1861 August 20th

August 20 1861 Tuesday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

Missouri. Incidents at Charleston and Bird’s Point.

Missouri. A small Confederate force attacked a train travelling from Jefferson City to Lookout Station and took all the valuables and money from the passengers. One Union soldier was killed and six wounded; Two Confederates were reported killed, several wounded and five captured.

Missouri. Skirmish at Fish Lake.

Virginia. As he continued his process of training and organising the Army of the Potomac, Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan, made efforts to undermine the position of the commanding General-in-Chief Major-General Winfield Scott. McClellan felt that Scott was obstructive, old fashioned, slow, and resistant to change. McClellan’s efforts finally succeeded in forcing Scott’s retirement at the end of October and McClellan secured his own elevation to the highest command. In the meantime, tension grew between Scott and McClellan about the future conduct of the war in Virginia.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise made a demonstration at Pig Creek on the New River but was repulsed.

Virginia. The pro-Union convention in Wheeling passed an ordinance to establish a new state to be called Kanawha.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General George Brinton McClellan arrived to command the Department of the Potomac, succeeding Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell.

USA: The Army of the Potomac transferred to the Department of the Potomac.

USA: Major-General George Brinton McClellan assumed command of the Army of the Potomac, succeeding Major-General Irvin McDowell.

McClellan, George Brinton / Pennsylvania / Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Orange, New Jersey 29 October 1885
USMA 1 July 1846 2/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 April 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 16 January 1857 / Major-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861 / Major-General USA 14 May 1861 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 Relieved 22 July 1862 / Resigned USA 8 November 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1 Lt USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Contreras 19 August 1847
Department of the Ohio 3 May 1861-23 July 1861 / Department of Virginia 1 June 1861 Declined / Army of Occupation 14 June 1861-23 July 1861 / Military Division (Department) of the Potomac 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Department of the Potomac 17 August 1861-5 November 1862 / Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-9 November 1862 / General-in-Chief 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Army of Virginia 2 September 1862-11 September 1862

USA: Brigadier-General Henry Washington Benham assumed command of the Cheat River District, succeeding Colonel Charles John Biddle (42nd Pennsylvania Infantry).

Benham, Henry Washington / Connecticut / Born 17 April 1813 Meriden, Connecticut / Died New York, New York 1 June 1884
USMA 1 July 1837 1/50 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 /2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 24 May 1848 / Assistant Inspector-General 5 August 1861 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 13 August 1861 Revoked 7 August 1862 / Reinstated 6 February 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 7 March 1867 / Retired USA 30 June 1882 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1837 Brevet Captain USA 23 Feb 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 13 July 1861 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Buena Vista 23 February 1847
Chief Engineer Department of the Ohio 14 May 1861-22 July 1861 / 2nd Brigade Army of Occupation July 1861 / Cheat River District 20 August 1861-9 September 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of Occupation 9 September 1861-19 September 1861 / Benham’s Brigade Department of the Ohio 19 September 1861-11 October 1861 / Northern District of the South 31 March 1862-21 June 1862 / Chief Engineer Army of the Potomac January 1863-October 1864

USA: William Farquhar Barry promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 August 1861.

Barry, William Farquhar / New York / Born 18 August 1818 New York City, New York / Died Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Maryland 18 July 1879
USMA 1 July 1838 17/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1864 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 7 July 1838 / 2nd US Artillery 12 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA / Captain USA 1 July 1852 / Major USA 5th US Artillery 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 20 August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1st US Artillery 1 August 1863 / Colonel USA 2nd US Artillery 11 December 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1838 Brevet Colonel USA 1 September 1864 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Chief of Artillery Department of Northeastern Virginia 19 July 1861 / Chief of Artillery Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-27 August 1861 / Inspector of Artillery August 1862 / Chief of Artillery Military Division of the Mississippi December 1863-May 1865

USA: John Fulton Reynolds promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 August 1861 to rank from 20 August 1861.

Reynolds, John Fulton / Pennsylvania / Born 20 September 1820 Lancaster, Pennsylvania / KIA Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 1 July 1863
1837 / USMA 1 July 1841 26/52 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 23 October 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 25 October 1850-1 March 1852 / Captain US 3 March 1855 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 8 September 1860-25 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 14th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 August 1861 to rank from 20 August 1861 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Colonel USA 5th US Infantry 1 June 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841 Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 27 June 1862 Unconfirmed / CIA Boatswain’s Swamp 28 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
1st Brigade McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1st Brigade McCall’s Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-12 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 June 1862-28 June 1862 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 26 August 1862-12 September 1862 / I Corps Potomac 29 September 1862-2 January 1863 / I Corps Potomac 4 January 1863-1 March 1863 / I Corps Potomac 9 March 1863-1 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson awaited
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Henry Washington Benham
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Richard Caswell Gatlin arrived to command the Department of North Carolina, succeeding Brigadier-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes.

Gatlin, Richard Caswell / North Carolina / Born 18 January 1809 Lenoir, North Carolina / Died Mount Nebo, Arkansas 8 September 1896
USMA 1 July 1832 35 /45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 May 1834 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 August 1836 / Regt Adjutant 13 December 1838-30 September 1845 / Captain USA 30 September 1845 / Major USA 5th US Infantry 26 February 1861 / Resigned USA 20 May 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861 / Resigned PACS 8 September 1862 / Major-General Adjutant-General North Carolina Militia September 1862-April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1832 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846 / WIA Monterey 21 September 1846 CIA Fort Smith 23 April 1861 Paroled
Department of North Carolina 19 August 1861-18 March 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn interim Paul Octave Hébert awaited
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

 Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert

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