 Confederates under Brigadier-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman were threatening Columbia further to the west.They discovered the fortified camp of Confederate Brigadier-General Felix Zollicoffer in the angle of the Cumberland River and Fishing Creek.

Zollicoffer’s main responsibility was to guard Cumberland Gap, but during November 1861 he had advanced further west into Kentucky to strengthen control and recruit in the area around Somerset. After Zollicoffer crossed the Cumberland River, he found a strong defensive position near Beech Grove at Mill Springs and decided to make that his winter quarters.

Missouri. Union reconnaissance from Rolla to Houston.

Milford, Missouri, also known as Shawnee Mound, or Blackwater Creek. Union Brigadier-General John Pope learned during the evening that Confederate Colonel Franklin S Robertson’s force of Confederate recruits was encamped at Milford. Pope led forward his larger Union force and surprised the Confederate militiamen and volunteers at the Shawnee Mound near Milford. The Union captured just over 1,300 Confederate recruits.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance to Pohick Church. Skirmish at Camp Allegheny.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s men attempted to wreck Dam No 4 and Dam No 5 on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal north of Martinsburg . Artillery fire was ineffective and it required hard human labour to destroy the dams. The task was made more difficult by harassing fire from Union troops across the Potomac River. Jackson drew the Union fire away by feinting a crossing of the river upstream from the dam. The workforce struggled for hours in mud and water but finally succeeded in opening Dam No 5.

Union Organisation

USA: Jefferson Columbus Davis promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 18 December 1861.

Davis, Jefferson Columbus / Kentucky-Mississippi / Born 2 March 1828 Clark, Indiana / Died Chicago, Illinois 30 November 1879
Sergeant USV 3rd Indiana Volunteers 22 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 27 June 1847 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 17 June 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 29 February 1852 / Captain USA 14 May 1861 / Colonel USV 22nd Indiana Infantry 1 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 18 December 1861 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Colonel USA 23rd US Infantry 23 July 1866 / Brevet Major USA 9 March 1862 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 15 May 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 20 May 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 8 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Southwest 28 September 1861-November 1861 / 2nd Division Army of the Southwest November 1862-9 February 1862 / District of Central Missouri 15 December 1861-9 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Southwest 9 February 1862-April 1862 / 4th Division Army of the Mississippi 24 April 1862-12 August 1862 / 9th Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-19 December 1862 / 1st Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 19 December 1862-9 January 1863 / 1st Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-9 October 1863 / 3rd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 October 1863-31 October 1863 / 2nd Division XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 31 October 1863-22 August 1864 / XIV Corps Cumberland 24 August 1864-9 November 1864 / XIV Corps Georgia 9 November 1864-16 June 1865 / XIV Corps Military Division of the Mississippi 17 June 1865-1 August 1865 / Department of Kentucky 13 April 18665 June 1866 / Department of Alaska 18 March 1868-1 June 1870

USA: James Henry Lane promoted Brigadier-General  18 December 1861

Lane, James Henry / Indiana / Born 22 June 184 Lawrenceburg, Indiana / Died Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 11 July 1866
Colonel USV 3rd Indiana Infantry 25 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 June 1847 / Colonel USV 5th Indiana Infantry 22 October 1847 / Mustered Out USV 28 July 1848 / Brigadier-General USV 18 December 1861 Cancelled 21 March 1862 Reinstated 11 April 1862 / ADC (S R Curtis) 1864
Kansas Brigade August 1861-July 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kansas: David Hunter
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of St Louis: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Central Missouri: John Pope
      • Army of Western Missouri: John Pope
    • District of North Missouri: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of Western Kentucky: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
  • Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Frederick West Lander
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • Cheat Mountain District: Robert Huston Milroy

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Albert Sidney Johnston assumed command of the Army of Central Kentucky, succeeding Major-General William Joseph Hardee.

Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

CSA: Brigadier-General Nathan George Evans assumed command of the 3rd Sub-District of the District of South Carolina, succeeding Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley.

Evans, Nathan George / South Carolina / Born 3 February 1824 Marion, South Carolina / Died 23 November 1868
USMA 1 July 1848 36 /38 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1844 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1848 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 30 September 1849 / 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Captain USA 1 May 1856 / Resigned USA 27 February 1861 / Major Assistant Adjutant-General South Carolina Militia January 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Major PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 4th South Carolina Infantry July 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 October 1861 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1848
7th Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-12 October 1861 / 4th Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-24 October 1861 / Evans’ Brigade X Division Army of the Potomac 24 October 1861-12 November 1861 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 12 November 1861-12 December 1861 / Third Sub-District of South Carolina 18 December 1861-28 May 1862 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 28 May 1862-19 June 1862 / Evans’ Brigade First Sub-District of South Carolina 19 June 1862-8 July 1862 / 3rd Brigade D R Jones’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 July 1862-9 August 1862 / Evans’ Brigade Hood’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 9 August 1862-6 November 1862 / Evans’ Brigade District of North Carolina 6 November 1862-3 March 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Loring’s Division Army of Mississippi 25 May 1863-June 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Breckinridge’s Division Army of Tennessee June 1863-21 June 1863 / Evans’ Brigade French’s Division Army of Tennessee 21 June 1863-3 August 1863 / Evans’ Brigade Second Sub-District of South Carolina 3 August 1863-15 September 1863 / Evans’ Brigade First Sub-District of South Carolina 11 March 1864-21 March 1864 / First Sub-District of South Carolina 21 March 1864-17 October 1864 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 17 October 1864-21 November 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of Pensacola Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Albert Pike
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • District of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: Earl Van Dorn
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida: Robert Edward Lee
    •  District of Middle and East Florida: William Montgomery Gardner
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: John Clifford Pemberton
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
    • District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of East Tennessee: George Bibb Crittenden
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
John Clifford Pemberton
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Philip St George Cocke
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
John Cabell Breckinridge
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Henry Constantine Wayne
Daniel Marsh Frost

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