1861 April 26th

April 26 1861 Friday

CSA. Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Russell Mallory reported: “I propose to adopt a class of vessels hitherto unknown to naval services. The perfection of a warship would doubtless be a combination of the greatest known ocean speed with the greatest known floating battery and power of resistance.” The CSS Sumter and CSS McRae would be fitted out as “cruisers” for this purpose. Mallory also proposed to introduce rifled guns to arm the Confederate Navy because their range and accuracy exceeded those of existing naval ordnance. He proposed also that small propeller-driven ships with great speed, and lightly armed with rifled guns would become the “most destructive element of naval warfare.” Mallory had always advocated innovation and technological change while in the US Navy Department but his appointment to lead the nascent Confederate Navy gave him new opportunities to test out new methods and equipment.

Georgia. Governor Joseph E Brown issued a proclamation ordering the repudiation by the citizens of Georgia of all debts due to creditors in Union states.

Maryland. The Maryland state legislature reassembled at Frederick.

Maryland. Annapolis was occupied by troops under Union Brigadier-General of Massachusetts Militia Benjamin Franklin Butler.

Maryland. USS Commerce, Lieutenant Peirce Crosby, captured the steamer Lancaster at Havre de Grace. Peirce-Crosby also pursued a steam tug but failed to catch up.

Maryland. Pro-Confederate forces burned the bridges over Gunpowder Creek and Bush Creek on the Philadelphia & Baltimore Railroad.

Virginia. Joseph Eggleston Johnston was appointed Major-General of Virginia Volunteers to command the state forces gathering around Richmond.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Forces in Richmond was established, comprising forces collected for the defence of Richmond, Virginia.

CSA: Major-General of Virginia Militia Joseph Eggleston Johnston assumed command of the Forces in Richmond.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston / Virginia / Born 3 February 1807 Farmville, Virginia / Died 21 March 1891
USMA 1 July 1829 13/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 July 1836 / Resigned USA 31 May 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 21 September 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles 9 April 1847-28 August 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Cavalry 1 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 17 April 1861 Declined / Major-General Virginia Militia 23 April 1861-27 April 1861 / Major-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 4 May 1861-14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Captain USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Major USA 12 April 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 17 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Jupiter Inlet 1838 WIA Cerro Gordo 12 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862
Quartermaster-General USA 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861 / Forces in Richmond 24 April 1861-8 May 1861 / Forces in Harper’s Ferry 15 May 1861-4 July 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Army of the Shenandoah 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Department of the Potomac 21 July 1861-22 October 1861 / Army of the Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 22 October 1861-31 May 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Military Division of the West 4 November 1862-16 December 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 4 July 1863-23 August 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 2 December 1863-22 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 16 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Army of Tennessee 27 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 25 February 1865-15 March 1865 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 6 March 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of the South 22 February 1865-9 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Major-General of Virginia Militia Walter Gwynn assumed command of the Forces in Norfolk, succeeding Colonel William Booth Taliaferro.

Gwynn, Walter / Virginia / Born 22 February 1822 Jefferson, (West) Virginia / Died Baltimore, Maryland 6 February 1882
USMA 1 July 1822 8/40 Artillery / Cadet USA 10 September 1817 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1822 / 4th US Artillery 18 February 1823 / 1st Lieutenant USA 19 October 1829 / Resigned USA 2 February 1832 / Major South Carolina Militia / Colonel Virginia Militia 1860 / Major Engineers South Carolina Militia April 1861 / Major-General Virginia Militia 10 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 27 April 1861-23 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 1 May 1861 Expired 26 May 1861 / Brigadier-General North Carolina Militia 26 May 1861 Expired 20 August 1861 / Major PACS Engineers August 1861 / Colonel PACS 9 October 1862 / Resigned PACS 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1822
Forces in Norfolk 26 April 1861-21 May 1861

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke
    • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn assumed
  • Forces in Richmond established: Joseph Eggleston Johnston assumed

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham

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